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Co-managing Floods and Droughts through Innovative Underground Storage: Cases from India and Vietnam

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Presented by IWMI's Paul Pavelic at Stockholm World Water Week 2018 at a session titled ASIA Focus- Natural Alternatives to Water Storage, on August 28, 2018. More info: www.utfi.iwmi.org.

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Co-managing Floods and Droughts through Innovative Underground Storage: Cases from India and Vietnam

  1. 1. Co-managing Floods and Droughts through Innovative Underground Storage: Cases from India and Vietnam Paul Pavelic International Water Management Institute (IWMI), Lao PDR ASIA Focus- Natural Alternatives to Water Storage SIWI World Water Week Stockholm, 28 August 2018 MONRE UNIT 704
  2. 2. UTFI in Concept Currently Wet Season UTFI Wet Season UTFI Dry Season Green shaded areas highlight where the scope for UTFI is promising. These areas account for 50% of the global population and 40% of the crop area. Areas where research has taken place are highlighted by the diamond ( ) above. UTFI CONCEPT AND BROADSCALE PROSPECTS Global Prospects Source: IWMI
  3. 3. UTFI IMPLEMENTATION IN THE GANGES BASIN, INDIA BEFORE AFTER Community pond converted for UTFI in Jiwai Jadid village. The village is periodically flooded and groundwater levels have been falling, which impact on domestic water supplies and agricultural livelihoods. Objectives`` 1) Develop a sound evidence- based case for UTFI at pilot scale 2) Facilitate opportunities for scaling up in prospective parts of the Ganges Interdisciplinary Approach Research – mapping, hydrologic/ hydraulic modelling, pilot testing (technical, social/gender, economic, institutional, environmental analysis) Engagement – workshops, open days, dialogue, trainings PILOT SITE
  4. 4. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world 2015 2016 2017 Season Recharge Season- 6 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 25-Jul-15 03-Oct-15 12-Dec-15 20-Feb-16 30-Apr-16 09-Jul-16 17-Sep-16 26-Nov-16 04-Feb-17 15-Apr-17 24-Jun-17 02-Sep-17 11-Nov-17 Rechargerate(m3/day) Silt fluxes and removal efficiencies at the pond- base and in the filters are being determined. Water quality data collected at 10 stations. Risks have not increased due to UTFI. 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 0 4 8 12 16 Discharge(m3/s) Return Period (years) Baseline 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 Groundwaterelevation(m) Baseline 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% RETURN PERIOD FLOW GW LEVELS FLOOD INUNDATION Potential to scale up to basin scale established through hydro-economic modelling Scientific Knowledge Volumes of excess flow stored in aquifer are high (40-70 x 103 m3 per year)
  5. 5. VILLAGE LEVEL DISTRICT LEVEL STATE LEVEL NATIONAL LEVEL Consultation with villagers Meeting CDO, Rampur DIP Doc. MWR site visit • Acceptance of UTFI by the local community, especially women • Site maintenance formalized through MGNREGA with community participation • Support from the highest level decision makers in Rampur district • Site being formally handed over to district government • Uptake by UP Govt by inclusion of UTFI in District Irrigation Plan PMKSY (Prime Ministers Irrigation Program) for two districts • Growing support from Ministry of Water Resources Engagement & Impact Further Information: http://utfi.iwmi.org/
  6. 6. Photo:DavidBrazier/IWMIPhoto:TomvanCakenberghe/IWMI Photo:DavidBrazier/IWMIPhoto:DavidBrazier/IWMI Smallholder farmers in the Central Highlands face seasonal groundwater shortfalls, exacerbated by drought Image credit: IWMI The Central Highlands is Vietnam’s foremost coffee production region Source: CHYN, (2015) Piloting MAR in Vietnam to Increase Resilience of Smallholder Farmers Central Highlands Dak Lak Coffee production has boomed, and robusta coffee is one of VNs largest export commodities GW use has boomed, and deep well drilling is common due to seasonal depletion of shallow basaltic aquifers Coffee Production GW for Irrigation Patterns of Water Scarcity Source: USDA data
  7. 7. Photo:DavidBrazier/IWMIPhoto:TomvanCakenberghe/IWMI Photo:DavidBrazier/IWMIPhoto:DavidBrazier/IWMI Aims and Approach WS1 WS2 WS3WS4 MAR sites MAR reference sites Raingauge sites Aims`` • Develop robust proof of concept for implementing MAR • Explore trade-offs and outlook for broader adoption Approach`` • Setup trials at multiple sites • Use simple methods that may be replicated by farmers Measurements • Water volumes stored & recovered • Groundwater level response • Water quality • Frequency of site maintenance • Cost-benefits • Community perceptions Concept M5 Site MAR & Control Sites
  8. 8. Photo:DavidBrazier/IWMIPhoto:TomvanCakenberghe/IWMI Photo:DavidBrazier/IWMIPhoto:DavidBrazier/IWMI Some Initial Results Cumulative Recharge Volumes Traditional Irrigation: · 190 extra trees can be irrigated (theoretically) Improved Irrigation: · 450 extra trees can be irrigated (theoretically) Water Availability – M4 Site
  9. 9. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world Key Messages Overall 1. New solutions developed and tested that convert water-related disasters/hazards into opportunities to enhance livelihood opportunities; 2. Strengthening links between natural infrastructure (aquifers) with private or community infrastructure (ponds/canals) helps build climate resilience; 3. UTFI piloting in India has successfully influenced policy with plans for next-level scaling; 4. MAR piloting in Vietnam is less advanced, and is being fine-tuned further; and 5. Policy makers should consider UTFI/MAR in relation to relevant development challenges (SDGs, CCA etc). Photo credit: HNRS

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