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Are current land and water governance
systems fit for purpose in promoting
sustainable and equitable large-scale
agricultu...
Presentation Outline
• Introduction and background
• Multiple dimensions of land and water
governance (L&WG)
• Comparative...
Introduction
• Recent wave of large-scale agricultural
investments in sub-Saharan Africa
• Importance of coordinated land ...
Analysis of impacts of large scale investments in agriculture
on water resources, ecosystems and livelihoods, and
developm...
Background
• AMCOW’s call for development of research-
based policy options for effective
management of land and water in ...
Analytical Approach for Background Study
1. At pan-continental level, an analysis of drivers,
extent, characteristics and ...
Winnowing & cleaning of LMDb
Unreliable, double counted deals eliminated.
22 target countries with 148 deals
Canceled, aba...
Analytical Approach (continued)
2. A more detailed analysis of LSALI in 6 countries, Ghana,
Mali, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Moza...
Two key results at the
pan-continental level
• In 2000-12, ten countries accounted for 70% of LSLAs in SSA
• Area acquired in each of these countries > 100,000 ha
15%
11%
9%
6%
5%4%
50%
Ethiopia
Mozambique
Tanzania
Ghana
Mali
Zambia
Others
(15%)
(11%)
(9%)
(6%)
(5%)
(4%)
(50%)
Percent...
Multiple dimensions of land and water governance
(L&WG)
Dimension (I)
• L&WG concerns the rules, processes and structures
through which decisions are made about access to
land an...
Dimension (II)
• L&WG is about power, access to information and
political economy.
• L&WG varies from country to country. ...
Results of comparative analysis of land and
water governance systems in 6 study countries
1. In all the 6 study countries, land and water are
governed under separate but parallel policy, legal
and institutional f...
Main government organizations with key roles in L&WG for LSALI in Mozambique
Results (continued)
2. Within each framework, multiple property rights
regimes, including state property, customary proper...
Results (continued)
4. In Mali, Mozambique, Tanzania and Zambia water access
and use rights are systematically included in...
Results (continued)
6. In all 6 study countries the agencies charged with the
responsibility of monitoring compliance with...
Actors/institutions typically involved in LSALI negotiations in Ghana
What will coordinated L&WG systems to
promote sustainable and equitable LSALI
look like?
Based on an adaptation of the Land Governance
Assessment Framework (Deininger et al, 2012)
• Information on land and water...
• Expropriation of land and water rights is done in a
consultative and transparent way and followed up
with quick payment ...
Thank you for your attention
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Are current land and water governance systems fit for purpose in promoting sustainable and equitable large-scale agricultural investments in SSA?

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Presented by IWMI's Timothy Williams, Director - Africa, at the GWP-ILC-IWMI workshop: Responding to the Global Food Security Challenge through Coordinated Land and Water Governance held in Pretoria, South Africa, June 15, 2015.

Published in: Environment
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Are current land and water governance systems fit for purpose in promoting sustainable and equitable large-scale agricultural investments in SSA?

  1. 1. Are current land and water governance systems fit for purpose in promoting sustainable and equitable large-scale agricultural investments in SSA? Timothy Olalekan Williams Director, Africa International Water Management Institute (IWMI) GWP-ILC-IWMI Workshop, Pretoria 15/6/2015
  2. 2. Presentation Outline • Introduction and background • Multiple dimensions of land and water governance (L&WG) • Comparative analysis of L&WG systems across six study countries • Guidelines for coordinated land and water governance
  3. 3. Introduction • Recent wave of large-scale agricultural investments in sub-Saharan Africa • Importance of coordinated land and water governance. • Methodology of background study
  4. 4. Analysis of impacts of large scale investments in agriculture on water resources, ecosystems and livelihoods, and development of policy options for decision-makers
  5. 5. Background • AMCOW’s call for development of research- based policy options for effective management of land and water in LSALI. • UNEP, GRID-ARENDAL and FAO enlisted IWMI to conduct an analytical study to shed light on the likely impacts of LSALI.
  6. 6. Analytical Approach for Background Study 1. At pan-continental level, an analysis of drivers, extent, characteristics and production activities on LSALI across SSA (based on the Land Matrix database, www.landmatrix.org). A three-prong approach
  7. 7. Winnowing & cleaning of LMDb Unreliable, double counted deals eliminated. 22 target countries with 148 deals Canceled, abandoned and failed deals eliminated. 37 target countries with 503 deals Non agricultural deals eliminated. 37 target countries with 612 deals Deals outside of Africa eliminated. 37 target countries with 711 deals Initial Landmatrix database. 83 target countries with 1805 deals
  8. 8. Analytical Approach (continued) 2. A more detailed analysis of LSALI in 6 countries, Ghana, Mali, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Mozambique and Zambia, based on field-level case studies, to examine the adequacy of policy and institutional frameworks for guiding and managing such investments. 3. A socio-hydrological simulation modeling exercise in Baro- Gilo basin in the Gambella region of Ethiopia to assess impacts of LSALI on agricultural production and water resources and evaluate trade-offs between biophysical and social objectives of multiple stakeholder groups.
  9. 9. Two key results at the pan-continental level
  10. 10. • In 2000-12, ten countries accounted for 70% of LSLAs in SSA • Area acquired in each of these countries > 100,000 ha
  11. 11. 15% 11% 9% 6% 5%4% 50% Ethiopia Mozambique Tanzania Ghana Mali Zambia Others (15%) (11%) (9%) (6%) (5%) (4%) (50%) Percentage distribution of total area of LSALI in SSA by country, 2000-2012
  12. 12. Multiple dimensions of land and water governance (L&WG)
  13. 13. Dimension (I) • L&WG concerns the rules, processes and structures through which decisions are made about access to land and water, their use and management; the manner in which decisions are implemented and enforced, the way that competing interests in these resources are managed. • L&WG encompasses statutory, customary and religious institutions. It covers ownership, rights and policies governing transactions, transfers and disputes.
  14. 14. Dimension (II) • L&WG is about power, access to information and political economy. • L&WG varies from country to country. This implies there is no one-size-fits-all solution for improved L&WG.
  15. 15. Results of comparative analysis of land and water governance systems in 6 study countries
  16. 16. 1. In all the 6 study countries, land and water are governed under separate but parallel policy, legal and institutional frameworks. Results
  17. 17. Main government organizations with key roles in L&WG for LSALI in Mozambique
  18. 18. Results (continued) 2. Within each framework, multiple property rights regimes, including state property, customary property and private property, coexist and are operated simultaneously. 3. In Ghana and Zambia state and customary property rights regimes are recognized in land matters. In Ethiopia, Mali, Mozambique and Tanzania all land is vested in the state - though this authority may be delegated to a lower-level tier of government.
  19. 19. Results (continued) 4. In Mali, Mozambique, Tanzania and Zambia water access and use rights are systematically included in LSALI contracts. The main requirements are for the investors to regularly pay water fees and to maintain secondary or tertiary canals. In Ghana and Ethiopia water rights are not often discussed at the time of land contract negotiation. 5. In all 6 study countries, the volume of water to be extracted by LSALI is not usually specified and water pricing, where it exists, is not related to volume extracted.
  20. 20. Results (continued) 6. In all 6 study countries the agencies charged with the responsibility of monitoring compliance with economic, social and environmental impacts and mitigation measures are poorly funded and lack the capacity to effectively perform their functions. 7. Parallel systems of land and water rights administration and management, poor cross- sectoral coordination of regulatory activities and inadequate capacity in relevant government agencies hampered effective and coordinated L&WG in all six study countries.
  21. 21. Actors/institutions typically involved in LSALI negotiations in Ghana
  22. 22. What will coordinated L&WG systems to promote sustainable and equitable LSALI look like?
  23. 23. Based on an adaptation of the Land Governance Assessment Framework (Deininger et al, 2012) • Information on land and water rights is accessible, comprehensive, current and reliable. • Policies, laws and institutions recognize existing land and water rights and enforcement is monitored. • Land and water planning, pricing and taxation are in place to avoid negative externalities, allow provision of services and support effective decentralization.
  24. 24. • Expropriation of land and water rights is done in a consultative and transparent way and followed up with quick payment of fair compensation and effective appeal mechanisms. • Interested parties can access institutions with clear mandates to authoritatively resolve disputes • Legal, policy and institutional reforms to bring land and water administration under a single government Ministry or promote greater and more effective coordination between various agencies. • Monitor and evaluate performance of different L&WG arrangements
  25. 25. Thank you for your attention

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