Presented by IWMI's Timothy Williams, Director - Africa, at the GWP-ILC-IWMI workshop: Responding to the Global Food Security Challenge through Coordinated Land and Water Governance held in Pretoria, South Africa, June 15, 2015.
Are current land and water governance systems fit for purpose in promoting sustainable and equitable large-scale agricultural investments in SSA?
Are current land and water governance
systems fit for purpose in promoting
sustainable and equitable large-scale
agricultural investments in SSA?
Timothy Olalekan Williams
International Water Management Institute (IWMI)
GWP-ILC-IWMI Workshop, Pretoria 15/6/2015
• Introduction and background
• Multiple dimensions of land and water
• Comparative analysis of L&WG systems across
six study countries
• Guidelines for coordinated land and water
• Recent wave of large-scale agricultural
investments in sub-Saharan Africa
• Importance of coordinated land and water
• Methodology of background study
Analysis of impacts of large scale investments in agriculture
on water resources, ecosystems and livelihoods, and
development of policy options for decision-makers
• AMCOW’s call for development of research-
based policy options for effective
management of land and water in LSALI.
• UNEP, GRID-ARENDAL and FAO enlisted IWMI
to conduct an analytical study to shed light on
the likely impacts of LSALI.
Analytical Approach for Background Study
1. At pan-continental level, an analysis of drivers,
extent, characteristics and production activities
on LSALI across SSA (based on the Land Matrix
A three-prong approach
Winnowing & cleaning of LMDb
Unreliable, double counted deals eliminated.
22 target countries with 148 deals
Canceled, abandoned and failed deals eliminated.
37 target countries with 503 deals
Non agricultural deals eliminated.
37 target countries with 612 deals
Deals outside of Africa eliminated.
37 target countries with 711 deals
Initial Landmatrix database.
83 target countries with 1805 deals
Analytical Approach (continued)
2. A more detailed analysis of LSALI in 6 countries, Ghana,
Mali, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Mozambique and Zambia, based
on field-level case studies, to examine the adequacy of
policy and institutional frameworks for guiding and
managing such investments.
3. A socio-hydrological simulation modeling exercise in Baro-
Gilo basin in the Gambella region of Ethiopia to assess
impacts of LSALI on agricultural production and water
resources and evaluate trade-offs between biophysical and
social objectives of multiple stakeholder groups.
• In 2000-12, ten countries accounted for 70% of LSLAs in SSA
• Area acquired in each of these countries > 100,000 ha
Percentage distribution of total area of LSALI
in SSA by country, 2000-2012
Multiple dimensions of land and water governance
• L&WG concerns the rules, processes and structures
through which decisions are made about access to
land and water, their use and management; the manner
in which decisions are implemented and enforced, the
way that competing interests in these resources are
• L&WG encompasses statutory, customary and religious
institutions. It covers ownership, rights and policies
governing transactions, transfers and disputes.
• L&WG is about power, access to information and
• L&WG varies from country to country. This implies
there is no one-size-fits-all solution for improved
Results of comparative analysis of land and
water governance systems in 6 study countries
1. In all the 6 study countries, land and water are
governed under separate but parallel policy, legal
and institutional frameworks.
Main government organizations with key roles in L&WG for LSALI in Mozambique
2. Within each framework, multiple property rights
regimes, including state property, customary property
and private property, coexist and are operated
3. In Ghana and Zambia state and customary property rights
regimes are recognized in land matters. In Ethiopia, Mali,
Mozambique and Tanzania all land is vested in the state -
though this authority may be delegated to a lower-level
tier of government.
4. In Mali, Mozambique, Tanzania and Zambia water access
and use rights are systematically included in LSALI
contracts. The main requirements are for the investors
to regularly pay water fees and to maintain secondary
or tertiary canals. In Ghana and Ethiopia water rights
are not often discussed at the time of land contract
5. In all 6 study countries, the volume of water to be
extracted by LSALI is not usually specified and water
pricing, where it exists, is not related to volume extracted.
6. In all 6 study countries the agencies charged with the
responsibility of monitoring compliance with economic,
social and environmental impacts and mitigation
measures are poorly funded and lack the capacity to
effectively perform their functions.
7. Parallel systems of land and water rights administration
and management, poor cross- sectoral coordination of
regulatory activities and inadequate capacity in relevant
government agencies hampered effective and
coordinated L&WG in all six study countries.
Actors/institutions typically involved in LSALI negotiations in Ghana
What will coordinated L&WG systems to
promote sustainable and equitable LSALI
Based on an adaptation of the Land Governance
Assessment Framework (Deininger et al, 2012)
• Information on land and water rights is accessible,
comprehensive, current and reliable.
• Policies, laws and institutions recognize existing land
and water rights and enforcement is monitored.
• Land and water planning, pricing and taxation are
in place to avoid negative externalities, allow
provision of services and support effective
• Expropriation of land and water rights is done in a
consultative and transparent way and followed up
with quick payment of fair compensation and
effective appeal mechanisms.
• Interested parties can access institutions with clear
mandates to authoritatively resolve disputes
• Legal, policy and institutional reforms to bring land
and water administration under a single government
Ministry or promote greater and more effective
coordination between various agencies.
• Monitor and evaluate performance of different L&WG