WHAT IS PROCESSING?
PROCESSING is the thinking that computer
WHAT IS DATA PROCESSING ?
Data processing is the collection and
manipulation of items of data to produce
It is also the conversion of raw data to
machine-readable form and its
subsequent processing as storing,
updating, rearranging, or printing out by
Modern computers are digital i.e. all the
information is stored as o string of zeros or onesoff or on. All the thinking in the computer is done
by manipulating these digits.
All letters, numbers, and symbols are assigned
code values of 1's and 0's. A number of different
digital coding schemes are used by digital
THREE common se codes are :
ASCII (used in UNIX and DOS/WINDOWS)
EBCDIC (for IBM system 390 main frames)
Unicode (for windows NT and recent browsers)
The CPU, or Central
Processing Unit is the part
of the computer where
work gets done. Many
computers today have
more than one processing
chip, resulting in more
complex but faster
The computer can only do
one thing at a time. Each
action must be broken down
into the most basic steps.
One round of steps from
getting an instruction back to
getting the next instruction is
called the Machine Cycle.
THE MACHINE CYCLE:
FETCH: get an instruction from Main
2. DECODE: translate it into computer
3. EXECUTE: actually process the
4. STORE: write the result to Main Memory.
There are several physical components of
a computer that are directly involved in
processing. The processor chip itself, the
memory devices, and the motherboard
are the main ones.
A single silicon chip containing
CPU, ALU, and some memory.
The microprocessor chip is located
on a large circuit board called the
main board or motherboard.
The physical size of a computer
chip is very small.
Processor speed is measured in
Megahertz (MHz) or Gigahertz
VACCUM TUBE: Oldest type. Didn't
hold up long and generated a lot of
2. CORE: Small metal rings. Magnets tip
a ring to left or right, which represents
on and off. Relatively slow even way
back when this was used.
3. SEMICONDUCTOR: Integrated circuit
on a chip. This is what modern
computers use for memory.
RAM (Random Access Memory) is what the
computer uses as Main Memory. Memory
speed measures the time it takes to move
data in or out of memory. It is measured
differently for different kinds of memory chips:
in nanoseconds (ns ) (smaller is faster) for
EDO and FPM. 1 ns = 1 billionth of a second.
in megahertz (MHz) (higher is faster) for SDR
SDRAM, DDR, SDRAM, and RDRAM.
The main circuit board of a
microcomputer. The motherboard
contains the connectors for attaching
Typically, the motherboard contains the
CPU, BIOS, memory, mass storage
interfaces, serial and parallel ports,
expansion slots, and all the controllers
required to control standard peripheral
devices, such as the display screen,
keyboard, and disk drive.
Collectively, all these chips that reside
on the motherboard are known as the
The Motherboard is Also Known As:
main board, mobo, MB, system board
or logic board.
Motherboards, cases and power
supplies all come in different sizes
called form factors. All three must be
compatible to work properly together.
Motherboards vary greatly in
respect to the types of
components they support. For
example, each motherboard
supports a single type of CPU
and a short list of memory
types. Additionally, some video
cards, hard drives and other
peripherals may not be