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Towards an effective transitioning of public transport system in Ghana


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Research presentation by visiting academic Dr Michael Poku-Boansi, Senior Lecturer at the Department of Planning, KNUST, Kumasi, Ghana and member of the Ghana Institute of Planners (GIP).

Research indicates that transport services in cities in developing countries are mostly informal and include the use of rickety and low occupancy vehicles such as minibuses, taxis, motorcycles and vans, operated by private groups or individuals. Due to this classification, two schools of thought have emerged. The first suggests that these informal transport service sector operators in most cases operate outside the officially sanctioned public transport sector and as a result should be regarded as nuisance due to its disorganised nature, calling for public intervention and occasional eradication. Given its disorganised nature, informal transport service operators are identified with urban problems including low level of services, high rates of collision and accidents, increased congestion in cities, erratic scheduling and services, inadequate and lack of capacity and evasion of taxes and fees. In contrast, the other school of thought supports and emphasises the critical role these private operators play in meeting the mobility demand of the urban population, as in some jurisdictions (e.g., Ghana, Kenya, and Senegal) provide over 50% of transport services. Public transport service provision in Ghana has undergone several transformations since pre-colonial times, both structured and disorganised development. However, to avoid the gradual decay of public transport service provision in Ghana, the government of Ghana since 2005 has initiated plans to introduce Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) services as a way of improving efficiency in public transport services. The Ghana UTP seeks to among other things to improve mobility within Ghana’s urban centres and to shift to more environmentally-sustainable transport modes and lower transport-related GHG emissions. Although the BRT project is yet to be fully roll out, its implementation is already facing some resistance from the informal public transport operators due to, a large extent, mistrust between the informal public transport operators and the government. The informal public transport operators consider this government intervention (BRT) as a strategy to make their operations inefficient and unpopular among Ghanaians. As a result, previous attempts to implement the project have failed, regardless of the potential benefits of the BRT. The purpose of my research is to explore ways of transition the uncoordinated informal public transport service operations in Ghana into a formal public transport service sector.

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Towards an effective transitioning of public transport system in Ghana

  2. 2. PRESENTATION OUTLINE  Background  Public Transport Reforms in Ghana  Characteristics of Ghana’s BRT System  Some Initial Challenges  Current Research 2
  3. 3. BACKGROUND • Transport service provision in Ghana has been termed informal (Cervero, 2000; Cervero & Golub, 2007; Takyi, 1990) and provided by means such as minibuses, taxis, motorcycles and vans. • These informal transport service operators in most cases operate outside the 3
  4. 4. BACKGROUND Many see them to be nuisance requiring public intervention and occasionally, eradication (World Bank, 2000; Gwilliam, 2002; Cervero, 2000; Cervero & Golub, 2007). High rates of collision and accidents (see Cervero, 2000; Cervero and Golub, 2007; Kurokawa & Iwata, 2014) and organisations). 1,800 deaths and 14,500 injuries annually in Ghana (National Road Safety Commission, 2013); constitute 2.54% of GDP or about US$436 million (Obeng-Odoom, 2010). Increased congestion in cities (Poku-Boansi & Adarkwa, 2011;4
  5. 5. BACKGROUND  Low level of services - levels of comfort are low, and the services are generally viewed as disorderly and unreliable (Cervero & Golub, 2007; Takyi, 1990; Kwakye & Fourcare, 1998; Adarkwa & Poku-Boansi, 2011).  Erratic scheduling and services (Cervero & Golub, 2007; Poku- Boansi & Adarkwa, 2013).  Inadequate and lack of capacity and evasion of taxes and fees. 5
  6. 6. PUBLIC TRANSPORT REFORMS IN GHANA GOAL: 80% of all trips in the urban area should be done through public Mass Transit Systems. POLICY VISION: An affordable, safe and efficient urban transportation system that supports the overall development and competitiveness of urban areas. STRATEGIES: Provide UPT infrastructure Provide a decentralized institutional and regulatory framework Empower the private sector to invest in buses and transport service provision Integrate urban transportation within a broader urban development framework Reorganize individual operators into business entities to deliver UPT 6
  8. 8. Application of “Hub & Spoke” Strategy Hub – Developed along the existing major Trotro Terminals Spoke - Existing minor stations and small sized terminals on the roadside or in residential areas As is To be Arterial Bus between Hub Trotro 1 Trotro 2 Trotro 3 Trotro 4 Trotro 5 Trotro 6 Trotro 7 Trotro 1 Trotro 2 Trotro 3 Trotro 4 Trotro 5 Trotro 6 Trotro 7 Trotro 11 Trotro 12 Trotro 13 Trotro 14 Hub Hub Spoke Spoke Transfer Station Trotro 8 Trotro 10 Trotro 9 Trotro 2 Trotro 5 Trotro 3 Trotro 4 Trotro 7 Trotro 1 Trotro 6 8
  9. 9. THE UNIVERSAL NETWORK Trotros will continue to provide the role of universal coverage  Uplifted to higher quality, comfortable service and improved safety  Better conditions for both passengers and workers Customer facilities and support services will be upgraded  Terminals will be upgraded with better facilities for passengers  Properly demarcated bus stopping places along all routes  Improved passenger information systems 9
  10. 10. THE UNIVERSAL NETWORK All bus and trotro services will operate under permit  New bus operating companies will be formed, including from those within the trotro sector who are interested to do so.  Bus and trotro operators will be able to attract private funds and loans to finance renewal of their vehicles.  Most existing workers will be employees of the new system, with stability of earnings and conditions.  All workers will have a higher professional standard and receive periodic training. 10
  11. 11. LINE 1 LINE 3-1 Amasama n Ofankor Sowutuo m Kasoa Kanashie Sakaman Circle 37 Lorry Adenta Achimota Madina Ashaiman Community 1 ARTERIAL BUS NETWORK PLAN – => 12 LINES (293KM) 11
  12. 12. Line Route Length (Roundtrip) Travel Time (Roundtrip) Service Interval Number of Vehicles Line 1 Kasoa ~ Kaneshie ~ CBD 54.8km 170min 3~5min 69 Line 2-1 Amasaman ~ Achimota ~ CBD 42.4km 130min 3~5min 53 Line 2-2 Ofankor~ Achimota ~ CBD 29.2km 90min 3~5min 36 Line 2-3 Ofankor~ Sowutuom~ 46.2km 150min 6~10min 30 Line 3-1 Adenta ~ Madina ~ Airport CBD 39.2km 120min 6~10min 24 Line 3-2 Madina ~ Airport ~ CBD 33.6km 110min 3~5min 45 Line 4-1 Tema ~ Motorway ~ 78.0km 100min 6~10min 21 Line 4-2 Tema ~ Motorway ~ Airport CBD 66.2km 140min 3~5min 57 Line 4-3 Ashaiman ~ Tema ~ Labadi Circle 62.9km 190min 6~10min 39 Line C-1 Ringroad-Circulation 19.8km 60min 3~5min 48 Line C-2 Achimota ~ 37 Lorry ~ 27.3km 85min 6~10min 35 ARTERIAL BUS OPERATION PLAN (481 BUSES) 12
  13. 13. Amasaman Ofankor Sowutuom Achimota SakamanKasoa Kanashi e Circle 37 Lorry Madina Adenta Ashaima n Communit y 1 13 Hub Terminals11 Transfer Facilities HUB TERMINALS & TRANSFER FACILITIES 13
  14. 14. 14
  15. 15. THE BRT PLAN - Introduce BRT System (6 routes, 163.7km) among 12 arterial bus lines Route1 Route 2 Route 3 Route 4 Route 1 Kasoa to UTC Route 2 Nsawam road: Amasaman CMB Route 3 Independence Avenue/ Liberation Road/Aburi Road Route 4 Tema Community 1/Nungua-Teshie Beach Road/Kwame Nkrumah Circle Route 5 Mallam – Motorway Route 6 Achimota – Labadi 15
  16. 16. BRT ROUTE PLAN No. Routes Serviced by Arterial Bus Line Length (km) Route 1 Kasoa to UTC Line 1, Line 2-3 27.7 Route 2 Nsawam road: Amasaman CMB Line 2-1, Line 2-2 24.9 Route 3 Independence Avenue/ Liberation Road/Aburi Road Line 3-1, Line 3-2 25.0 Route 4 Tema Community 1/Nungua-Teshie Beach Road/Kwame Nkrumah Circle Line 4-3, Line C-1, C- 43.8 Route 5 Mallam – Motorway Line 4-1, 4-2 33.7 Route 6 Achimota – Labadi Line C-2 13.2 Total 168.316
  17. 17. MANAGEMENT OF THE NETWORK Public Transport Operations SCHEDULED BUS SERVICES ON QUALITY BUS CORRIDORS TROTRO SERVICES ON FEEDERS Depots and terminals Passenger Information Common ticketing Data Management Common Facilities Separate Services MMDAS/GAPTE Operating permits etc MMDAS/GAPTE Network planning etc Regulation Service PlanningConstruction /Maintenance Department of Urban Roads 17
  18. 18. GAPTE AND ITS MANDATE  Passenger Transport Executive (PTE) established for Accra. Three (3) strategic areas identified for GAPTE’s operations  Enable the MMDAs to deliver quality transport for their combined area  Act on behalf of the MMDAs, using delegated authority  Plan and oversee urban transport services for the combined area (regulation of route and bus transit services and transport network planning and development services).  GAPTE is composed of Inter-MMDA Co-ordinating Body for Public Transport in GAMA (Greater Accra Metropolitan Area). 18
  19. 19. GAPTE AND ITS MANDATE Bye-laws passed and operational in 2010 in conformance with Local Govt Act L.I. 1961 Permit Type A issued for normal Trotro/Taxi operator Entities and renewable yearly Permit issued only to operator entities not individuals Register of operators created with the permitting system Only permitted operators in register to benefit from the opportunities created by the 565 Trotro and Taxi entities from various Unions registered in GAMA MMDAs Comprising 20,935 drivers 39,816 registered vehicles 23 Affected Operators on Amasaman-Tudu (CMB) Corridor 57 imparted routes 75 imparted route operations 19
  20. 20. PILOT BRT SYSTEM - AAYALOLO  Current Operators transformed into operating Companies delivering services on the Quality Bus Corridors (QBCs).  Aayalolo Bus Services is run by three bus companies namely: Amalgamated Bus Transit Services Limited for Achimota to Tudu service (Charcoal Colour on the front windshield with Bus No. written on it). Accra GPRTU Rapid Bus Transit Company Limited for Ofankor to Tudu service (Blue Colour on the front windshield with Bus No. written on it). Ghana Cooperative Bus Rapid Transit Association for Amasaman to Tudu service (Green Colour on the front windshield with Bus No. written on it) 20
  21. 21. PILOT BRT SYSTEM - AAYALOLO  Amasaman to Tudu (GHANA COOPERATIVE BUS RAPID TRANSIT ASSOCIATION) Semi-fast service taking Expressway Serving end-to-end movements and the important interchanges at Achimota and Circle 16 Stops (Inbound and Outbound)  Ofankor to Tudu (ACCRA GPRTU RAPID BUS TRANSIT COMPANY LIMITED) Stopping service taking service lane Serving intermediate demand between Ofankor and Achimota 17 Stops (Inbound) and 16 Stops (Outbound)  Achimota to Tudu (AMALGAMATED BUS TRANSIT SERVICES LIMITED) Serving as efficient ‘shuttle’ for the demand interchanging and originating from Achimota towards Central Accra 12 Stops (Inbound) and 10 Stops (Outbound) 21
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  23. 23. PILOT BRT SYSTEM - AAYALOLO A zonal fare structure which allows for graduation of fares paid according to distance travelled is applicable to the Aayalolo system. The fare zones used are namely: Zone 1 : Amasaman to Ofankor Zone 2: Ofankor to Achimota Zone 3: Achimota to 23
  24. 24. PILOT BRT SYSTEM - AAYALOLO Movement within One (1) Zone: y = x Movement between Two (2) Zones: y = x + 0.67x Movement between Three (3) Zones: y = x + 1.17x Movement between Four (4) Zones: y = x + 1.5x The variable (x) will only be determined by the Ministry of Transport (MOT) in consultation with transport operators. Currently pegged at GHS 1.20…..(GHS 1 = £ 0.20) Zone 1 = 1.20 Zone 2 = 1.20 + 0.67(1.20) = 2.00 Zone 3 = 1.20 + 1.17(1.20) = 2.60 Zone 3 = 1.20 + 1.50(1.20) = 3.00 24
  25. 25. PILOT BRT SYSTEM - AAYALOLO Automatic Fare Collection System (Electronic Ticketing) Purchased using the mobile payment system…*447*10#.......Telecom providers are partners……MTN, TiGO & Airtel). Point of Sales (POS) Locations…7 along the corridor….. Given to the agents for GHS 4.75 per card….they sell each for GHS 5.00…each card is preloaded with a fare value of GHS 2.90 The bus is equipped with two Passengers are advised to ensure that they validate their cards again before stepping off the bus at the stop location. The buses allow for 40 seating including the driver seat and room for up to 46 standees for crush capacity. GPS system and 3G communication on board the buses. space for nursing mothers with a kinder wagon25
  26. 26. SOME INITIAL CHALLENGES Agitation on the part of some drivers of the trotro services. It was also presumed that drivers receive conflicting instructions/information from their Operation Managers. Unreported incidents (eg. Scratch on bus). As per the duties given, buses did not leave the depot on  Only 25% of business on corridor affected  Existing 77 affected operator entities transformed into 3 Route Service Companies (RSCs)  Threat of loss of livelihoods  Dynamics surrounding ownership (non-owner driver vrs owner drivers) 26
  27. 27. MY RESEARCH WORK AT ITS To explore ways of transition the informal public transport service provision in Ghana. The research is examining the restructuring processes in Ghana’s public transport service industry and their implication on inclusiveness, secured livelihoods (employment), sustainability of public transport services and improved transport services. The research will help fashioned a suitable approach in the transition process in Ghana. 27
  28. 28. URBAN TRANSPORT REFORMS TRANSPORT SYSTEM (INFORMAL) Safety issues Efficiency and reliability challenges Capacity challenges Employment Institutions Regulations Norms and Culture Government Policies TRANSPORT SYSTEM (FORMAL BRT) Improved Safety Efficient and reliability system Improved Capacity Employment Institutions Regulations Norms and Culture Government Policies Existing System Future Improved Examine how new reforms around large systems emerge and get retain in societyLandscape Niche 28
  29. 29. MY RESEARCH WORK AT ITS Research on transition management usually results in multi-level perspective [MLP] (Geels, 2000, 2005, 2010; Rotmans et al. 2001). MLP distinguishes three analytical levels: niches (protected spaces with flexible actor groups and rules); regimes (stable actor networks with well-aligned rules within and between different regimes; and landscape (external environment which cannot be directly influence by the niche or regime actors). The dominant regime structure explain incremental change and path dependence within the socio-technical system. The ongoing reforms within the urban transport sector in Ghana is being examined within this framework. 29
  30. 30. THANK YOU 30