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Behaviour Change - Smarter Choices Theory and Practice

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Presentation by Martin Higgitt of JMP Consultants, to Masters students at the Institute for Transport Studies (ITS) University of Leeds
www.its.leeds.ac.uk/courses/masters/programme-structure/#tabs-4

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Behaviour Change - Smarter Choices Theory and Practice

  1. 1. Martin Higgitt JMP Consultants Limited BEHAVIOUR CHANGE: SMARTER CHOICES THEORY AND PRACTICE
  2. 2. Structure  Policy context: Travel demand management and why smarter choices have become important  The theory and reasons behind smarter choices  The smarter choices tool kit  Case study of i-Travel York  Where next?
  3. 3. What are ‘smarter choices’?  Promotional measures to encourage the uptake of sustainable travel options  ‘Smarter choices’ or ‘soft measures’ include: • Marketing and communications • Public transport information and promotion • Travel planning with: • Employers • Schools / colleges • Residents (Personal travel planning, PTP) • Station travel plans • Shared mobility – ride-sharing, car clubs etc. • Promoting alternatives to travel
  4. 4. POLICY CONTEXT
  5. 5. A brief history: the end of the road for Predict and Provide  During 1990s, acknowledged that “Predict and Provide” could not work:  More road capacity encouraged more traffic demand  and worsened conditions for other modes  Also, financially unaffordable, environmentally damaging and politically untenable Traffic levels 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 1996 2001 2006 2011 2016 2021 2025 National Traffic Forecasts, 1996
  6. 6. A brief history: Travel Demand Management and Smarter Choices  Travel demand management approach starts to take over in 1990s.  Research project in early 2000’s for Department for Transport shows potential impact of demand management measures if delivered in intensive and comprehensive way. 11% 7% 14% 13% 21% 0 20 40 60 80 100 urban peak urban off-peak non-urban peak non-urban off-peak national % traffic
  7. 7. Travel Demand Management and Smarter Choices  Leading to initial ‘Sustainable Travel Demonstration Towns’  4 year programmes in 3 pilot towns showed average 9% reduction in car use in first and growth in other modes Darlington Sustainable Travel Demonstration Town, Final Evaluation. Social Data, 2009.
  8. 8. Most trips are short
  9. 9. People’s perceptions of alternatives are often wrong
  10. 10. Half of car trips could be undertaken by alternative
  11. 11. THE REASONS BEHIND SMARTER CHOICES
  12. 12. The reasons for smarter choices  Not enough simply to provide alternatives  Everyday travel habitual  Need to make people aware of alternatives....  and give them a reason for using them
  13. 13. The role of smarter choices  Not enough just to provide alternatives  Reasons: • People need awareness of alternatives • People need perceptions tackled • People need motivation to try alternatives • People need opportunity to try alternatives • People need rewarding for using alternatives
  14. 14. THE SMARTER CHOICES TOOLKIT
  15. 15. Marketing and communications
  16. 16. Public transport information and marketing
  17. 17. Employer travel planning  Development of a travel plan  Implementing the travel plan  Promotion  Staff induction and benefits  Parking management  Business travel policies
  18. 18. Challenges
  19. 19. Challenges: Beat the Street promoting Active travel
  20. 20. School travel planning
  21. 21. Shared mobility  Car clubs and ride sharing  Shared bikes
  22. 22. CASE STUDY OF YORK
  23. 23. Example: i-Travel York programme
  24. 24. Introduction to York  Historic city  Major visitor destination  Regional economic driver  Traditionally good levels of sustainable travel  Constrained road network  Challenge of responding to demand for housing and jobs whilst keeping network moving and preserving special character of city 26
  25. 25. Introduction to York  Pioneering city:  1980s: Footstreets - one of first pedestrianisation schemes in UK  1990s: Park & Ride - one of first places to introduce. Now a ring of 6 P&R sites.  2000s: Cycle demonstration town  2010s: Low emissions strategy 29
  26. 26. The LSTF programme  i-Travel York programme through LSTF from 2011-2016  Bus improvements: congestion pinchpoints, waiting facilities, information enhancements  Cycle improvements: strategic network enhancements; promotional measures: Bike It, Bike Belles, Cycle Challenge, annual festival, Sky Rides  Online information enhancements – website, journey planner, travel apps  Low emissions roll out: bus, taxi and charging infrastructure  Personal travel planning 31
  27. 27. PTP delivery  Recruitment and training of local Travel Advisers  Collation and development of resources  Development of a database with CRM capabilities  Linking PTP with other programmes: Active Leisure health walks and social rides, Bike Belles, Big Challenge  Signing participants up to MyTravel York: online information updates and promotions 33
  28. 28. Residential delivery  Targeted areas based on demographics and transport services  3 attempts at contact, scheduled at different times of day / days of week  Conversational approach  Resources offered – and pack put together for households  Challenge issued with incentives  Engagement offered at community events 34
  29. 29. Workplace delivery  Similar service offer to residential  Incorporate specific information and offers relevant to host organisation: e.g. salary sacrifice, discounted season tickets, company liftshare scheme etc.  Using offer of PTP surgery as way in for engaging organisation more deeply  Brochure laying out wider workplace offer  Preliminary meeting with firm to plan the PTP intervention and to talk through wider offer 35
  30. 30. Results of 2013 / 2014 programme  Residential: • 13,000 households targeted, • 4,500 participating  Community events: • over 2,000 participants • 1,000 ‘brief contacts’ • 100 events  Workplace: • 1,400 participants from 30 events  30,000 resources distributed  Over 6,000 challenges issued 36
  31. 31. i-Travel York  Follow-up surveys with 550 participants from 2013/14  Broader monitoring shows walking, cycling & public transport use growing 37 27% 27% 18% 1% 71% 70% 78% 75% 2% 2% 4% 24% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Walking Cycling Public transport Car % increasing % stayed the same % reducing -4.4 12.6 13.4 20.7
  32. 32. PTP FOR NEW RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENTS
  33. 33. The theory  “Life-change moments” = great time to speak to people  Research shows how people review their travel needs during a move: • 87% thought about travel issues at some point in relocation process • “Search and selection” stage is when most thought given to travel • “Post-move” stage: lots of consideration once in new location • 57% reported a change in main mode for at least one regular household journey
  34. 34. Before After No PT ticket 18.9% 24.4% PT ticket 19.0% 46.8%  Copenhagen:  Sample of people given free public transport ticket  Only those who had moved or changed job increased use  Stuttgart  Some new movers to area with good PT given season ticket and information, others not. Bauberg, Rolle and Weber (2003) The evidence
  35. 35. An example from York: Derwenthorpe  New residential estate in York with 500 homes  1/3 of homes currently occupied  Designed as an ‘eco- development’  Some households bringing in more cars: will create problems when fully developed
  36. 36. Photos (c) Jonathan Pow, courtesy of Joseph Rowntree Foundation
  37. 37. Photos (c) Jonathan Pow, courtesy of Joseph Rowntree Foundation
  38. 38. Photos (c) Jonathan Pow, courtesy of Joseph Rowntree Foundation
  39. 39. Transport facilities  Car-free walk and cycle route through development towards city centre  High frequency bus route adjacent to development  Car club vehicle in development
  40. 40. Design of PTP programme  Leaflet dropped to all households advertising service and incentives  Travel advisers try visiting 3 times (day time, evening and Saturday)  Engage in conversation: • Baseline survey about household travel patterns • Description of the transport facilities available • Offering vouchers and incentives • Encouraging households to take up a ‘challenge’  Bespoke resource packs assembled and given to households  Family Fun Day organised as a finale
  41. 41. Offers developed for the initiative  Significant incentives: • £150 voucher towards bike purchase • £150 voucher towards public transport season ticket • Community bike loan scheme • Car Club membership, plus £50 drive time
  42. 42. The Family Fun Day  Community bike loan hand over  Bike try out session  Dr Bike  Travel advice stall  Treasure hunt for families with young children  Guided bike ride to local nature reserve  Car Club demonstration
  43. 43. The Results  120 households participated  6 households declined  33 household uncontactable  Participation rate = 75% cf 35% typical for ‘normal’ PTP  Conversion rate = 95% vs. 60% typical for ‘normal’ PTP  Before and after surveys show reported behaviour change of.......  12 people took up community bike loan  50 people took part in bike try out session  A dozen families took part in Treasure Hunt  8 people got bike serviced  1 person on guided bike ride  Some families from neighbouring area
  44. 44. FUTURE DIRECTIONS FOR SMARTER CHOICES
  45. 45. Some top tips  Particularly effective when done in association with service or infrastructure improvements  Life-events  Travel demand management  Nudge: making sustainable travel options the default.
  46. 46. 58 Integrate with service improvements
  47. 47. Target Life-events  Habits interrupted • New movers, • New job, • New students, • Retirement, • Changing school, • Starting a family
  48. 48. Focusing on disruption
  49. 49. Nudge
  50. 50. martin.higgitt@jmp.co.uk www.jmp.co.uk

Presentation by Martin Higgitt of JMP Consultants, to Masters students at the Institute for Transport Studies (ITS) University of Leeds www.its.leeds.ac.uk/courses/masters/programme-structure/#tabs-4

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