Application Brief: Movie and TV Industry Migration to 4K


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This application brief covers the impact of 4K video technology on storage networks.

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Application Brief: Movie and TV Industry Migration to 4K

  1. 1. APPLICATION BRIEF Movie and TV Industry Migration to 4K A Killer App for Gen 5 Fibre Channel SANs For the last several years, production and post-production professionals in the movie and TV industry have captured, edited and projected video in 2K resolution (2048 pixels wide by 1080 pixels vertical). The industry is now migrating to faster frame rates and higher resolution 4K video (4096 pixels wide by 2160 pixels vertical). This doubling of the horizontal resolution and vertical resolution, quadruples the amount of digital data created. The result for post-production sound and video editors is their ability to perform real-time editing is bottlenecked by the Fibre Channel SAN infrastructure deployed to support 2K video. Real time editing of a single stream of uncompressed 4K video requires more than 8Gb/s of SAN bandwidth — making 4K video editing a killer app for Gen 5 Fibre Channel SANs with 16Gb/s bandwidth.. 4K Quadruples The Amount of Digital Data An upgrade to 16Gb Fibre Channel is required to support real-time editing of 4K video. Click on the YouTube button above to hear about the transition from 2K to 4K. Document # APP2013020 v1 Copyright 2013© IT Brand Pulse. All rights reserved. Page 1 of 6
  2. 2. APPLICATION BRIEF Shooting in 4K Generates Massive Amounts of Data Before editing 4K sound and video, the data has to be created with a 4K camera which generates massive amounts of data. For example, Sony F65 digital cameras are capable of shooting in true 4K resolution. Given that a typical feature film includes 50-150 hours of footage, that 150 hours in 4K RAW 3D 10-bit 4K format, requires 273 terabytes of primary storage. If three copies are made, which is the practice at the Chapman University Film School, 820 terabytes of tape storage is required for backup. Acquiring Digital Data with a Sony F65 Camera Sony F65 Camera Linear Image 10-bit 12-bit 4K RAW (4096 x 2160), 24fps 16-bit Bitrate 253.125 MB/s 912 GB/hr 303.75 MB/s 1.09TB/hr 405 MB/s 1.46TB/hr The Sony F65 camera shooting 4K RAW video can generate up to 1.46 terabytes of data every hour. If a crew is shooting 12 hour per day, over 17 terabytes of data storage is needed every day! Document # APP2013020 v1 Copyright 2013© IT Brand Pulse. All rights reserved. Page 2 of 6
  3. 3. APPLICATION BRIEF Moving 4K Data From Camera to Storage The source of digital data can be 35mm film cameras or digital cameras. With film cameras, the film must be scanned to convert the images to a digital format. The transition to 4K has the effect of quadrupling the amount of time it takes to scan a 35mm film. The data inside the camera is stored on a Flash memory card. The memory cards are inserted into a Digital Image Transfer (DIT) stations where the data can be routed to primary storage on SAN. At Chapman University, the link from the transfer stations was 1GbE. However Ethernet server adapters inside the transfer stations were recently upgraded to 10GbE adapters which resulted in a 4x increase in throughput from the transfer station. Chapman University Film & Digital Camera Data Flows Upgrading the Digital Image Transfer stations from 1GbE server adapters to 10GbE server adapters increased throughput by 4x. For the crew on set, this is a critical improvement to daily productivity and helps ensure there are no disruptions to the creative process. Click on the YouTube button to watch the Chapman CTO talk about DIT. Document # APP2013020 v1 Copyright 2013© IT Brand Pulse. All rights reserved. Page 3 of 6
  4. 4. APPLICATION BRIEF Moving 4K Data From Storage to Theatre Once the video data is moved onto a SAN, it’s available for editing. Editing uncompressed data is the most efficient post-production process. Alternatively, the data can be compressed for off-line editing, and them un -compressed later to create the final video. However, this adds time and cost to the process. At Chapman University, each link on their 4Gb Fibre Channel SAN can support real-time editing of 2K video which requires 2.2Gb of bandwidth. However. Real-time color and sound editing of uncompressed 4K video requires an upgrade to 16Gb Fibre Channel to support a quadrupling of throughput. The Need for Gen 5 Fibre Channel Exists When Streaming Data for Real-Time 4K Editing The SAN at Chapman University must be upgraded from 4Gb to 16Gb Fibre Channel in order to support real-time color and sound editing of uncompressed 4K video data. Click on the YouTube button to watch a Chapman post-production engineer talk about 4K and SANs. Document # APP2013020 v1 Copyright 2013© IT Brand Pulse. All rights reserved. Page 4 of 6
  5. 5. APPLICATION BRIEF Use this Heat Map to Match Video Format with SAN Speed Requirement There are many different video formats. This heat map matches video formats to the SAN needed to support real-time editing or playback. MB/s <100 MB/s <200MB/s <400MB/s <600MB/s <1,000MB/s >1,000MB/s Gb/s <.8Gb/s <1.6Gb/s <3.2Gb/s <4.8Gb/s <8.0Gb/s >8.0Gb/s FC SAN 4Gb FC 4Gb FC 4Gb FC 8Gb SAN 8Gb FC 16Gb FC Frame Rate YUV 4:2:2 8bit/ 16bpp YUV 4:2:2 10bit/ 24bpp YUV 4:2:2 16bit/ 32bpp RGB 4:4:4 8bit/ 24bpp RGB 4:4:4 16bit/ 48bpp RGB 4:4:4 32bit/ 96bpp Width Height Aspect Ratio SD 576i/25 720 576 4:3 / 16:9 25 (50i) 21 31 41 31 62 124 SD 480i/30 720 480 4:3 / 16:9 30 (60i) 21 31 41 31 62 124 HD 720p/24 1280 720 16:9 24 44 66 88 66 133 265 HD 1080p/24 1920 1080 16:9 24 100 149 199 149 299 597 HD 1080i/30 1920 1080 16:9 30 (60i) 124 187 249 187 373 746 Academy 2K 1828 1332 1.37:1 24 117 175 234 175 351 701 Digital Cinema 2K 2048 858 2.39:1 24 84 127 169 127 253 506 Digital Cinema 2K 1998 1080 1.85:1 24 104 155 207 155 311 621 Digital Cinema 4K 4096 1714 2.39:1 24 337 505 674 505 1011 2022 HD 2160p/24 3840 2160 16:9 24 398 597 796 597 1194 2389 Digital Cinema 4K 3996 2160 1.85:1 24 414 621 829 621 1243 2486 Academy 4K 3656 2664 1.37:1 24 468 701 935 701 1403 2805 Full Aperture 4K 4096 3112 1.32:1 24 612 918 1224 918 1836 3671 IMAX Digital 5616 4096 1.37:1 24 1104 1656 2208 1656 3312 6625 HD 4320p/24 7680 4320 16:9 24 1593 2389 3185 2389 4778 9555 Red Epic 617 28000 9334 3:1 24 12545 18817 25090 18817 37635 75269 Format Document # APP2013020 v1 Copyright 2013© IT Brand Pulse. All rights reserved. Page 5 of 6
  6. 6. APPLICATION BRIEF Recent Tips from a Chapman University Post Production Engineer The following are a few of the lessons Chapman University wants to share about their SAN experience:  Upgrade PCI cards in digital cameras to 10GbE to get data off Flash cards and onto the SAN faster.  If your SAN is at 4Gb, skip 8Gb and go right to 16Gb. You’ll need the bandwidth for 4K video editing.  Build in the bandwidth needed for real-time editing. Otherwise you will spend time rebuilding video that was compressed and edited offline. Pay me now or pay me later. Related Links To learn more about the companies, technologies, and products mentioned in this report, visit the following web pages: Chapman University Doge College of Media Arts YouTube: Managing Digital Media YouTube: SAN Support for 4K Video YouTube: IT for Film Making YouTube: 10GbE for Digital Image Transfer QLogic 2600 Series 16Gb Fibre Channel Adapters QLogic 8300 Series 10GbE / 16Gb FC Converged Network Adapters IT Brand Pulse About the Author Frank Berry is founder and senior analyst for IT Brand Pulse, a trusted source of data and analysis about IT infrastructure, including servers, storage and networking. As former vice president of product marketing and corporate marketing for QLogic, and vice president of worldwide marketing for the automated tape library (ATL) division of Quantum, Mr. Berry has over 30 years experience in the development and marketing of IT infrastructure. Document # APP2013020 v1 Copyright 2013© IT Brand Pulse. All rights reserved. Page 6 of 6