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Eidws 101 first aid


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Eidws 101 first aid

  2. 2. 101.1 Discuss the CONCEPT of ORM <ul><li>Operational Risk Management is a systematic, decision-making process used to identify and manage hazards that endanger naval resources. </li></ul><ul><li>ORM is a tool used to make informed decisions by providing the best baseline of knowledge and experience available. </li></ul><ul><li>Its purpose is to increase operational readiness by anticipating hazards and increase the potential for success to gain the competitive advantage in combat. </li></ul><ul><li>ORM is not just related to naval aviation; it applies across the warfighting spectrum. </li></ul>
  3. 3. 101.2 Identifying hazards <ul><li>Begin with an outline or chart of the major steps in the operation or operational analysis. Next, conduct a preliminary hazard analysis by listing all of the hazards associated with each step in the operational analysis along with possible causes for those hazards. </li></ul>
  4. 4. 101.2 Assessing hazards <ul><li>For each hazard identified, determine the associated degree of risk in terms of probability and severity. </li></ul><ul><li>Although not required, the use of a matrix may be helpful in assessing hazards. </li></ul>
  5. 5. 101.2 Making risk decisions <ul><li>Develop risk control options. Start with the most serious risk first and select controls that will reduce the risk to a minimum consistent with mission accomplishment. </li></ul><ul><li>With selected controls in place, decide if the benefit of the operation outweighs the risk. </li></ul><ul><li>If risk outweighs benefit or if assistance is required to implement controls, communicate with higher authority in the chain of command. </li></ul>
  6. 6. 101.2 Implementing controls <ul><li>The following measures can be used to eliminate hazards or reduce the degree of risk. These include: Engineering controls, administrative controls, and personnel protective equipment. </li></ul>
  7. 7. 101.2 Supervising <ul><li>Conduct follow-up evaluations of the controls to ensure they remain in place and have the desired effect. </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor for changes which may require further ORM. Take corrective action when necessary. </li></ul>
  8. 8. 101.3 State the instruction that governs safety and mishap reporting. <ul><li>OPNAVINST 5102.1D </li></ul><ul><li>NAVY AND MARINE CORPS MISHAP AND SAFETY INVESTIGATION, REPORTING, AND RECORD KEEPING MANUAL </li></ul>
  9. 9. 101.4 Define hazard severity and discuss the 4 categories of hazard severity. <ul><li>An assessment of the worst credible consequence that can occur as a result of a hazard. </li></ul><ul><li>Severity is defined by potential degree of injury, illness, property damage, loss of assets (time, money, personnel) or effect on mission. </li></ul><ul><li>The combination of two or more hazards may increase the overall level of risk. </li></ul>
  10. 10. 101.4 HAZARD SEVERITY CATAGORIES <ul><li>Category I - The hazard may cause death, loss of facility/asset or result in grave damage to national interests. </li></ul><ul><li>Category II - The hazard may cause severe injury, illness, property damage, damage to national or service interests or degradation to efficient use of assets. </li></ul><ul><li>Category III - The hazard may cause minor injury, illness, property damage, damage to national, service or command interests or degradation to efficient use of assets. </li></ul><ul><li>Category IV - The hazard presents a minimal threat to personnel safety or health property, national, service or command interests or efficient use of assets. </li></ul>
  11. 11. 101.5 Define mishap probability and describe the 4 subcategories of mishap probability. <ul><li>The probability that a hazard will result in a mishap or loss, based on an assessment of such factors as location exposure (cycles or hours of operation), affected populations, experience or previously established statistical information. </li></ul>
  12. 12. 101.5 MISHAP PROBABLITY SUB-CATEGORIES <ul><li>Sub-category A - Likely to occur immediately or within a short period of time. Expected to occur frequently to an individual item or person or continuously to a fleet, inventory or group. </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-category B - Probably will occur in time. Expected to occur several times to an individual item or person or frequently to a fleet, inventory or group. </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-category C - May occur in time. Can reasonably be expected to occur some time to an individual item or person or several times to a fleet, inventory or group. </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-category D - Unlikely to occur. </li></ul>
  13. 13. 101.6 Define RAC and list the 5 RAC’s. <ul><li>The RAC is an expression of risk that combines the elements of hazard severity and mishap probability. </li></ul>
  14. 14. 101.6 5 RISK ASSEMENT CODES <ul><li>Using the matrix shown below, the RAC is expressed as a single Arabic number that can be used to help determine hazard abatement priorities. </li></ul>
  15. 15. 101.7 Discuss the timeliness and means for filing mishap investigations reports. <ul><li>All mishap reports must be submitted within 30 days of mishap occurrence </li></ul><ul><li>A web-enabled data collection system has been developed to allow submission of all recordable/reportable mishaps by electronic means. </li></ul><ul><li>The Safety Investigation Report (SIREP) identifies the specific information or data elements required for deaths, injuries, or damage occurring in all reportable mishaps, the causes, and recommendations to prevent similar mishaps. </li></ul>
  16. 16. 101.7 Discuss the timeliness and means for filing mishap investigations reports. <ul><li>Notify their chain of command and COMNAVSAFECEN, of all on duty DoD civilian and all on and off-duty military Class A mishaps, and any mishaps that result in the hospitalization of three or more personnel, within eight hours of the mishap by telephone or electronic means. </li></ul><ul><li>Notify COMNAVSAFECEN, and the chain of command, of all other on-duty DoD civilian and all on and off-duty military fatalities regardless of cause (suicide, homicide, medical, etc.) within eight hours by electronic means. </li></ul>
  17. 17. 101.8 Name the 4 required mishap reportable items. <ul><li>1 - Class A, B, and C government property damage mishaps. This includes property damage caused by a government evolution, operation or vehicle to other government or non-government property. </li></ul><ul><li>2 - Class A, B, and C on-duty DoD civilian mishaps and military on/off-duty mishaps. </li></ul><ul><li>3 - Any other work-related illness or injury that involves medical treatment beyond first aid, loss of consciousness, and/or days away from work, as well as light duty or limited duty for on/off-duty military personnel, or days of job transfer or restricted work for on-duty civilians. </li></ul><ul><li>4 - Other incidents of interest to the Navy and Marine Corps for mishap prevention purposes. </li></ul>
  18. 18. 101.9 State the purpose of a HAZREP message. <ul><li>Provides a means for a unit discovering a hazardous condition or experiencing a near-mishap to alert COMNAVSAFECEN and HQMC (SD), when appropriate (to report a hazard or hazardous condition before a MISHAP occurs). HAZREPs do not replace Hazard Abatement Program requirements. </li></ul>
  19. 19. 101.10 State the three objectives of first aid. <ul><li>Save Life </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent further injury </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent Infection </li></ul>
  20. 20. 101.11 State the three methods of controlling bleeding. <ul><li>Direct Pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Elevation </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure Points </li></ul><ul><li>Tourniquet (LAST RESORT!!) </li></ul>
  21. 21. 101.12 Identify the 11 pressure points. <ul><li>Facial artery.....jaw </li></ul><ul><li>Superficial temporal artery.....temple </li></ul><ul><li>Subclavian artery.....collar bone </li></ul><ul><li>Common carotid artery.......neck </li></ul><ul><li>Brachial artery......inner upper arm </li></ul><ul><li>Brachial artery......inner elbow </li></ul><ul><li>Radial/Ulnar artery.....wrist </li></ul><ul><li>Femoral artery.....upper thigh </li></ul><ul><li>Iliac artery.....groin </li></ul><ul><li>Popliteal artery.....knee </li></ul><ul><li>Anterior/posterior tibial artery.....ankle </li></ul>
  22. 22. 101.13 Describe the symptoms and treatment for shock. <ul><li>Shock is a disruption of the circulatory system. Individuals usually faint due to the poor supply of oxygen to the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vacant or lackluster eyes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shallow or irregular breathing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold, pale skin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nausea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weak or absent pulse. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treatment includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lay the victim down flat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elevate feet 6-12 inches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cover victim with blanket to maintain body heat. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reassure and calm the victim (if conscious). </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. 101.14 State the difference between an open and closed fracture. <ul><li>A &quot;closed&quot; or &quot;simple&quot; fracture is one which is entirely internal; the bone is broken, but does not break through the skin. </li></ul><ul><li>An &quot;open&quot; or &quot;compound&quot; fracture is one which is internal/external; a break in the bone that causes an open wound in the tissue or skin. The bone may be protruding through the skin. </li></ul>
  24. 24. 101.15 Describe the procedures necessary for the following as applied to electrical shock: <ul><li>Rescuing a victim of electrical shock is likely to be difficult and dangerous. Extreme caution must be used, or the rescuer may also be electrocuted. </li></ul><ul><li>Secure power first (from power panel/breaker). If you cannot find the power panel/breaker, attempt to remove the victim from the source with a non-conductive object (i.e. broom handle, plastic pole, cane or rope. </li></ul><ul><li>YOU MUST NOT TOUCH THE VICTIM'S BODY, WIRE, OR ANY OTHER OBJECT THAT MAY BE CONDUCTING ELECTRICITY. </li></ul>
  25. 25. 101.15 Describe the procedures necessary for the following as applied to electrical shock: <ul><li>If electric shock caused victim to stop breathing, administer artificial ventilation immediately after freeing the person from the electrical source. </li></ul><ul><li>Check the pulse, if none is present start CPR immediately. Have another person contact emergency services to get the victim to a medical facility immediately. </li></ul>
  26. 26. 101.16 Describe the methods for clearing an obstructed airway. <ul><li>Obstruction in the upper airway or throat is often caused by attempting to chew food and talk at the same time. One of the most reliable indications of an airway obstruction is the victim's inability to talk. </li></ul><ul><li>Other indicators include grasping and pointing to the throat, exaggerated breathing efforts, and the skin turning a bluish color. </li></ul><ul><li>Your first action upon encountering a victim with this problem is to clear the mouth of any food particles, foreign objects, or loose dentures. If not effective use one of the following methods: </li></ul>
  27. 27. 101.16 Describe the methods for clearing an obstructed airway. (cont.) <ul><li>Method 1: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stand behind the victim and wrap your arms around the victim's waist. Grasp your wrist and place the thumb side of your fist against the victim's abdomen, above the navel and just below the rib cage. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give 4 quick upward thrusts to the victim. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(It is recommended 4 thrusts by the American Heart Association and 5 recommended by the American Red Cross). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The obstruction should pop out like a cork. If unsuccessful, repeat until the obstruction is dislodged. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. 101.16 Describe the methods for clearing an obstructed airway. (cont.) <ul><li>Method 2: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reclining Abdominal thrusts are used if the victim is laying down. Position yourself for the thrust by either straddling the victim at the hips, straddling one leg, or kneeling at the hips. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Place your hands one on top of the other in the area between the lower end of the sternum (breast bone) and the navel, and give 4 quick upward thrusts into the abdomen. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(5 thrusts recommended by American Red Cross and 4 thrusts recommended by American Heart Assoc.) </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. 101.17 Describe the effects and treatment of the following temperature related injuries: <ul><li>HYPOTHERMIA: </li></ul><ul><li>Effects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A general cooling of the whole body caused by exposure to low or rapidly falling temperature, cold moisture, snow or ice. The victim may appear pale and unconscious, and may even be taken for dead. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breathing is slow and shallow, pulse faint or even undetectable. The body tissues feel semi-rigid, and the arms and legs may feel stiff. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treatment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bring the body temperature to normal. The patient should be wrapped in warm blankets in a warm room. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not give him hot drinks or other stimulants until he has regained consciousness. Get medical attention immediately </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. 101.17 Describe the effects and treatment of the following temperature related injuries: <ul><li>FROSTBITE: </li></ul><ul><li>Effects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Superficial: Ice crystals forming in the upper skin layers after exposure to a temperature of 32 degrees or lower. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deep frostbite: Ice crystals forming in the deeper tissues after exposure to a temperature of 32 degrees or lower. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treatment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Get the victim indoors, warm the area by placing them in warm water or with hot water bottles. Other methods include placing them under the armpits, against the abdomen, or between the legs of a buddy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Never rub the frostbite area. Seek medical attention immediately. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. 101.17 Describe the effects and treatment of the following temperature related injuries: <ul><li>HEAT STRESS: </li></ul><ul><li>A combination of air temperature, thermal radiation, humidity, airflow, and workload that places stress on the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Effects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased body temperature causing fatigue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Severe headache </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nausea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced physical and mental performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If not immediately and properly treated, these injuries can be life threatening. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treatment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove individual from heat source (i.e. sun) and allow for gradual adaptation/aclimation to heat environment. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. 101.17 Describe the effects and treatment of the following temperature related injuries: <ul><li>HEAT EXAUSTION: </li></ul><ul><li>A milder form of heat-related illness that can develop after several days of exposure to high temperatures and inadequate or unbalanced replacement of fluids. </li></ul><ul><li>Effects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serious disturbance of blood flow to the brain, heart, and lungs. Skin is cool, moist, and clammy, pupils dilated, and normal or subnormal body temp and sweating profusely. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treatment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Move victim to a cool place, apply cold cloths to areas of the body. </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. 101.17 Describe the effects and treatment of the following temperature related injuries: <ul><li>HEAT STROKE: </li></ul><ul><li>A breakdown of the sweating ability of the body, no longer able to eliminate excess heat. </li></ul><ul><li>Effects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hot and/or dry skin, uneven pupils, weak, rapid pulse. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treatment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contact emergency services immediately. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Move victim to cooler environment and remove clothing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce heat by cooling body through moisture/cold (wet body or use cold packs). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Submerse body in cold (not ice) water, if none available then fan vigorously. </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. 101.18 Define the following: <ul><li>HERO: Hazards from electromagnetic radiation to ordinance </li></ul><ul><li>HERP: Hazards from electromagnetic radiation to personnel </li></ul><ul><li>HERF: Hazards from electromagnetic radiation to fuels </li></ul>
  35. 35. 101.19 Define HAZMAT. <ul><li>Any material that, because of its quantity, concentration, or physical or chemical characteristics, may pose a substantial hazard to human health or the environment when purposefully released or accidentally spilled . </li></ul>
  36. 36. 101.20 Discuss how to store HAZMAT. <ul><li>Location: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The storeroom should be neat, clean, cool, and dry. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Label and Identify: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure a label appears on the door of the space to show the space contains flammable liquids. Store paints or solvents in tightly sealed cans or containers. Mark the container with the name, formula number, solvent composition, Navy hazard identification label or Department of Transportation hazard identification label, and manufacture date of the paint or solvent it contains. </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. 101.21 Describe potential risks of improperly labeled and stored HAZMAT. <ul><li>Tightly Sealed: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All containers must be tightly closed when not in use. Besides the danger of vapors accumulating, air can cause a chemical breakdown of some solvents which can cause evaporation or decay and it can no longer be used. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Label: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If chemicals are not labeled or labeled improperly, then when used, they can be mixed with other chemicals which could pose a hazard of explosion or fire or some sort of chemical reaction. </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. 101.22 Describe what an MSDS is and the information it provides. <ul><li>Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A document that contains information on the potential hazards (health, fire, reactivity and environmental) of a chemical product and how to work safely with the chemical product. It also contains information on the use, storage, handling and emergency procedures all related to the hazards of the material. </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. 101.22 Describe what an MSDS is and the information it provides. (cont) <ul><li>An MSDS Contains the following information: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Product Information: product identifier (name), manufacturer and suppliers names, addresses, and emergency numbers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hazardous Ingredients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical Data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire or Explosion Hazard Data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reactivity Data: information on the chemical instability of a product and the substances it may react with </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Toxicological Properties: health effects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preventive Measures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First Aid Measures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preparation Information: who is responsible for preparation and date of preparation of MSDS </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. 101.23 Describe the general characteristics of the following PPE. <ul><li>Respirators: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be selected for the hazard. The command’s Respiratory Protection Manager (RPM) will make those decisions and advise you and your supervisor of the proper respirator for the right job. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Users must be medically screened, trained, and fit-tested prior to using a respirator. Selection of respirators will be made in accordance with the guidance provided by the Industrial Hygiene Survey, available to the RPM. </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. 101.23 Describe the general characteristics of the following PPE. <ul><li>Hand Protection: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is selected for the hazard. This can range from barrier creams to full gauntlet rubber gloves. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical gloves are made of materials tested to ensure the chemical does not penetrate or damage the glove material on prolonged exposure. Gloves are selected according to the material being used and the duration of exposure. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The acceptable levels of hand protection will be listed, but consult the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) or your Safety Officer for specifics and possible substitutions. </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. 101.23 Describe the general characteristics of the following PPE. <ul><li>Foot Protection: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Even though most sailors wear steel toe boots daily while at work, there may be hazards where a rubber over-shoe or other foot protection is required. Antistatic, chemical resistant, and slip-resistant footwear may be specified for certain jobs with certain HM. </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. 101.23 Describe the general characteristics of the following PPE. <ul><li>Eye Protection: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes safety glasses, splash-proof chemical goggles, impact goggles, UV goggles, welding helmets with special lenses, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selection of the right eye protection depends on the hazard and the risk. In general, for all HM use, chemical goggles will protect the eyes from contact with liquid and powdered chemicals. </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. 101.23 Describe the general characteristics of the following PPE. <ul><li>Face Protection: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Face shields are not eye protection – they are face protection. Eye protection must be worn beneath face shields. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Skin/Body Protection: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This includes rubber aprons, protective coveralls, TYVEK or coated sack suits, and head coverings. The material of the protective clothing is selected for the hazard and the risk. Strong solvents will soak through cotton coveralls but not a rubber apron or chemical-spill protective coverall. </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. 101.24 State the goal of the U.S. Navy’s Hearing Conservation Program. <ul><li>The goal is to prevent occupational hearing loss and assure auditory fitness for duty of all Navy personnel. </li></ul><ul><li>Noise-induced hearing loss is the fleet’s number one occupational health hazard. High intensity noise exposure results from a wide variety of shipboard operations, including gun or missile fire, aircraft noise, and ship’s propulsion systems. </li></ul>
  46. 46. 101.24 State the goal of the U.S. Navy’s Hearing Conservation Program. (cont.) <ul><li>Operational risk assessment has shown that fleet costs in terms of man hours, personal hearing protector purchases, and noise abatement operations are readily offset by the preservation of effective communication, maintained quality of life, and reduction in disability expense which accompany an effective HCP process. </li></ul><ul><li>As such, it is incumbent upon leadership to set the right example in their personal protective practices, to enforce compliance, and to ensure HCP receives their full support. </li></ul>
  47. 47. QUESTIONS????