Road to Rio+20, UN Conference on Sustainable Development 2012

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Road to Rio+20 is a summary of preparations for the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (UNCSD) called “Rio+20” to be held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil June 20-22, 2012.

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  • If we agree to “think globally”, it becomes evident that riveting attention on GROWTH could be a grave mistake because we are denying how economic and population growth in the communities in which we live cannot continue as it has until now. Each village's resources are being dissipated, each town's environment degraded and every city's fitness as place for our children to inhabit is being threatened. To proclaim something like, 'the meat of any community plan for the future is, of course, growth' fails to acknowledge that many villages, towns and cities are already ‘built out’, and also ‘filled in’ with people. If the quality of life we enjoy now is to be maintained for the children, then limits on economic and population growth will have to be set. By so doing, we choose to “act locally' and sustainably.

    More economic and population growth are no longer sustainable in many too many places on the surface of Earth because biological constraints and physical limitations are immutably imposed upon ever increasing human consumption, production and population activities of people in many communities where most of us reside. Inasmuch as the Earth is finite with frangible environs, there comes a point at which GROWTH is unsustainable. There is much work to done locally. But that effort cannot reasonably begin without sensibly limiting economic and population growth.

    To quote another source, “We face a wide-open opportunity to break with the old ways of doing the town’s business…..” That is a true statement. But the necessary “break with the old ways” of continous economic and population growth is not what is occurring. There is a call for a break with the old ways, but the required changes in behavior are not what is being proposed as we plan for the future. What is being proposed and continues to occur is more of the same, old business-as-usual overconsumption, overproduction and overpopulation activities, the very activities that appear to be growing unsustainbly. More business-as-usual could soon become patently unsustainable, both locally and globally. A finite planet with the size, composition and environs of the Earth and a community with the boundaries, limited resources and wondrous climate of villages, towns and cities where we live may not be able to sustain much longer the economic and population growth that is occurring on our watch. Perhaps necessary changes away from UNSUSTAINABLE GROWTH and toward sustainable lifestyles and right-sized corporate enterprises are in the offing.

    Think globally while there is still time and act locally before it is too late for human action to make any difference in the clear and presently dangerous course of unfolding human-induced ecological events, both in our planetary home and in our villages, towns and cities.
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  • This situation is no longer deniable. During my lifetime, many have understood the Global Predicament we are facing now, but only a few 'voices in the wilderness' were willing to speak out loudly and clearly about what everyone can see. It is not a pretty sight. The human community has precipitated a planetary emergency that only humankind is capable of undoing. The present 'Unsustainable Path' has to be abandoned in favor of a 'road less travelled by'. It is late; there is no time left to waste. Perhaps now we will gather our remarkably abundant, distinctly human resources and respond ably to the daunting, human-induced, global challenges before us, the ones that threaten life as we know it and the integrity of Earth as a fit place for human habitation. Many voices, many more voices are needed for making necessary changes.
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Road to Rio+20, UN Conference on Sustainable Development 2012

  1. Kyoto and Beyond Road to Rio+20 The 8th installment in an ongoing series on multilateral agreements related to climate changewww.isciences.com June 6, 2012
  2. Introduction Kyoto and Beyond is a series of presentations on the evolving international climate treaty process that began with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) 1992. Road to Rio+20 is a summary of preparations for the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (UNCSD) called “Rio+20” to be held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil June 20-22, 2012. Other presentations in the Kyoto and Beyond series include*:  2008 Kyoto and Beyond  2010 Road to Cancun COP16  2009 Kyoto and Beyond, Update  2011 Report on Cancun COP16  2009 Report on Copenhagen COP15  2011 Road to Durban  2012 Report on Durban * Available at http://www.isciences.com/spotlight/kyoto_and_beyond.html Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 2
  3. Contents Historical Background Conference Overview Multilateral Process Issues & Positions Possible Outcomes NOTE: This presentation includes hyperlinks to additional information indicated by underlined text. Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 3
  4. Background: Timeline 1972-2012 1972 1992 Stockholm Rio de Janeiro UN Conference on UN Conference on the Sustainable Human Environment, 2002 Development Earth Summit Johannesburg World Summit on Sustainable Development 1972 | 1982 | 1992 | 2002 | 2012 1987 1997 Brundtland Report New York 2012 “Our Common Rio+5 Rio de Janeiro Future” UNGASS 19 UN Conference on the Human Environment, Earth Summit See also: Sustainable Development Timelines, Stakeholder Forum Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 4
  5. Background: Stockholm, 1972The United Nations Conference on the HumanEnvironment in Stockholm put environmental issues onthe international agenda for the first time.The Stockholm Conference, June 5-16, 1972 laid the groundworkfor progress in the environment and development. Maurice Strong (left) with Conference PresidentOne important outcome from Stockholm was the creation of the Ingemund Bengtsson (Credit: UN Photo)UN Environment Programme (UNEP). “Man is unlikely to succeed in managing his relationship with nature unless in the course of it he learns to manage better the relations between man and man.” – Maurice Strong, Secretary-General of the Stockholm Conference Declaration of the UN Conference on the Human Environment http://www.unep.org/Documents.Multilingual/Default.asp?documentid=97&articleid=1503 Report of the UN Conference on the Human Environment http://www.unep.org/Documents.Multilingual/Default.asp?documentid=97 Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 5
  6. Background: Brundtland, 1987 The 1987 Brundtland Report, “Our Common Future,” helped define sustainable development. In 1983, UN Secretary-General Javier Pérez de Cuéllar asked Prime Minister Gro Harlem Brundtland* of Norway to create an organization independent of the UN to focus on environmental and developmental problems and solutions. Dr. Gro Harlem Brundtland (Credit: The Leading Speakers Bureau) The World Commission on Environment and Development, known as the Brundtland Commission, was formed. The Commission’s report highlighted how growth rates in both developing and industrialized nations would prove to be unsustainable. “Humanity has the ability to make development sustainable to ensure that it meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” - Part One of the Brundtland Report * Note: Gro Harlem Brundtland will attend the 2012 Rio+20. Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 6
  7. Background: Earth Summit, 1992 The first global gathering on sustainability was the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. “If you don’t know how to fix it, please don’t break it.” – 12-yr old Canadian Severn Cullis- (Credit: UN) Suzuki at Earth Summit 1992The Earth Summit – the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development(UNCED) June 3-14 – produced Agenda 21, a blueprint to rethink economic growth, toadvance social equity and to ensure environmental protection.More than 178 Governments adopted: Agenda 21, the Rio Declaration on Environmentand Development, and the Statement of Principles for the Sustainable Management ofForests. Two important legally binding agreements were opened for signatures: the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), to reduce greenhouse gas emissions; and, the Convention on Biological Diversity, to conserve biodiversity. The Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) was created to ensure effective follow-up to the Summit. Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 7
  8. Background: Rio+5, 1997Rio+5 June 23-27, 1997 in New York ended without significantaction.UNGASS-19, the 19th Special Session of the UN General Assembly was promoted as“Rio+5” and was convened to review and appraise the implementation of Agenda 21.The Summit noted many shortfalls in progress, particularly failures to achieve anincrease in monetary aid and technical assistance to developing nations.After three attempts, the process failed to produce a defining Political Statement,though leaders recommitted to the goals of Agenda 21. "Our words have not been matched by deeds." - Razali Ismail, UN General Assembly president, from Malaysia See also: ENB Vol.5 No. 88, and Programme for the Further Implementation of Agenda 21. Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 8
  9. Background: Rio+10, 2002The 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) produced theJohannesburg Plan of Implementation.At Rio+10 Aug. 26-Sept. 4 in Johannesburg, South Africa the JohannesburgPlan of Implementation (JPI) set out new commitments in povertyeradication, health, trade, education, science and technology, regionalconcerns, natural resources, and institutional arrangements.The JPI also identified three mutually reinforcing pillars of sustainable development. Three Pillars of Sustainable Development  Economic development  Social development  Environmental development “a collective responsibility to advance and strengthen the interdependent and mutually reinforcing pillars of sustainable development – economic development, social development and environmental protection – at local, national, regional and global levels.” – Johannesburg Plan of Implementation Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 9
  10. Overview: Rio+20, 2012Rio+20, the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Developmentscheduled for June 20-21, 2012 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, is intended to set aglobal sustainability agenda for the coming decade .Delegates from 183 countries, someof them represented by theirpresidents, vice-presidents, andpremiers, along with more than50,000 participants fromgovernments, the private sector,non-governmental organizations(NGOs) and other groups willattend. The Conference is being promoted as “The Future We Want.” Updates can be found at www.uncsd2012.org. Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 10
  11. Overview: Secretariat China’s Sha Zukang, Under-Secretary-General of the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA), was nominated Secretary- General of the Rio+20 Conference. The Conference Secretariat is within DESA. Sha Zukang (Credit: UN) Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) (Credit: UN) 11
  12. Overview: Objectives The stated objectives of Rio+20 are to: renew political commitment, assess progress, and address challenges.  Renew Political Commitment to Sustainable Development techniques, discuss structural modifications within political institutions in relation to development technology.  Assess Progress on various country commitments to sustainable development practices, look into gaps in progress, and evaluate the success of outcomes of major international summit meetings on sustainable development.  Discuss Emerging Challenges that have become more critical: food crises, water scarcity, natural disasters, health security, migration, and biodiversity and ecosystem loss; and reach agreement on comprehensive mitigation. Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 12
  13. Overview: ThemesDiscussion at Rio+20 will be shaped by two themes: the Green Economy andInstitutional Framework. Green Economy in the Context of Poverty Eradication and Sustainable Development Key Considerations  link goals for the environment with those for the economy rather than one taking precedent over the other.  integrate the knowledge that ecosystems currently undergo stress from production techniques, and that extreme poverty still exists throughout the world.  shift methods of development to those that are both economically and environmentally friendly. See also: UNCSD Issues Brief 1: Trade and Green Economy Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 13
  14. Overview: ThemesThe theme of Institutional Framework stresses the importance of integratingsustainable development practices into global political institutions. Institutional Framework for Sustainable Development Key Considerations  reform UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme)  establish a UN Environment Organization (UNEO) or World Environment Organization (WEO)  Monitor and enforce global agreements on environment and sustainable development  Strengthen the CSD (Commission on Sustainable Development). See also: UNCSD Issues Brief 3: Issues related to an intergovernmental body on SD Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 14
  15. Overview: Focal Areas Preparations for Rio+20 have highlighted seven areas which need priority attention: jobs, energy, cities, food, water, oceans, disasters. Jobs – Jobs are critical for social stability, and green jobs contribute to preserving or restoring the quality of the environment. [UNCSD Issues Brief 7] Energy - Sustainable energy is needed for strengthening economies, protecting ecosystems and achieving equity. [Sustainable Energy for All] Cities –The challenges cities face must be overcome in ways that create prosperity, while improving resource use and reducing poverty. [UNCSD Issues Brief 5] Food – A profound change in global agriculture is needed to nourish todays 925 million and the additional 2 billion people expected by 2050. [UNCSD Issues Brief 9] Water – Water scarcity, poor quality and inadequate sanitation negatively impact food security, livelihoods and educational opportunities. [UNCSD Issues Brief 11] Oceans – The worlds oceans - their temperature, chemistry, currents and life - drive global systems that make the Earth habitable for humankind. [UNCSD Issues Brief 4] Disasters – Smart choices help us recover from disasters, choices related to how we grow our food, where and how we build our homes, how our financial system works, what we teach in schools, and more. [UNCSD Issues Brief 8] Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 15
  16. Overview: Related EventsMore than 500 on-site side events on sustainability will take place, andthe Sustainable Development Dialogues. Sustainable Development Dialogues - Topics 1. Sustainable development forJune 13-22 A wide-ranging circus of side events organized by fighting povertyMajor Groups, Governments, Organizations from the UN 2. Sustainable development as an answer to the economic andsystem, and other International Organizations, will take place financial crisesbefore and during the Conference. 3. Unemployment, decent work and migrations 4. Economics of sustainableJune 16-19 The Sustainable Development Dialogues, a development, including sustainable patterns ofConference forum for civil society to engage in debate on key production and consumptiontopics without the presence of UN Agencies or 5. Forests 6. Food and nutrition securityGovernments, precedes the Conference’s High-Level 7. Sustainable energy for allDiscussions. 8. Water 9. Sustainable cities and innovation 10. Oceans Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 16
  17. Overview: Brazil’s LeadershipAs host country Brazil has a leadership role. Brazil’s leadersemphasize economic growth as part of sustainability.In her address to the Brazilian Climate Change Forum Brazilian PresidentDilma Rouseff stated that she accepts the premises of sustainabledevelopment, but warned that there are limits to what Brazil, and other Dilma Vana Rousseff, President of Brazildeveloping nations, will accept. (Credit: Wikimedia Commons)Some environmental organizations claim that Brazils environmental agenda has suffered asetback since Rousseff took office in January 2011, citing proposed forest code reform,weakening of oversight agencies, and exploitation of resources for economic growth. André Corrêa do Lago, Chief Negotiator for Brazil at Rio+20, reinforced Brazil’s commitment to economic growth. “…strong results [at Rio+20]…is to have the economic sectors understand that sustainable development…is not only environmental sustainability; it is economic sustainability, it is social sustainability.” – Andre Correa do Lago, Brazil’s Chief Negotiator at Rio+20 Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 17
  18. Overview: Brazil’s ReadinessInadequate housing for the expected 50,000 visitorshas compromised Brazil’s role as host country.Rio’s hotel capacity – 33,000 hotel beds for 50,000 visitors –has led to unconventional solutions. The mayor has askedresidents to leave town and rent out their apartments. Rios320 "love hotels“ have agreed to daily rentals instead ofhourly. Around 10,000 visitors to Rio will be camping. (Credit: Klaus, Wikimedia Commons)Rio’s hotel costs – averaging $818 per night during the conference – also created problems.The European Parliament scrapped its 11-person delegation because of the rise in hotelprices, 10 times initial estimates. Even the Brazilian government refused to pay housing forits 100 delegates, only those who agree to pay for their own lodging would take part. In mid-May the Brazilian government reached an agreement with hotels to reduce the costs of accommodations during the Conference. Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 18
  19. Process: UN PreparationsThe multilateral preparatory process includes many UN meetings and civilsociety dialogs.Since May 2010 numerous meetings,conferences, and presentations havebeen generated to help shape thedesired outcomes from Rio+ 20.These include gatherings by the UNCSDPreparatory Committee (PrepCom), the10-member Bureau of the PrepCom,Member States, Regionals, IGOs(Intergovernmental Organizations), andMajor Groups. Sook Kim (Republic of Korea) and John Ashe (Antigua and Barbuda) are Bureau Co-Chairs. (Credit: UN) Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 19
  20. Process: Major GroupsThe process includes input from nine “Major Groups,” The UNCSD is an intergovernmentalformalized in Agenda 21 as the overarching categories process driven by Member states of thethrough which all citizens could participate in UN United Nations with full involvement of the UN system and Major groups.activities on achieving sustainable development.From the very beginning of the first Earth Summit in 1992, people realized thatsustainable development could not be achieved by governments alone and would requirethe active participation of all sectors of society and all types of people Major Groups  Business and Industry  NGOs  Children and Youth  Scientific and Technological Community  Farmers  Women  Indigenous Peoples  Workers and Trade Unions  Local Authorities Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 20
  21. Process: The Zero DraftThe most important pre-Conference task is to prepare a Zero Draft document ofthe intended action plan, called “The Future We Want.”The original 19-page document, introduced on Jan. 10, 2012, wasdeveloped by the Bureau of the UNCSD PrepCom, and was based on6,000 pages of input from Member States, Major Groups and otherstakeholders.The draft was discussed at several meetings held at UN Headquarters inJanuary and March, when delegates proposed numerous amendments.It must be ready for approval by world leaders on the first day of Rio+20. Though legallynonbinding it is regarded as significant for clarifying goals for countries to take concretepolicy steps. The objective is to arrive in Rio "with at least 90 percent of the text ready, and only the most difficult 10 percent left to be negotiated there at the highest political levels“. – Secretary-General Sha Zukang Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 21
  22. Process: The Zero Draft Key Points The original Zero Draft briefly outlined key points in four areas. Renewing Political Commitment: reaffirm Agenda 21; work towards universal access to information; and, require companies to integrate sustainability information within the reporting cycle. Green Economy: provide an opportunity to all countries and a threat to none; and, not create new trade barriers, impose conditions on aid, widen technology gaps, or restrict a country’s policy space. Institutional Framework for Sustainable Development: integrate the three pillars; reaffirm “common but differentiated responsibilities;” transform the Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) into a Sustainable Development Council; and, strengthen UNEP or elevate it to a UN specialized agency. Framework for Action and Follow-up: devise global Sustainable Development Goals to complement MDGs, targets to be achieved by 2030; recognize the limitations of GDP and develop more balanced indicators; and, phase out distorting and harmful subsidies that impede sustainable development. Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 22
  23. Process: The Zero Draft DeadlockAfter a scheduled series of review meetings at UN headquarters in New York, thedraft was still not ready for presentation at the Conference.Initial discussions on the draft were Jan. 25-27, 2012. The firstround of negotiations, called “informal-informals,” was Mar. 19-23.The second round was April 23-May 4. During these meetings thedraft ballooned from 19 to 278, before being pared to 210 – stillfar from the 70-page goal. Sphere within a Sphere, UN, New York (Credit: Norbert Nagel via Wikimedia Commons)The negotiations resulted in agreement on only 21 of 420 paragraphs, evidence of astalled process undermined by lack of flexibility, urgency and spirit of compromiseTo break the deadlock a third round was scheduled for May 29-June 2, 2012. "Let us be frank, currently, the negotiating text is a far cry from the focused political document called for by the General Assembly. …The time has come to shift gears to reach our destination in time.” – Secretary-General Sha Zukang Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 23
  24. Process: The Zero Draft, Round 3With urgent admonitions from Ban Ki-moon to reach agreement and furtherreduce the document, negotiators returned to work on May 29.In hopes of expediting the process, UNCSD PrepCom Bureau Co-Chairs Sook Kim andJohn Ashe prepared an 80-pg streamlined version of the document called “Co-ChairsSuggested Text” (CST) as a starting point for the negotiators.Though some progress was made, complete success proved elusive do to range andcomplexity of issues, organization of work and uneven chairing styles, and entrenchedpositions. “Rarely has a drafting process been so erratic.” – Anonymous delegate No revised document was published and further decision-making was kicked along to the last PrepCom, June 13-15, and to the Conference itself. See also: ENB, Vol.27 No. 40 Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 24
  25. Process: Conference Schedule The 3-day Conference schedule* will be an intense push to clarify sustainable development directions for the next decade. * No official Provisional Agenda available as of June 5.Wednesday, June 20 Thursday, June 21 Friday, June 22 10: Opening Plenary 10-1: High Level Round Table 10-1: High Level Round 3: Ceremonial Opening 10-1: Morning Plenary Table4:30: High Level Round 3-6: High Level Round Table 10-1: Morning Plenary Table 3-6: Afternoon Plenary 3-6: Afternoon Plenary 6: Evening Plenary, if 6: Evening Plenary, if required required In parallel with and between official events, there will be numerous side events, exhibitions, presentations, fairs and announcements by a wide range of partners. Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 25
  26. Process: World LeadersWho is and is not attending Rio+20? About 115 heads of state have committed. YES NO Vladimir Putin Barack Obama President, Russia President, US Wen Jiabao Julia Gillard Premier, China Prime Minister, Australia Francois Hollande Angela Merkel President, France Chancellor, Germany Jacob Zuma Mahmoud Ahmadinejad President, S. Africa Manmohan Singh President, Iran David Cameron Prime Minister, India Prime Minister, UK Stephen Harper Felipe Calderon Prime Minister, Canada Yousaf Raza Gillani President, Mexico Yoshihiko Noda Prime Minister, Prime Minister, Japan Pakistan (Photo Credits: EarthSummit2012.org ) Though it is not unusual for national leaders to send representatives to global gatherings such as this, a leader’s presence signals a level of interest and influence. Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 26
  27. Issues: SD CommitmentsCurrently, commitments to sustainable development goals Commitment Areasat Rio+20 are voluntary, and are tracked through a Biodiversity, Forests & Other Ecosystems Chemicals & Waste“Compendium of Commitments.” Climate Change Education Food Security & Sustainable Agriculture Gender Equality Green Jobs-Social Inclusion Land Degradation & Desertification Measuring SD Progress (through indicators) Mountains Natural Disaster Preparedness Poverty Eradication Public Awareness and Communications on SD Oceans and Seas, SIDS Other Important Sustainable Development Areas SD Economics, Finance and Trade (Credit: UN) SD Strategies and PoliciesThe Compendium is an online registry of pledges by governments, Sustainability Management Sustainable Citiescivil society and the private sector through which registrants Sustainable Consumption & Production Sustainable Energydescribe tangible deliverables with estimated timelines. Sustainable Transport Technology and Innovation Water “We welcome the voluntary commitments made at Rio+20 and invite the Secretary-General to compile them in a registry/compendium that will serve as an accountability framework.” – The Future We Want (Zero Draft), Paragraph 28 Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 27
  28. Issues: SDGs The concept of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) – a set of sustainability indicators – will be advanced at Rio+20. Modeled after MDGs (Millennium Development Goals, anti-poverty and social development targets that have an achievement deadline of 2015). Consensus is that SDGs should complement and not detract from MDGs. Introduced at the UN DPI/NGO Conference in Bonn, Germany Sept 3-5, 2011 through an initiative proposed by Colombia and Guatemala. Could apply to both developed and developing countries. Full development of SDGs – definitions, objectives, and targets – is not generally expected as a concrete deliverable from Rio, but would occur after Rio. See also: Rio+20 Issues Brief 6 Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 28
  29. Issues: SDGsThe following 17 indicator areas, part of the original proposal, will serve as astarting point for SDG discussions. 1. Sustainable consumption and 9. Sustainable agriculture production 10. Green cities 2. Sustainable livelihoods, youth, 11. Subsidies and investment and education 12. New indicators of progress 3. Climate sustainability 13. Access to information 4. Clean energy 14. Public participation 5. Biodiversity 15. Access to redress and remedy 6. Water 16. Environmental justice for the poor 7. Healthy seas and oceans (blue and marginalized economy) 17. Basic health 8. Healthy forests http://www.uncsd2012.org/rio20/index.php?page=view&nr=273&type=230&menu=39 Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 29
  30. Issues: IFSD – GovernanceSeveral global institutions are part of the conversation on InstitutionalFramework for Sustainable Development. “We havent even begun to understand theDiscussions suggest reforming UNEP’s damage we are bringing to bear on the sustainability of our planet.” – Achimstructure and authority. Proposals for reform Steiner, UNEP Executive Director, UN Under-include: Secretary-General, and Chair UN Environment Management Group Strengthening UNEP, or; Upgrading UNEP to a specialized agency (such as WHO); UNEP currently has 58 members but could be upgraded to full agency status with universal membership.The Commission on Sustainable Development could be transformed into a SustainableDevelopment Council with authority similar to the UN Human Rights Council. IFSD would also involve integration of SD into policies of International Financial Institutions such as: World Bank, IMF, regional development banks, UNTAD, and WTO. See also: A Pocket Guide to Sustainable Development Governance. Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 30
  31. Issues: Green Economy Charting a path to a “green economy” means developing economic engines that support sustainable consumption and production (SCP) and lower environmental impacts. National policy options: regulatory, economic and fiscal instruments, investment in green infrastructure, financial incentives, subsidy reform, sustainable public procurement, information disclosure, and voluntary partnerships. Sector-based roadmaps: cross-national cooperation among industrial sectors. Innovative international instruments of finance, and elimination of harmful subsidies. International knowledge-sharing platform: menu of policy options, toolbox of good practices at scaled levels, progress indicators, directory of support for developing countries. According to a study released by the UN International Labour Organization net  Global measures of progress through targets gains of 0.5 percent to 2 percent in total and timeline: indicators global employment are possible through a green economy, mainly through more (2012~2015), implementation 2015~2030; renewable and efficient energy use. comprehensive assessment (2030). Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 31
  32. Issues: “GDP+” & “Natural Capital”The need for new metrics in a green economy has stimulated discussions ondevelopment of “GDP+” and valuation of “natural capital.”“GDP+” is an emerging metric concept for natural, human andmanufactured capital considered together to obtain a morecomprehensive value.“Natural capital” refers to the stock of ecosystems that providesa renewable flow of goods and services, and to the economics of (Credit: Wikimedia Commons)ecosystem services. Natural capital has historically been part of“the global commons” and henceforth, free goods. The Natural Capital Declaration, a statement by the financial sector on its commitment to work towards integrating natural capital criteria into financial products and services, will be launched at Rio+20. "It is time to recognize that human capital and natural capital are every bit as important as financial capital." – UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 32
  33. Issues: Where’s the Environment?While much of the pre-conference negotiations have focused on the first twopillars of sustainable development – economic and social – some followers areasking “Where’s the environmental development in this agenda?”While human developmental issues are being discussed – MDGs, Possible sublimation ofright to water, women’s rights, rights of decent employment – “environment” may also be evident in the evolution ofalongside debates on the rights to economic and technological conference names: Stockholmadvancement, the word “environment” is rarely heard above the 1972 Conference on the Human Environment > Rio 1992clamor. Conference on Environment and Development > Rio 2002In the Zero Draft attention to the “Environmental Pillar” of SD World Summit on Sustainableoccurs mainly in the context of a changing role for UNEP in IFSD, Development > Rio 2012 Conference on Sustainableand environment and climate are bundled among 15 “priority” Development.issues and 17 proposed SDGs. “Sustainable development is an easier sell globally than climate change, even though sustainable development is a way of tackling global warming and other environmental issues.” – Ambassador André Corrêa do Lago, Brazil Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 33
  34. Issues: Supportive InitiativesUN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon is leading a globalinitiative on achieving Sustainable Energy for All by 2030.Sustainable Energy for All, a global partnership betweengovernments, the private sector and civil society, is designed totake actions to scale and foster innovative new public-privateactions for sustainable energy.Sustainable Energy for All has three objectives: Ensure universal access to modern energy services, (Credit: UN) Double the global rate of improvement of energy efficiency, and Double the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix. To deliver universal energy access the International Energy Agency (IEA) has found that half of all energy services must be provided by off-grid clean energy. Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 34
  35. Issues: Supportive Initiatives Ban Ki-moon has also established a High-Level Panel on Global Sustainability (GSP) to formulate a new blueprint for sustainable development and low- carbon prosperity. The GSP Panels final report - "Resilient People, Resilient Planet: A Future Worth Choosing" - contains 56 recommendations to put sustainable development into practice and to mainstream it into economic policy. (Credit: UN) “In order to decouple production and consumption from natural resource use and environmental degradation, narrow concepts of GNP should be supplemented by indices or indicators which measure sustainable development.” – Resilient People, Resilient Planet Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 35
  36. Positions: Issues & GeoPoliticsISSUESGreen Economy Developing countries want to ensure that any green economy’s environmental sustainability approach does notcompromise growth or hinder poverty eradication efforts.CBDR “Common But Differentiated Responsibilities,” one of the Rio Principles adopted in 1992, continues to be heralded by Developingcountries as a model that retains national sovereignty and points to Developed countries for ODF (Official Development Funds), while theUS, in particular, pushes for a more inclusive distribution of responsibilities.Technology transfer Text in the Zero Draft reads “Technology development and transfer.” The US, Canada ,and Australia want to delete theword “transfer” and change the title to “Technology development, innovation and science,” and the EU prefers “Research, Innovation andTechnology Development.” The issue revolves around intellectual property rights.Elevate UNEP to Specialized Agency A specialized UN agency, favored by Turkey, Rep. of Korea, France and 100 others, would haveuniversal membership. Opposed: US, Canada, Russia, Brazil.Establishment of a Sustainable Development Council to replace UNCSD The new Council, opposed by the US and Japan, would haveauthority similar to that of the UN Human Rights Council.SD target deadlines African leaders have expressed concern about European efforts to seek binding targets on sustainabledevelopment, fearing brakes would be applied to their economies by rich countries. GLOBAL GEOPOLITICS Palestinian Authority will ask Rio+20 to upgrade PA’s "observing entity" status in UNEP to that of "observing state" status, in hopes of duplicating the success it had in achieving UNESCO membership , in order to advance efforts to gain international recognition for statehood. Anti-Agenda 21 factions claim that Agenda 21 and Rio+20 will destroy national sovereignty, propel global governance, and force redistribution of wealth and property. Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 36
  37. Outcomes – Desired OutcomesUN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon identifies three clusters of desiredoutcomes that could make Rio+20 the watershed it should be.  “new thinking and action.” Rio+20 must build on the success of the MDGs by advancing a new economic model of sustainable development based on the “triple bottom line” of job-rich economic growth, environmental protection, and social inclusion.  “about people.” Rio+20 must offer real improvement in daily lives through adequate nutrition, by giving voice to women as “engines of economic dynamism and social development,” and by creating opportunities for young people.  “waste not.” Rio+20 must call for smarter use of resources, protection of oceans, water, air and forests, and more livable cities in harmony with nature. “Mother Earth has been kind to us, and we should reciprocate.” – Ban Ki-moon Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 37
  38. Conclusion – Beyond UN Process?The multilateral governmental process – always complex, contentious and slow– is additionally challenged at Rio+20 by dismal economic conditions.Yet, success may still be born from productive ideas and collaborations at theside events and through an emerging global model of grassroots change “goingviral” beyond political borders, as evidenced in recent geopolitical upheavals. "The success – or failure – of Rio will have deep repercussions, define the aspirations of 3.5 billion young people, and shape the world we leave for future generations.“ – Gro Harlem Brundtland on Rio+20 Watch for ISciences’ post-Rio+20 analysis, available in July 2012 at http://www.isciences.com/spotlight/kyoto_and_beyond.html. Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 38
  39. Sources Bazilian, Morgan, Alan Miller and Daniel M. Kammen. Making Rio+20 a Success. National Geographic, The Great Energy Challenge, published online April 4, 2012 at http://www.greatenergychallengeblog.com/2012/04/04/making-rio20-a-success/ Brazil, Government of (Official Web Site). Transcript of Conference Call - Ambassador André Corrêa do Lago . Feb. 16, 2012. http://www.brasil.gov.br/para/press/conferences/march-1/transcript-of-conference-call- ambassador-andre-correa-do-lago/br_model1?set_language=en Brundtland, Gro Harlem, and Fernando Henrique Cardoso. May 31, 2012. 4 Ways to Save Rio+20 Summit on Sustainable Development. Christian Science Monitor. http://www.csmonitor.com/Commentary/Opinion/2012/0531/4-ways-to-save-Rio-20-summit-on- sustainable-development Cruickshank, Emlyn W., Kirsty Schneeberger, Nadine Smith, (Eds). Pocket Guide to Sustainable Development, 2nd Ed . Stakeholder Forum. http://www.stakeholderforum.org/fileadmin/files/PocketGuidetoSDGEdition2webfinal.pdf. Downloaded May 10, 2012. Deen, Thalif. U.N. Fails to Finalise Rio+20 Plan on Sustainable Future. May 7, 2012. AlertNet. http://www.trust.org/alertnet/news/un-fails-to-finalise-rio20-plan-on-sustainable-future Earth Summit Canada. Earth Summit History. Accessed Apr. 2012. http://earthsummit.ca/about-earth- summit/earth-summit-history/ EurActive.com. Apr. 25, 2012. EU plays down expectations for Rio Earth Summit. http://www.euractiv.com/sustainability/eu-plays-expectations-rio-earth-summit-news-512344 Foti, Joseph. 2012. Working Paper Mar. 2012, Promises Kept: Ensuring Ambition and Accountability through a Rio +20 “Compendium of Commitments.” World Resources Institute. http://www.wri.org/publication/promises- kept Foti, Joseph. May 1, 2012. Beyond Rhetoric at Rio+20 with the “Compendium of Commitments.” World Resources Institute Insights. http://insights.wri.org/news/2012/05/beyond-rhetoric-rio20-compendium-commitments Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 39
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  46. Citation When referencing this slide show please use the following citation. ISCIENCES, L.L.C. The Road to Rio+20. A slideshow; 8th installment in the series Kyoto and Beyond – the Evolution of Multilateral Agreements on Climate Change. June 6, 2012. Ann Arbor, Michigan. www.isciences.com. Road to Rio+20 (ISCIENCES, L.L.C.) 46

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