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Introduction of Research by Utilizing Kibo Internal Facilities

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Presentation from JAXA/NASA Joint Workshop at 2016 ISS Research and Development Conference

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Introduction of Research by Utilizing Kibo Internal Facilities

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  2. 2. Introduction of Researches by Utilizing “Kibo” internal Facilities JAXA/NASA Joint Workshop ISS R&D Conference 2016 Tetsuya Sakashita JEM Utilization Center, JAXA
  3. 3. 3 This presentation intends to  inspire potential users of Kibo Pressurized Module(PM) to create new research concepts,  encourage U.S. researchers to join Kibo-PM experiment through JAXA-NASA cooperation frame work, such as Japan-U.S. Open Platform Partnership Program (JP-US OP3) by introducing typical Kibo-PM researches and its facility equipment.
  4. 4. 4  Rodent Research  Aquatic Biology Research  High Quality Protein Crystallization  High Temperature Material Property Measurements  Other Facility Equipment in Kibo-PM Topics
  5. 5. 5 X-Y. Overview of Physical Sciences in Japan
  6. 6. 6 X-Y. Overview of Physical Sciences in Japan Kibo Pressurized Module(PM)
  7. 7. 7 X-Y. Overview of Physical Sciences in Japan Kibo-PM Internal
  8. 8. 8 Statistics of Research in Kibo-PM Since Kibo-PM was in operational in 2009,  Six major laboratory facility racks are in work  Approx. 100 experiments in total Life Science Medical Science/Human space technology Physical/material Science Satelite Deployment/Applied Science/Education/Art
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  10. 10. 10 Remarkable Features  Comparison between micro-G and artificial-G (upto 1G) conditions in space (6 mouse for each conditions) Provide the world’s first long-term artificial gravity environment for mammals in space.  Individual habitat (1 mouse per cage) Capable of providing a uniform rearing environment of each mouse to minimize variance in growth, prevent physical contact (e.g. fighting), and monitor the behavior of an individual mouse.  Retrieve mice to the ground in living condition Skilled researchers can dissect mice for detailed analysis using cutting-edge techniques. JAXA Rodent Research
  11. 11. 11 Biological experiment facility with centrifuge in Kibo Six cages in the microgravity (µG) area Six cages in the centrifugal, artificial gravity section JAXA Rodent Research Comparison between micro-G and artificial-G
  12. 12. 12 Mouse Habitat Unit (MHU) Inside the HCU Feeder Water Nozzles LED (white /IR)Wiper Camera Waste collection area Window for visibility of mice in both sides Transportation Cage Unit(TCU)Habitat Cage Unit (HCU) Disposable Glove Box for MHU Individual habitat
  13. 13. 13 JAXA Rodent Research Six cages in the microgravity area Six cages on the centrifugal rotor, artificial gravity sectionLaunch Live Return 12 mice12 mice Retrieve mice to the ground in living condition
  14. 14. 14 Planed experiment #1  Transcriptome analysis and germ cell development analysis of mice in the space • To identify the long-term effects of the space environment on epigenetic changes of DNA • To clarify the impact of the space environment on mammalian germ cells by production of offspring using the sperm stressed in the space JAXA Rodent Research Ground Space environment Clarify the impact of the space environment on next generations Identify the long-term effects in different organs Offspring using sperm from space mice Live return Pre-launch: Acclimation Post-landing: Dissection male mice Behavior observation
  15. 15. 15 Planed experiment #2  Multi-omics analysis of human-microbial metabolic cross-talk in the space environment • To evaluate immune dysfunction in the space environment and to elucidate the mechanism, by combining integrated omics analyses of astronaut subjects. JAXA Rodent Research ・Functional and quantitative analyses of immune factors Astronaut Flight-mouse ・Host-microbial interaction, ・Integrated omics analyses BloodFecesSaliva Immuno-organs
  16. 16. 16 JAXA Aquatic Biology Research medaka (Oryzias latipes) zebrafish (Danio rerio)
  17. 17. 17 Advantages of aquatic research using medaka or zebra fish in space.  Genome was decoded; extensive ground researches  Fish is vertebrate usable for bone or muscular research  Multigenerational breeding; 45 days from hatch to spawn.  Visibility of transparent embryo and body. JAXA’s Aquatic Habitat (AQH) is the only flight- proven aquatic experiment facility available the ISS. JAXA Aquatic Biology Research
  18. 18. 18 Flight Day 13 Medaka feeding
  19. 19. 19 JAXA Aquatic Biology Research Biological Filter Gas ExchangerLED Light CCD Camera Aquariums (two) Waste Filter Water Circulation Unit Controller AQH features,  Continuous rearing up to 90 days, for two or more generations.  16 adult medaka or 12 adult zebra fish in two aquariums (8 or 6 each).
  20. 20. 20 Medaka Osteoclast Previous research 24 medaka fish with osteoclasts that emit a fluorescent signal, sent into space as juveniles, and reared for 56 days.  The pharyngeal bone (the jaw bone at the back of the throat) and the teeth of the fish reduced their mineral density significantly  The volume and activity of osteoclasts is increased.  Transcriptome analysis uncovered two strongly upregulated genes (fkbp5 and ddit4), together with 15 other mitochondria- related genes whose expression was also enhanced.  Unusual behavior is observed towards the latter stages of stay in space, showing motionless at day 47.
  21. 21. 21 Medaka Osteoclast Pharyngeal bone Fluorescent image Section at yellow dotted line Kudo et al. Microgravity promotes osteoclast activity in medaka fish reared at the international space station Scientific Reports 5 (14172) (2015)
  22. 22. 22 JAXA Aquatic Biology Research JAXA Fluorescence Microscope  Inverted microscope, Leica DMI 6000B  Stage Heater(~40 deg.C) for small cell culture chamber
  23. 23. Confocal Microscope System  Currently CSU-W1 confocal unit (Yokogawa Electric Corp.) and other systems are studied.  The confocal system is planed available onboard in 2018. Stage Heater Controller Microscope Controller Confocal Controller Confocal Unit CCD camera Confocal Laser Unit Microscope Future upgrade 2.3 Microscope 23
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  25. 25. 25 JAXA Protein Crystallization Remarkable Features Standard service for Japanese commercial users,  Crystallization in 4℃ as well as 20℃ Can adopt much variety of protein crystallization.  Support protein sample purification  Support X-ray diffraction data collection  Quick turn around 10 months or less, from sample delivery to JAXA till release X- ray diffraction data back to client. Three to four opportunities per year. Note: Terms and conditions for U.S. user are pending on JP-US OP3 coordination.
  26. 26. 26 High-quality crystallization in space Structural Analysis on Earth Structure Based Drug Design Far less convection & disturbance ⇒ Improved crystal quality (close to (or beyond) 1Å) On Earth In space Effective exploration of drug candidates (keys) with apparent structure of disease-causing protein (keyhole) Unraveling molecular structures affecting diseases Drug / enzyme candidate Japanese Pharmaceutical companies started to utilize Protein Crystallization in “KIBO” for their research from 2014. JAXA Protein Crystallization
  27. 27. Examples of Results Create new enzymes and catalyze the synthesis of nylon-6 (reverse reaction) or other potential products. Nylon Oligomer Hydrolase (University of Hyogo) A drug for muscle diseases was designed by pharmacists and its effect was confirmed with animal experiments. Prostaglandin D Synthase (Osaka Bioscience Institute) ~1.5 Å resolution ~1.05 Å resolution Space ~1.8 Å resolution Ground ~1.1 Å resolution Space Influenza virus RNA polymerase (Yokohama City University) Ground Structural insight into the RNA polymerase lead to the development of new medicine regardless of influenza viruses type. JAXA Protein Crystallization
  28. 28. 28 High Temperature Material Property Measurements Remarkable Features JAXA’s Electrostatic Levitation Furnace (ELF) was launched in 2015, and initial Function Checkout is on going.  Thermophysical properties measurement of oxides, in addition to metal upto 3,000℃ Density, Surface tension, Viscosity  Oxides processing under relatively high atmospheric pressure Low voltage for sample holding on orbit, prevents electro- discharge in gaseous environment, which suppresses Deoxygenation  Less disturbance leads to deep supercooling solidification Expect to innovate novel functional materials.
  29. 29. 0 2 4 6 8 10 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000 Present work Temperature (K) Tm Viscosity(mPa・s) Nb: viscosity thermophysical properties Giant permittivity of BaTiO3 2 mm New glass with high reflection index Casting Simulation Earth Benefits 29 Computer-based casting simulation in order to develop efficient turbines, aircraft, and jet engines. Investigation the unknown liquid states of oxidized materials will achieve breakthroughs in science and materials development. Combined structural analysis of high temperature liquid with X-rays on the ground and ISS-ELF Novel material synthesis is open the way for future practical application and production on Earth. High Temperature Material Property Measurements
  30. 30. 30 Other Facility Equipment in Kibo-PM
  31. 31. 31 Facility Equipment in Kibo-PM Cell Biology Experiment Facility Clean Bench SAIBO Rack Mouse Habitat Unit Centrifuge rotor Kibo-PM Internal
  32. 32. Facility Equipment in Kibo-PM KOBAIRO Rack Gradient Heating Furnace Outer view of SiGe crystals grown in GHF
  33. 33. Facility Equipment in Kibo-PM Fluid Physics Experiment Facility Solution Crystallization Observation Facility FPEF SCOF PCRF RYUTAI Rack Protein Crystallization Research Facility
  34. 34. 34 Facility Equipment in Kibo-PM Chamber for Combustion Experiment MSPR AQuatic Habitat Multi-purpose Small Payload Rack 1,2 Electrostatic Levitation Furnace Flame spread image of fuel droplet clouds. Fluorescence Microscope
  35. 35. Minus Eighty degree Celsius Laboratory Freezer for ISS Super Sensitive HDV CAM On-board Refrigerator4K Ultra HDV CAM 35 Others Facility Equipment in Kibo-PM Minus Eighty degree Celsius Laboratory Freezer for ISS
  36. 36. 36 Conclusion Typical laboratory equipment in Kibo-PM and their related experiments are presented.  Rodent Research  Aquatic Biology Research  High Quality Protein Crystallization  High Temperature Material Property Measurements  Other Facility Equipment
  37. 37. 37 Conclusion  In order to maximize utilization outcomes of ISS/Kibo, JAXA identified and prioritized prospective utilization area as “platforms”  JAXA’s utilization facility is available for NASA/US users under an appropriate agreement between NASA and JAXA.  JAXA is looking forward further collaboration in utilization as a part of the new JP-US collaboration framework(OP3)  If you are interested in this activity, please contact Ms. Marybeth Edeen, ISS Research Integration Office Manager, NASA, at jsc-iss-research-helpline@mail.nasa.gov

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