Gender,
Agriculture,
Nutrition
Lynn Brown
CGIAR Agriculture and Health
Bonn, Germany, Sept 23 -25
2013,
Outline What we know – ownership, access and control
of resources
Production losses, income
Nutrition positives and nutrit...
What we know
Responsibilities
water
fuel
Child care
Food storage and processing
Community engagement
Less access to land
L...
Productivity
Burkina Faso
Pareto efficiency => hh resources alloc.
Efficiently
Burkina Faso (ICRISAT), very detailed plot ...
Women’’’’s
yield
compromised
Women’s yields -30% less than average,
controlling for plot size, characteristics, year,
Are ...
Productivity
in fallows
Women ─ 860,000 cedis profit per ha ‹ than
husbands
Not due to different soils physical
characteri...
Focus of
Agricultural
Research
Staple Grains
Input or Output Characteristics?
Gender
Preferences
Zambia – men and women grow maize
No need for gender analysis – assumed a new
hybrid maize would be goo...
Focus of
Agricultural
Research
Staple Grains
Input or Output Characteristics?
Sale or storage?
Large Livestock
Cash crops ...
Environmental
Enteropathy
EE
Gut permeability
Allows nutrients to leak from the gut
Gambian infants 3-15 mths – 75% of tim...
Mycotoxins Evidence they cause EE type issues
Aspergillus fungus/mold
Aflatoxins – mostly maize and groundnuts
Fusarium fu...
Evidence to date
SLIM!!!!!
But an absence of evidence does not mean lack
of impact!
Test for aflatoxins, and there is some...
Aflatoxin-
Albumin and
stunting /
underweight
(Gong et al., 2002
BMJ)
0
20
40
60
HAZ WAZ
Z>0
Z 0 to -2
Z-2 to -3
Z<= -3Af-...
Questions We don’t understand the pathways for any
mycotoxin
We have scant evidence of the impact of any of
them on malnut...
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Lynn Brown, World Bank "Gender, Agriculture, Nutrition" (Undernutrition Session, Science Forum 2013)

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Science Forum 2013
Breakout Session 1 - UNDER-NUTRITION

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Lynn Brown, World Bank "Gender, Agriculture, Nutrition" (Undernutrition Session, Science Forum 2013)

  1. 1. Gender, Agriculture, Nutrition Lynn Brown CGIAR Agriculture and Health Bonn, Germany, Sept 23 -25 2013,
  2. 2. Outline What we know – ownership, access and control of resources Production losses, income Nutrition positives and nutrition negatives! Big picture – neglect of gender makes agriculture nutrition insensitive What we have neglected What we need to know.
  3. 3. What we know Responsibilities water fuel Child care Food storage and processing Community engagement Less access to land Less access to credit Less access to agricultural extension Less access to inputs Less access to markets
  4. 4. Productivity Burkina Faso Pareto efficiency => hh resources alloc. Efficiently Burkina Faso (ICRISAT), very detailed plot level data, 4 years At aggregate household level value of female output is higher on smaller landholdings but – Is yield higher per ha given the same crop and similar plots?
  5. 5. Women’’’’s yield compromised Women’s yields -30% less than average, controlling for plot size, characteristics, year, Are women less skilled farmers? Production function – male labour, child labour, non hh labour, manure all > male plots Households could reallocate labour and manure between plots and increase total output by 10- 20% Crop losses => income losses Ethnic differences – no gender differentials for Rimaibe, but strong differentials for Mossi, Fulse/Kurumba, and Bwa
  6. 6. Productivity in fallows Women ─ 860,000 cedis profit per ha ‹ than husbands Not due to different soils physical characteristics – only due to length of fallow +400,000 cedis profit per additional year of fallow Due to status – within and between households, method of acquiring plot
  7. 7. Focus of Agricultural Research Staple Grains Input or Output Characteristics?
  8. 8. Gender Preferences Zambia – men and women grow maize No need for gender analysis – assumed a new hybrid maize would be good for everyone! Evaluation of hybrid maize Men still growing Women reverted to traditional maize Why? Roles of maize for men and women Men – cash crop Women – food crop, labor input –yield, milling, storage,
  9. 9. Focus of Agricultural Research Staple Grains Input or Output Characteristics? Sale or storage? Large Livestock Cash crops – public/private Commoditization • Fruits? • Vegetables? • Small livestock? • Storage? • Processing?
  10. 10. Environmental Enteropathy EE Gut permeability Allows nutrients to leak from the gut Gambian infants 3-15 mths – 75% of time Accountable for 43% of long term growth faltering? Nutrition interventions led to 0.7 Z score increase in height for age Environment – s***! Reversible – immigrants, Peace Corps Women’s issue or responsibility?
  11. 11. Mycotoxins Evidence they cause EE type issues Aspergillus fungus/mold Aflatoxins – mostly maize and groundnuts Fusarium fungus/mold – 100% of maize FUM DON • Infected during growth • Worsened during storage
  12. 12. Evidence to date SLIM!!!!! But an absence of evidence does not mean lack of impact! Test for aflatoxins, and there is some evidence None for DOM – biomarker only recently discovered Scant for FUM – biomarker only recently discovered Children with higher than provisional recommended intakes significantly lighter and shorter Similar in animals, worse for FUM and afla.
  13. 13. Aflatoxin- Albumin and stunting / underweight (Gong et al., 2002 BMJ) 0 20 40 60 HAZ WAZ Z>0 Z 0 to -2 Z-2 to -3 Z<= -3Af--Albpg/mg
  14. 14. Questions We don’t understand the pathways for any mycotoxin We have scant evidence of the impact of any of them on malnutrition, but what we have is alarming We do know aflatoxins is one reason deaths from liver cancer are highest in the developing world Elimination in the near future is unlikely In field management and early harvesting Storage, bagging processing IT’S A WOMEN’S ISSUE

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