Farming Systems and Agronomic Perspectives
on Changes in Farm Size
How small is beautiful?
Ken Giller, Linus Franke, Huib ...
NPK
NPK
NPK
Options
NUANCES-FARMSIM: farm-scale modelling approach
Tittonell et al. (2007) Fld Crops Res. 100, 348-368; Ru...
control +Pfert +ino +Pfert+ino
Soybean response to P and inoculation in Nigeria
N2Africa demonstration trial results in Ni...
Putting nitrogen fixation to work for smallholder farmers in Africa
0,0
0,5
1,0
1,5
2,0
2,5
3,0
3,5
Availablefarmland(ha)p...
Potential financial returns of maize and soya intensification Closing yield gaps for maize and legumes with inoculant
Valu...
Residual effects of pigeonpea intercrops and sole crops on maize
Rusinamhodzi, Corbeels, Nyamangara, Giller 2012 Field Cro...
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Ken Giller, Wageningen University (with Linus Franke, Huib Hengsdijk) "Farming Systems and Agronomic Perspectives on Changes in Farm Size"

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Science Forum 2013 (www.scienceforum13.org)
Breakout Session 9: Farm Size, Urbanization and the Links from Agriculture to Nutrition and Health
Ken Giller

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Ken Giller, Wageningen University (with Linus Franke, Huib Hengsdijk) "Farming Systems and Agronomic Perspectives on Changes in Farm Size"

  1. 1. Farming Systems and Agronomic Perspectives on Changes in Farm Size How small is beautiful? Ken Giller, Linus Franke, Huib Hengsdijk, Leonard Rusinamhodzi, Greta van den Brand and others Plant Production Systems, Wageningen University, The Netherlands Mark van Wijk ILRI, Nairobi, Kenya Bernard Vanlauwe IITA, Nairobi, Kenya Humid Tropics A ‘‘‘‘uniquely’’’’ African green revolution Kofi Annan called for ‘a uniquely African green revolution in the 21st Century’ Recognising: • the rich diversity of Africa’s people, soils and farming practices • the urgent need to increase agricultural productivity But how do we target technologies to the huge diversity and heterogeneity of African farming systems? Gradients of soil fertility • Broodtekst corps 18 News Gothic regular Poverty leads to soil degradation - western Kenya Resource-rich farm Resource-poor farm Photo: Pablo Tittonell Farmers’ management decisions MKT CSH CNS HOME LVSTK OE WOOD Cash Labour Nutrients Resource allocation patterns To different activities To different fields Tittonell, Vanlauwe, Leffelaar, Shepherd & Giller (2005) Ag. Ecosyst. Environ. 110, 166-184. AfricaNUANCES Typology of farms Family composition Resource endowment Production orientation Site-specific factors Resource allocation strategies Tittonell, Vanlauwe, Leffelaar, Rowe & Giller (2005) Ag. Ecosyst. Environ. 110, 149-165. Resources Time (life cycle) Expanding family & resources Sub-dividing land Establishm entandgrowth Declineanddissolution Maturity Maintaining & reproducing resources; production may exceed consumption The farm development cycle Chayanov (1925) AfricaNUANCES
  2. 2. NPK NPK NPK Options NUANCES-FARMSIM: farm-scale modelling approach Tittonell et al. (2007) Fld Crops Res. 100, 348-368; Rufino et al. (2007) Livestock Sci. 112, 273-287; Chikowo et al. (2008) Ag. Syst. 97, 151- 166; Tittonell et al. (2009) Ag. Syst. 101, 1-19; van Wijk et al. (2009) Ag. Syst. 102, 89-101; Tittonell et al. (2010) E. J Agron. 32, 10-21. Tittonell et al. 2009 Agric. Syst. 101, 1-19 Smallholder livestock farms in western Kenya Farm Type 2 0 10 20 30 40 1 4 7 10 13 16 19 Farm Type 1 0 10 20 30 40 1 4 7 10 13 16 19 Farm Type 3 0 10 20 30 40 1 4 7 10 13 16 19 Farm Type 4 0 10 20 30 40 1 4 7 10 13 16 19 On-farm production Household requirement Number of growing seasons Caloricenergy(MJfarm-1season-1) NUANCES-FARMSIM – impacts on household food security Tittonell et al. 2009 Agric. Syst. 101, 1-19 Putting nitrogen fixation to work for smallholder farmers in Africa How to increase inputs from N2-fixation • Increase the area of land cropped with legumes (targeting of technologies) • Increase legume productivity – agronomy and P fertilizer • Select better legume varieties • Select better rhizobium strains and inoculate • Link to markets and create new enterprises to increase demand for legumes
  3. 3. control +Pfert +ino +Pfert+ino Soybean response to P and inoculation in Nigeria N2Africa demonstration trial results in Nigeria 2010 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 SoybeangrainyieldwithPand/orI(kg/ha) Soybean grain yield in control plot (kg/ha) SSP, no I No SSP, I SSP + I Soybean response to P and inoculation in Ghana and Nigeria 0,0 0,5 1,0 1,5 2,0 2,5 3,0 3,5 0,0 0,5 1,0 1,5 2,0 2,5 3,0 3,5 Yield in controltreatment (t/ha) With P With I With P + I Ghana Nigeria N2Africa demonstration trial results in Ghana and Nigeria 2010 0,0 0,5 1,0 1,5 2,0 2,5 3,0 3,5 0,0 0,5 1,0 1,5 2,0 2,5 3,0 3,5 YieldintreatmentswithPand/orI(t/ha) Yield in controltreatment (t/ha) With P With I With P + I Non-responsive soils Prospective- Mg - P - micronutrients control Putting nitrogen fixation to work for smallholder farmers in Africa Yield gaps are poverty traps! 1. A poverty trap is "any self-reinforcing mechanism which causes poverty to persist” 2. Non-responsive soils are widespread poverty traps 3. Nutrient inputs are needed to restore productivity 4. Mineral fertilizer alone is not enough – need to (re)build soil organic matter 5. Animal manure is a scarce resource – not available to the poor Tittonell, P. and Giller, K. E. (2013) When yield gaps are poverty traps: The paradigm of ecological intensification in African smallholder agriculture. Field Crops Research 143, 76–90 .
  4. 4. Putting nitrogen fixation to work for smallholder farmers in Africa 0,0 0,5 1,0 1,5 2,0 2,5 3,0 3,5 Availablefarmland(ha)perhouseholdmember Numberoffarms Resource endowment FT4 FT3 FT1 & FT2 FT5 Land area per household member ISPC foresight study on urbanization & farm size process | summary of results | data and methods Data and methods behind our conclusions Source: Adapted from Giller (2013) Numberoffarms Resource endowment per farm Expansion of relatively big farms Increasing number of the smallest farms Stylized changes for Kenya 1997-2010 and Rwanda 1990-2000 Expanding the biggest farms usually implies shrinking land available for the smallest Farm size distribution is like a balloon: Typical distribution of farm sizes (e.g. lognormal) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 < = 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 > 1 % farms farm area/capita(ha/pers) Mozambique Ghana Zimbabwe Malawi Nigeria Kenya DRC Rwanda Land availability distribution in N2Africa target areas N2Africa Baseline 2010 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 < = 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 > 1 % farms farm area/capita(ha/person) Vihiga (HH) Migori (HL) Bondo (LH) South Gem (LL) Land availability distribution in four regions of Kenya N2Africa Baseline 2010 Food self sufficiency and land surplus or shortage? Farm land gaps Zooming in, where will value chains work? Potential financial returns of soya cultivation on surplus land
  5. 5. Potential financial returns of maize and soya intensification Closing yield gaps for maize and legumes with inoculant Value chains and safety nets…? Vorley, del Pozo-Vergnes, Barnett, 2012. Small producer agency in the globalised market: Making choices in a changing world, London. Seville, Buxton, Vorley, 2011. Under what conditions are value chains effective tools for pro-poor development? IIED/Sustainable Food Lab, London. Climbing beans in DRC No manure With manure Long rains season 2010 in Sud Kivu, DRC maize following maize maize following climbing beans Pigeonpea-maize intercropping in southern Africa Legume residues removed from the field
  6. 6. Residual effects of pigeonpea intercrops and sole crops on maize Rusinamhodzi, Corbeels, Nyamangara, Giller 2012 Field Crop Res 136, 12-22 Nutrition Impact Study in Northern Ghana • Diet of N2Africa subjects is more nutrient adequate • Subjects <2 years of female N2Africa farmers have a higher IDDS compared with male N2Africa farmers Individual dietary diversity N2Africa subjects and non-N2Africa subjects Non-N2Africa villages (n=202) N2Africa villages (n=129) Characteristic Mean (SD) Mean (SD) IDDS (14 food groups, 0 to 14) 5.1 (1.8) 5.5 (1.9)* *P<0.05 (Mann-Whitney U test) Ilse de Jager, Abizari Razak and Inge Brouwer, 2013 Putting nitrogen fixation to work for smallholder farmers in Africa Conclusions 1. Small farm size and poor soil fertility present double poverty traps 2. Ex ante analysis can assist in advising policy and development agencies 3. Market-led value chain approaches do not serve the poor(er) households – safety nets? 4. Legumes nitrogen fixation can increase yields and dietary diversification for nutrition 5. Small is beautiful – but how small? Putting nitrogen fixation to work for smallholder farmers in Africa For updates see www.N2Africa.org Lots of video resource materials N2Africa Podcaster - Monthly Newsletter Giller et al. (2011) Agricultural Systems, 104, 191-203. Humid Tropics CRP

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