Howarth Bouis, IFPRI "Dietary Diversity"

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Science Forum 2013 (www.scienceforum13.org)
Breakout Session 3 - DIET DIVERSIFICATION

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Howarth Bouis, IFPRI "Dietary Diversity"

  1. 1. HarvestPlus c/o IFPRI 2033 K Street, NW • Washington, DC 20006-1002 USA Tel: 202-862-5600 • Fax: 202-467-4439 HarvestPlus@cgiar.org • www.HarvestPlus.org Dietary Diversity and Implementing Biofortification Howarth Bouis September 23-25, 2013
  2. 2. What is the Primary Function of Agriculture? • To Earn Income (Poverty Reduction) • To Eat Food –Enjoyment, culture –Avoid Hunger (Energy → Protein) –To Be Healthy • Vitamins • Minerals • Other essential compounds
  3. 3. ENERGY INTAKES FOR A RURAL PHILIPPINE POPULATION (calories per adult equivalent per day) Food Category Poorest 20% Richest 20% Rice and Corn 1771 1798 All Other Foods 337 777 TOTAL 2108 2575
  4. 4. IRON INTAKES FOR A RURAL PHILIPPINE POPULATION (milligrams per day per adult equivalent) Food Category Poorest 20% Richest 20% Rice 0.53 2.14 Corn 2.31 0.97 Other Staples 0.68 1.24 Meat, Fish 1.17 3.66 Vegetables 1.16 1.35 Other Foods 0.80 0.91 TOTAL 6.64 10.27
  5. 5. 0 50 100 150 200 250 India Pakistan Bangladesh Developing India Pakistan Bangladesh Developing World Developing Percent Changes in Cereal and Pulse Production and in Population Between 1965 and 1999 Cereals Pulses Population
  6. 6. Indices of Inflation-adjusted Prices for Bangladesh 1973-75 = 100 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 1973-75 1979-81 1988-90 1994-96 Staple Non- Staple Plants Fish & Animal
  7. 7. Share of Energy Source and Food Budget in Rural Bangladesh Non-Staple plants Fish and Meat Energy Source Food Budget Staple foods
  8. 8. Cereal Price Indices for India, Three Year Averages 100 110 120 130 140 150 160
  9. 9. Milk Price Indices for India, Three Year Averages 100,0 110,0 120,0 130,0 140,0 150,0 160,0
  10. 10. 90 110 130 150 170 190 70-73 73-76 76-79 79-82 82-85 85-88 88-91 91-94 94-97 97-00 00-03 03-06 06-09 09-10 Pulses Non-Staple Food Prices in India Have Risen by 50% Over 30 Years
  11. 11. 90 110 130 150 170 190 70-73 73-76 76-79 79-82 82-85 85-88 88-91 91-94 94-97 97-00 00-03 03-06 06-09 09-10 Vegetables Non-Staple Food Prices in India Have Risen by 50% Over 30 Years
  12. 12. 90 110 130 150 170 190 70-73 73-76 76-79 79-82 82-85 85-88 88-91 91-94 94-97 97-00 00-03 03-06 06-09 09-10 Fruits Non-Staple Food Prices in India Have Risen by 50% Over 30 Years
  13. 13. 90 110 130 150 170 190 70-73 73-76 76-79 79-82 82-85 85-88 88-91 91-94 94-97 97-00 00-03 03-06 06-09 09-10 Eggs, Meat & Fish Non-Staple Food Prices in India Have Risen by 50% Over 30 Years
  14. 14. 90 110 130 150 170 190 70-73 73-76 76-79 79-82 82-85 85-88 88-91 91-94 94-97 97-00 00-03 03-06 06-09 09-10 Eggs, Meat & Fish Pulses Vegetables Fruits Non-Staple Food Prices in India Have Risen by 50% Over 30 Years
  15. 15. 100,0 110,0 120,0 130,0 140,0 150,0 160,0 70-73 73-76 76-79 79-82 82-85 85-88 88-91 91-94 94-97 97-00 00-03 03-06 06-09 09-10 Cereals All Food Cereal and Food Price Indices for India, Three Year Averages
  16. 16. Share of Food Budget Share of Total Expenditures Rural Bangladesh Staples Non-Staple Plants Fish and Animal Non-Food Staples
  17. 17. After 50% Increase in All Food Prices Animal Staples Non-Food Staples Non-Food Before Share of Total Expenditures
  18. 18. Only 5% of Philippine women then would have adequate iron intakes, down from 30% having adequate iron intakes
  19. 19. Supplementation Commercial Fortification Agricultural Approaches Dietary Diversity (higher incomes; education)
  20. 20. Cost-effective: central one time investment Photo: ICRISAT
  21. 21. 75% of the poor 25%
  22. 22. #1 Can Breeding increase nutrient to levels that improve nutrition? Photo: Wolfgang Pfeiffer
  23. 23. 20112 Cassava Vitamin A Nigeria DR Congo Beans Iron (Zinc) Rwanda DR Congo Maize Vitamin A Zambia 2012 2012 Crops for Africa & Release Dates Crops are high-yielding and with other traits farmers want.
  24. 24. Pearl Millet Iron (Zinc) India Rice Zinc Bangladesh India Wheat Zinc India Pakistan Crops for Asia & Release Dates 20122 2013220132 Crops are high-yielding and with other traits farmers want.
  25. 25. #2 Are extra nutrients bioavailable at sufficient levels to improve micronutrient status?
  26. 26. Efficacy Trial Pipeline Crop Country Nutrient Notes Status 1. Sweetpotato South Africa Vitamin A School children Published 2. Rice Philippines Iron Women Published 3. Bean Mexico Iron School children Conference presentation 4. Pearl Millet India Iron School children Conference presentation 5. Cassava Kenya Vitamin A School children Data analysis ongoing 6. Maize Zambia Vitamin A Serum retinol Data analysis ongoing 7. Maize Zambia Vitamin A Liver stores Data analysis ongoing 8. Bean Rwanda Iron Women Data analysis ongoing 9. Maize Zambia Vitamin A Breast milk In field 10. Wheat India Zinc Women & infants Crop produced 11. Wheat India Zinc School children Crop produced 12. Cassava Nigeria Vitamin A Children 5+ years Crop being grown 13. Pearl Millet India Zinc Children under 2yr Crop being grown 14. Rice Bangladesh Zinc Children under 5yr Planning stages
  27. 27. Harvest of Orange Maize for Nutrition Efficacy Trial
  28. 28. #3 Will Farmers adopt crops and consumers buy & eat these? Photos: Neil Palmer (CIAT)
  29. 29. 2007-092 Pilot Delivery (highly evaluated) ... Orange Sweet Potato (OSP) Vitamin A Mozambique Uganda 24,000 Households reached Up to 68% of project HHs adopted OSP. Up to 47% increase in share of OSP in total sweet potato area. Up to a 100% increase in vitamin A intakes for infants, children and women. 24,000 Households reached Up to 68% of project HHs adopted OSP. Up to 47% increase in share of OSP in total sweet potato area. Up to a 100% increase in vitamin A intakes for infants, children and women.
  30. 30. Impact on vitamin A intakes
  31. 31. Numbers of Farm Households Testing/Growing Biofortified Crops in H+ Target Countries (‘000) Crop Country Nutrient End of 2013 End of 2018 Maize Zambia Vitamin A 90 500 Nigeria 0 3,200 Cassava Nigeria Vitamin A 50 2,000 DR Congo 25 750 Sweetpotato Uganda Vitamin A 75 275 Beans Rwanda Iron 275 1,800 DR Congo 175 500 Pearl Millet India Iron 250 750 Wheat India Zinc 1 750 Pakistan 0 250 Rice Bangladesh Zinc 1 1,000 India 0 500 Total 942 12,275
  32. 32. What is the Way Forward? Photo: Neil Palmer (CIAT)
  33. 33. Challenges for Phase 3 (2014-18) Scale up Delivery in Target Countries •10 target countries •Develop specific deployment strategies •Establish in-country staff/office •Establish networks of collaborators and stakeholders •New releases from breeding pipeline •Measure cost-effective impact
  34. 34. Challenges for Phase 3 (2014-18) Mainstream Breeding • Make breeding for minerals and vitamins “core” breeding objectives at CGIAR Centers and NARS – Develop markers – Lower costs of breeding – All elite breeding lines should have the relevant genes that convey the high mineral and vitamin traits; any cross will contain these genes Additional Efficacy Evidence • 1,000 Days – mothers pre-pregnancy and infants
  35. 35. Expansion Countries (2014-18) • Work to mainstream biofortified crops into partner institution operations – Seed companies, especially hybrids (maize, pearl millet) – Food companies – International NGOs – United Nations, e.g. WFP’s Purchase-for-Progress – World Bank loans
  36. 36. Why have solutions to malnutrition been sought outside of agriculture? Photo: Neil Palmer (CIAT)
  37. 37. In Conclusion … “Such intimately related subjects as agriculture, food, nutrition and health have become split up into innumerable rigid and self-contained little units, each in the hands of some group of specialists. The experts, …soon find themselves…learning more and more about less and less…The remedy is to look at the whole field covered by crop production, animal husbandry, food, nutrition, and health as one related subject and…to realize…that the birthright of every crop, every animal, and every human being is health.” "
  38. 38. Sir Albert Howard, 1873-1947 “The Soil and Health,” 1945

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