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Evolution of end-to-end: why the Internet is not like any other network

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In 2004, the IAB published RFC3724, "Future of End-to-End." The document reviews the important aspects of "smart endpoints, dumb network," and articulates some perspectives on how Internet engineering was evolving to address those key aspects. Ten years later, evolution has continued -- and the Internet's deployment and evolution are taking new directions in the face of growing awareness of the threat of pervasive monitoring of network traffic. How do we define the end-to-end principle today and is it still an important piece of ensuring a robust, reliable and trusted Internet in 2020?

Each of three panelists will present their predictions for the state of one of the three facets (network, endpoints, infrastructure/middle) in 2020, followed by questions and interactive discussion.

Panelists are Harald Alvestrand, Fred Baker, and Andrew Sullivan. The Internet Society's Leslie Daigle will moderate.

Published in: Technology
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Evolution of end-to-end: why the Internet is not like any other network

  1. 1. Evolution of end-to-end: why the Internet is not like any other network Leslie Daigle, moderator. Chief Internet Technology Officer The Internet Society http://www.internetsociety.org
  2. 2. We are… Not at the IETF !  Taking discussion up a level !  Taking any identified work items to the appropriate IETF WGs On the air !  Streaming !  Recording Stopping at 12:45pm so you can all get back to the IETF… 2 The Internet Society
  3. 3. Agenda outline Overview of the panel Panelists’ predictions Panel discussion Open mic 3 The Internet Society
  4. 4. Panel overview http://www.internetsociety.org
  5. 5. From the IAB’s RFC3724 (2004) One of the key architectural guidelines of the Internet is the end-to-end principle in the papers by Saltzer, Reed, and Clark [...]. The end-to-end principle was originally articulated as a question of where best not to put functions in a communication system. Yet, in the ensuing years, it has evolved to address concerns of maintaining openness, increasing reliability and robustness, and preserving the properties of user choice and ease of new service development as discussed by Blumenthal and Clark in [...]; concerns that were not part of the original articulation of the end-toend principle.” The Internet Society
  6. 6. Current realities We still want to build an Internet that features: !  “increasing reliability and robustness, and preserving the properties of user choice and ease of new service development “ Significant challenges to that include !  Business evolution !  Reactions to the revelations of pervasive monitoring –  “Encrypt everything everywhere always” –  Localization of data based on physical geography 6 The Internet Society
  7. 7. At the heart of the matter [How] Does the end-to-end principle matter in today’s Internet and going forward? 7 The Internet Society
  8. 8. The Panel Leslie Daigle (Moderator) Fred Baker – network Andrew Sullivan – infrastructure Harald Alvestrand – endpoint 8 The Internet Society
  9. 9. Panelists predictions http://www.internetsociety.org
  10. 10. Fred Baker Network 10 http://www.internetsociety.org
  11. 11. End$to$End$principle$ •  Mul$ple'statements'in'the'same'paper:' •  “The$principle,$called$the$end2to2end$argument,$suggests$that$ func8ons$placed$at$low$levels$of$a$system$may$be$redundant$or$of$ li=le$value$when$compared$with$the$cost$of$providing$them$at$ that$low$level.”$ –  General'statement'of'the'end5to5end'argument'or'principle' •  “The$func8on$in$ques8on$can$completely$and$correctly$be$ implemented$only$with$the$knowledge$and$help$of$the$applica8on$ standing$at$the$end$points$of$the$communica8on$system.$ Therefore,$providing$that$ques8oned$func8on$as$a$feature$of$the$ communica8on$system$itself$is$not$possible.”$ –  This'formula$on'applies'in'cases'in'which'end'system'applica$on' knowledge'and'help'is'required'to'implement'func$onality'
  12. 12. The$Stupid$Smart$Predictable$Network$ •  My'understanding'of'the'End'to'End'principle:' –  One'could'describe'it'as'a'“principle'of'least'surprise”'or'a' “plea'for'simplicity”.' –  A"lower"layer"should"do"what"an"upper"layer"expects."" •  Operate'correctly'per'the'protocol' •  Recursive!' •  Second5guessing'layers'above,'and'introducing'state,'creates' unintended'consequences'for'operators'and'users.' –  Lower'layer'performance'enhancements,'implemented'by' including'equivalent'func$onality'in'two'layers,'are'explicitly' allowed;'' •  They%should%measurably%enhance%performance…%
  13. 13. Examples$of$things$the$predictable$ network$does:$ •  When$handed$a$packet$des8ned$to$a$unicast$or$anycast$address,$it$ delivers$the$packet$to$the$address$unchanged$ –  It,'however,'intelligently'determines'the'route,'something'the' applica$on'does'not'do' –  If'it'has'mul$ple'reasonable'routes,'it'uses'them'effec$vely'without' applica$on'interven$on' •  It$may$route$traffic$in$a$manner$that$enhances$the$opera8on$and$ profit$of$its$administrator$ –  Example:'BGP'rou$ng'may'op$mize'the'cost'to'an'administra$on' –  Example:'a'load'balancer'may'balance'load'among'many'hosts' •  It$operates$transparently$ –  When'a'predictable'network'does'something'unusual'with'a'session'or' packet,'it'tells'the'sender'
  14. 14. Examples$of$things$the$predictable$network$ does$not$do$ •  Behave$contrary$to$predic8on,'and'in'so'doing'cause'a'user' or'operator'to'have'to'diagnose'its'behavior' –  When'asked,'in'DNS,'for'the'address'of'party'A,'return'the'address'of' party'B.' –  When'given'a'packet'intended'for'delivery'to'party'A,'deliver'it'to' another'party' –  When'given'a'packet'containing'a'quantum'of'data,'deliver'a'packet' containing'an'unintended'quantum'of'data' •  Note$that$intermi=ent$behavior$is$contrary$to$predic8on$ –  While'it'may'change'its'behavior'(such'as'a'route),'it'doesn’t'oscillate'
  15. 15. The$network$in$2020$ •  Simplicity$Principle$ –  “Complexity'is'the'primary'mechanism'which'impedes'efficient' scaling,'and'as'a'result'is'the'primary'driver'of'increases'in'both'capital' expenditures'(CAPEX)'and'opera$onal'expenditures'(OPEX).”'' –  RFC'3439,'quo$ng'Mike'O’Dell' –  Complexity'is'also'an'enemy'to'security'–'more'things'to'analyze' •  I$see$some$operators$moving$in$the$direc8on$of$drama8cally$ simplifying$their$networks$ –  Their'arguments'have'to'do'with'reducing'opera$onal'expense' –  IPv4'networks'tend'to'be'more'complex'and'less'predictable''than' IPv6,'due'to'NAT' –  Drama$c'simplifica$on'leads'to'drama$cally'improved'predictability' •  I$do$not$see$operators,$or$their$vendors,$making$the$network$less$ able$to$deliver$value$either$to$its$users$or$its$administra8ons$
  16. 16. Andrew Sullivan Infrastructure http://www.internetsociety.org
  17. 17. Isn’t this just the network? Distinguish bits flowing on the wire + basic routing with everything else !  Infrastructure specialization is unlikely to go away !  !  !  !  Capital expenditure & economies of scale “Core business” concerns Cattle not pets 1
  18. 18. A great compromise “You got it buddy: the large print giveth, and the small print taketh away” (Tom Waits, “Step Right Up”) Infrastructure providers rely on something like Fred’s “predictable network” !  Infrastructure providers have to alter their behaviour depending on the user !  !  They’re all doing this at once 2
  19. 19. Know your customer in 2020 !  Technologies that give hints will be embraced !  !  !  !  Identify certain properties of network user Correlate user across different services Not very end-to-endy Technologies that are invasive with be eschewed !  !  !  Customers hate intrusion Corner cases == support costs == no profit End-to-endy 3
  20. 20. Wishful thinking Protocol development provides exactly enough hint to do good, and not enough to do harm. !  The cracks in “network neutrality” don’t become a complete breach. !  4
  21. 21. Harald Alvestrand Endpoint http://www.internetsociety.org
  22. 22. General discussion http://www.internetsociety.org
  23. 23. At the heart of the matter [How] Does the end-to-end principle matter in today’s Internet and going forward? 14 The Internet Society

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