NATURAL RESOURCES AND
DEPT. OF QUALITY ASSURANCE
ISF COLLEGE OF PHARMACY
WEBSITE: - WWW.ISFCP.ORG
ISF College of Pharmacy, Moga
Ghal Kalan,nGT Road, Moga- 142001, Punjab, INDIA
Internal Quality Assurance Cell - (IQAC)
Types of resources
Classification of natural resources
List of natural resources
A resource can be any thing, which is useful man, or can be transformed into a
useful product or can be used to produce a useful thing, e.g.
4Types of Resources
Exists without actions of humankind in the form of matter/energy which is
available in the earth and get used by living thing.
Or exist as a separate entity such as fresh water, air and as well as a
living organism such as a fish.
Or it may exist in an alternate form that must be processed to obtain the
resource such as metal ores, petroleum, and most forms of energy.
6Classification of natural resources
Based on stage of
Global livestock and fisheries resources can also not be expanded
beyond certain limits.
Only up to a limited extent resources of biosphere can be safely
Though an enormous quantity of water is present, for fresh water life
depends largely on precipitation, which to is available only in a finite
Its uneven distribution over earths surface has caused large area to
become infertile deserts
11Non renewable resources
Overexploitation shall exhaust many of our valuable deposits which took
millions of years to form.
They can not be duplicated within human scale of time.
They require time on geological scale to form.
With the sophisticated technology, we may recover these materials from
the highly dispersed state. But the cause shall be enormous & the effort
could be economically non-viable.
12Based on ownership
Text • resources that are owned privately by individuals
e.g:land owned by farmersIndividual resources
• resources accessible to all the members of a
community e. g:public parks, picnic spots
• These are the resources which belong to a nation or government
e.g:mountains, wildlife ,forests
• These are the resources which are under control of international
organization e. g:.open ocean
13List of natural resources
Originally ,it is uncultivated and uninhabitated natural plants, i.e., trees
Forest is a community of trees and associated organism covering a
considerable area, utilizing air, water and minerals to attain maturity and
to reproduce and capable of furnishing mankind with indispensable
products and services
Use and over-exploitation.
Mining and its effects on forest.
Dams and their effects on forests and tribal people.
Deforestation is the permanent destruction of forests in order to make the
land available for other uses.
17Causes of Deforestation
To make more land available for housing and urbanization
To harvest timber to create commercial items such as paper, furniture and
To create ingredients that are highly prized consumer items, such as the
oil from palm trees
To create room for cattle ranching
18Effects of Deforestation
Loss of species: Seventy percent of the world’s plants and animals live in
forests and are losing their habitats due to deforestation, according to
Loss of habitat can lead to species extinction.
It also has negative consequences for medicinal research and local
populations who rely on the animals and plants in the forests for hunting
Soil erosion: Tree roots anchor the soil. Without trees, the soil is free to
wash or blow away.
Life quality: Soil erosion can also lead to silt entering the lakes, streams
and other water sources. This can decrease local water quality and
contribute to poor health in populations in the area.
19Methods of conserving forests
The cutting of trees in the forests must be stopped at all costs.
Afforestation or special programmes should be launched on grand scale.
Celebrations of all functions, festivals should proceed with tree-plantation.
Cutting of timber and other forest produce should be restricted.
Forest conservation Act 1980 should be strictly implemented to check
Several centers of excellence have been setup and awards should be
Water resources are sources of water that are potentially useful for
Recreational and environmental activities.
On earth is a 97% of salt water and the 3% is fresh water.
Fresh water is a renewable resource. Fresh water in world is decreasing.
Salt water is like a large amount of salt in the ocean.
Overutilization and Pollution of surface and ground water
Global climate change
22Conservation of water
Avoid leakage of water from the taps.
Turn the tap off when not in use especially when you brush your teeth or
Rainwater harvesting is the another method to conserve water.
The water supply should be limited in those areas which enjoys the
unlimited water supplies.
Technical methods to conserve water : 1.Rainwater Harvesting
2.Historical Water Bodies 3.Ponds
Land resources are the resources available from the land like:
The agricultural land
the underground water
the various minerals like coal, bauxite, gold and other raw materials.
In a wider sense, land resource can also mean the land available for
exploitation, like non agricultural lands for buildings, developing
loss of soil nutrients
The characteristics of natural ecosystems such as forests and grasslands
depend on the type of soil.
Deforestation thus leads to rapid soil erosion.
Soil erosion is one form of soil degradation. The erosion of soil is a
naturally occurring process on all land
Soil erosion may be a slow process that continues relatively unnoticed, or
it may occur at an alarming rate causing a serious loss of topsoil.
26CAUSES OF SOIL EROSION
There are many different factors that can cause soil erosion, most can be
broken down into two main categories:
Erosion by Water
Erosion by Wind
27Conservation of soil erosion
By educating, informing and sensitizing all landholders about various
aspects of this precious resources and their sustainable use.
Contour ploughing is another measure to conserve our land. By this
method, the fields are ploughed, harrowed and sown along the natural
contour of the hills.
By terracing method: A series of wide steps are made along the slop
following the contours. This method is very common in rice growing
Under the afforestation and reforestation programs, planting of trees,
bushes and grass help to check the soil erosion,
Strict actions are taken to check reckless felling of trees and overgrazing.
Construction of dams and gully-trap inculcate the water-harvesting.
Mineral Resource is defined as a occurrence of natural, solid, inorganic or
fossilized organic material in or on the Earth’s crust in such form and
quantity and of such a grade or quality that it has reasonable prospects
for economic extraction.
29Types of Mineral Resources
Minerals in general have been categorized into three classes:
Fuel minerals like coal, oil and natural gas have been given prime
importance as they account for nearly 87% of the value of mineral
production whereas metallic and non-metallic constitutes 6 to 7%.
Coal, oil and natural gas are the basic fossil fuel.
We have good reserves for coal but are very poor in more essential fuel
— oils and natural gas.
Metallic minerals are extracted from mineral deposits and produced by
Some metallic minerals contain valuable metals, such as copper, gold,
nickel, lead, zinc or platinum.
Nonmetallic minerals are minerals that do not contain metal.
Physically, they are very volatile and have low elasticity.
Chemically, they have high ionization energy.
Examples of nonmetallic minerals include sulfur, phosphorus, iodine,
carbon, selenium, limestone, dolomite, gemstones, clay and mica.
Use and exploitation.
Environmental effects of extracting and using minerals.
Strong dependence of industry and agriculture upon mineral deposits and
the substances manufactured from them e.g. metallurgical industries,
cement industries , pharmaceutical industries. Fertilizers, pesticides, etc.
The total volume of workable mineral deposits is an insignificant fraction
i.e. 1% of the earth’s crust.
Recycling of metals using scrap metals and other substitutes are steps in
conserving our mineral resources for the future.
Improved technologies need to be constantly evolved