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NATURAL RESOURCES AND ASSOCIATED PROBLEMS

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Exists without actions of humankind in the form of matter/energy which is available in the earth and get used by living thing.

Or exist as a separate entity such as fresh water, air and as well as a living organism such as a fish.

Or it may exist in an alternate form that must be processed to obtain the resource such as metal ores, petroleum, and most forms of energy.

Published in: Health & Medicine
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NATURAL RESOURCES AND ASSOCIATED PROBLEMS

  1. 1. NATURAL RESOURCES AND ASSOCIATED PROBLEMS SUKHBIR KAUR ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR DEPT. OF QUALITY ASSURANCE ISF COLLEGE OF PHARMACY WEBSITE: - WWW.ISFCP.ORG EMAIL: k_sukhbir@yahoo.co.in ISF College of Pharmacy, Moga Ghal Kalan,nGT Road, Moga- 142001, Punjab, INDIA Internal Quality Assurance Cell - (IQAC) 1
  2. 2. 2Contents Resource Types of resources Natural resources Classification of natural resources List of natural resources
  3. 3. 3RESOURCES A resource can be any thing, which is useful man, or can be transformed into a useful product or can be used to produce a useful thing, e.g.
  4. 4. 4Types of Resources  Natural Resources  Human Resources  Man-made Resources
  5. 5. 5Natural resources Exists without actions of humankind in the form of matter/energy which is available in the earth and get used by living thing. Or exist as a separate entity such as fresh water, air and as well as a living organism such as a fish. Or it may exist in an alternate form that must be processed to obtain the resource such as metal ores, petroleum, and most forms of energy.
  6. 6. 6Classification of natural resources Natural resources Based on stage of development Based on origin Based on ownership Based on renewability
  7. 7. 7Based on Origin Text
  8. 8. 8Based on stage of development Text
  9. 9. 9Based on renewability Text
  10. 10. 10ASSOCIATED PROBLEMS RENEWABLE RESOURCES Global livestock and fisheries resources can also not be expanded beyond certain limits. Only up to a limited extent resources of biosphere can be safely exploited. Though an enormous quantity of water is present, for fresh water life depends largely on precipitation, which to is available only in a finite quantity. Its uneven distribution over earths surface has caused large area to become infertile deserts
  11. 11. 11Non renewable resources Overexploitation shall exhaust many of our valuable deposits which took millions of years to form. They can not be duplicated within human scale of time. They require time on geological scale to form. With the sophisticated technology, we may recover these materials from the highly dispersed state. But the cause shall be enormous & the effort could be economically non-viable.
  12. 12. 12Based on ownership Text • resources that are owned privately by individuals e.g:land owned by farmersIndividual resources • resources accessible to all the members of a community e. g:public parks, picnic spots Community resources • These are the resources which belong to a nation or government e.g:mountains, wildlife ,forests • These are the resources which are under control of international organization e. g:.open ocean National and international resources
  13. 13. 13List of natural resources Text Forest resources Land resources Water resources Mineral resources Energy resources
  14. 14. 14FOREST RESOURCES Originally ,it is uncultivated and uninhabitated natural plants, i.e., trees and grasses. Forest is a community of trees and associated organism covering a considerable area, utilizing air, water and minerals to attain maturity and to reproduce and capable of furnishing mankind with indispensable products and services
  15. 15. 15Associated Problems Use and over-exploitation. Deforestation. Timber extraction. Mining and its effects on forest. Dams and their effects on forests and tribal people.
  16. 16. 16Deforestation Deforestation is the permanent destruction of forests in order to make the land available for other uses.
  17. 17. 17Causes of Deforestation To make more land available for housing and urbanization To harvest timber to create commercial items such as paper, furniture and homes To create ingredients that are highly prized consumer items, such as the oil from palm trees To create room for cattle ranching
  18. 18. 18Effects of Deforestation Loss of species: Seventy percent of the world’s plants and animals live in forests and are losing their habitats due to deforestation, according to National Geographic. Loss of habitat can lead to species extinction. It also has negative consequences for medicinal research and local populations who rely on the animals and plants in the forests for hunting and medicine. Soil erosion: Tree roots anchor the soil. Without trees, the soil is free to wash or blow away. Life quality: Soil erosion can also lead to silt entering the lakes, streams and other water sources. This can decrease local water quality and contribute to poor health in populations in the area.
  19. 19. 19Methods of conserving forests The cutting of trees in the forests must be stopped at all costs. Afforestation or special programmes should be launched on grand scale. Celebrations of all functions, festivals should proceed with tree-plantation. Cutting of timber and other forest produce should be restricted. Forest conservation Act 1980 should be strictly implemented to check deforestation. Several centers of excellence have been setup and awards should be instituted.
  20. 20. 20WATER RESOURCES Water resources are sources of water that are potentially useful for Agricultural Industrial Household Recreational and environmental activities. On earth is a 97% of salt water and the 3% is fresh water. Fresh water is a renewable resource. Fresh water in world is decreasing. Salt water is like a large amount of salt in the ocean.
  21. 21. 21ASSOCIATED PROBLEMS Overutilization and Pollution of surface and ground water Global climate change Floods Droughts
  22. 22. 22Conservation of water Avoid leakage of water from the taps. Turn the tap off when not in use especially when you brush your teeth or wash clothes. Rainwater harvesting is the another method to conserve water. The water supply should be limited in those areas which enjoys the unlimited water supplies. Technical methods to conserve water : 1.Rainwater Harvesting 2.Historical Water Bodies 3.Ponds
  23. 23. 23Land Resources Land resources are the resources available from the land like: The agricultural land the underground water the various minerals like coal, bauxite, gold and other raw materials. In a wider sense, land resource can also mean the land available for exploitation, like non agricultural lands for buildings, developing townships etc.
  24. 24. 24Associated problems Soil Erosion loss of soil nutrients
  25. 25. 25Soil Erosion The characteristics of natural ecosystems such as forests and grasslands depend on the type of soil. Deforestation thus leads to rapid soil erosion. Soil erosion is one form of soil degradation. The erosion of soil is a naturally occurring process on all land Soil erosion may be a slow process that continues relatively unnoticed, or it may occur at an alarming rate causing a serious loss of topsoil.
  26. 26. 26CAUSES OF SOIL EROSION There are many different factors that can cause soil erosion, most can be broken down into two main categories: Erosion by Water Erosion by Wind
  27. 27. 27Conservation of soil erosion By educating, informing and sensitizing all landholders about various aspects of this precious resources and their sustainable use. Contour ploughing is another measure to conserve our land. By this method, the fields are ploughed, harrowed and sown along the natural contour of the hills. By terracing method: A series of wide steps are made along the slop following the contours. This method is very common in rice growing regions. Under the afforestation and reforestation programs, planting of trees, bushes and grass help to check the soil erosion, Strict actions are taken to check reckless felling of trees and overgrazing. Construction of dams and gully-trap inculcate the water-harvesting.
  28. 28. 28Mineral resources Mineral Resource is defined as a occurrence of natural, solid, inorganic or fossilized organic material in or on the Earth’s crust in such form and quantity and of such a grade or quality that it has reasonable prospects for economic extraction.
  29. 29. 29Types of Mineral Resources Minerals in general have been categorized into three classes: fuel Metallic non-metallic. Fuel minerals like coal, oil and natural gas have been given prime importance as they account for nearly 87% of the value of mineral production whereas metallic and non-metallic constitutes 6 to 7%.
  30. 30. 30Fuel Minerals Coal, oil and natural gas are the basic fossil fuel. We have good reserves for coal but are very poor in more essential fuel — oils and natural gas.
  31. 31. 31Metallic Minerals Metallic minerals are extracted from mineral deposits and produced by geological processes. Some metallic minerals contain valuable metals, such as copper, gold, nickel, lead, zinc or platinum.
  32. 32. 32Non-metallic Minerals Nonmetallic minerals are minerals that do not contain metal. Physically, they are very volatile and have low elasticity. Chemically, they have high ionization energy. Examples of nonmetallic minerals include sulfur, phosphorus, iodine, carbon, selenium, limestone, dolomite, gemstones, clay and mica.
  33. 33. 33Associated Problems Use and exploitation. Environmental effects of extracting and using minerals.
  34. 34. 34Conservation Strong dependence of industry and agriculture upon mineral deposits and the substances manufactured from them e.g. metallurgical industries, cement industries , pharmaceutical industries. Fertilizers, pesticides, etc. The total volume of workable mineral deposits is an insignificant fraction i.e. 1% of the earth’s crust. Recycling of metals using scrap metals and other substitutes are steps in conserving our mineral resources for the future. Improved technologies need to be constantly evolved
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