The contribution of sport within the process  of  peace and reconciliation. From trauma healing toward social integration ...
KENYA  PEV Figures Jan 2008 <ul><li>Contested presidential result   quickly took on a one week ethnic conflict </li></ul><...
DIFFERENT APPROACHES OF THE USE OF SPORT IN HEALING AND RECONCILIATION <ul><li>Even here in Kenya, as in other post confli...
CHILD FRIENDLY SPACE (CFS)  AN EARLY EVALUATION <ul><li>Questionnaire 50 youth respondents on questionnaire about the impa...
CHILD FRIENDLY SPACE (CFS)  AN EARLY EVALUATION
CHILD FRIENDLY SPACE (CFS)  AN EARLY EVALUATION
CHILD FRIENDLY SPACE (CFS)  AN EARLY EVALUATION
RECOMMENDATIONS  from the field <ul><ul><ul><li>Understand the conflict.  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Do  not h...
From practice to theory
CONFLICT  SCHOOLS  OF THOUGH <ul><li>CONFLICT TRANSFORMATION :  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>based on the basic human needs theor...
Conflict transformation and sport <ul><li>GALTUNG 3Rs THEORY </li></ul><ul><li>Reconstruction  of people and places, </li>...
Conflict transformation and sport
Conflict transformation and sport
Conflict transformation and sport
SPORT IN RECONCILIATION WHAT <ul><li>RECONCILIATION  it’s a long process of social change, of rebuilding relationships, of...
SPORT IN RECONCILIATION - HOW <ul><li>Sport its self is not good or bad, it is just an  empty and neutral box  to be fille...
EXAMPLE OF SPORT PROJECT CYCLE <ul><ul><ul><li> Identifying  local community conditions  and resources </li></ul></ul></...
EXAMPLE OF NON SPORTING OUTCOME <ul><ul><li>to  develop citizenship values  and commitment to    collective responsibility...
WHO  Actors in sport  for reconciliations MIDDLE-LEVEL, SPORT  AMBASSADORS , NGO’s, ELITE ATHLETES TOP LEVEL GRASSROOTS AN...
MECHANISM FOR SOCIAL CHANGE
CONCLUSION <ul><li>The  holistic approach  must be used not only in peace building process but also in sport programs them...
 
<ul><li>VISION </li></ul><ul><li>TO CREATE A HARMONIOUS FAIR AND JUST SOCIETY HARNESSING THE DEVELOPMENT AND PEACE BENEFIT...
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Serena borsani isdpa

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  • In my paper I wanted to show the contribution of sport witing the process of peace and reconciliation
  • At the start of 2008, Kenya was in the grip of its worst crisis since independence. The violence following the December 2007 election was unprecedented. For over two weeks the targeted ethnic violence resulted in alarming reports of killing, injuries, gender-based violence, extensive looting and destruction of property and mass displacement of the population. More than 1,000 people have been reported as killed and thousands injured and it posed a real threat to the unity of the nation.
  • Scholars use to classify conflict in different schools, cm, cr, cm and conflict trasformation. Conflict trasformation is based…………….
  • For Galtung (1998), the vicious cycle of conflict/violence can be broken to and turned into a virtuous cycle with a joint action of the ‘3R’s’
  • According to Galtung, conflict and violence can be well represented with a triangle. Direct, cultural and structural. Visible and less visible. To achieve a lasting peace it’s necessary to work on the roots of conflict. Within the GALTUNG conflict/violence triangle, as a personal interpretation, it’s possible to identify a small circle representing positive connectors and local capacities for peace that bring people together tending to reduce tension like common experiences, shared values and interests. In contrast dividers, represented by red arrows, are those factors that people are fighting about or cause tension increasing the dimension of the triangle pushing the three angles far away from the centre. The several actors and stakeholders involved in the peace building process have to cooperate in an holistic and synergic approach in order to reduce the violence at all levels using the right means and the right way to achieve that goal of lasting peace. Green arrows represent these means, in contraposition to the red ones. Sport is all over present but never alone, just to highlight the importance of a comprehensive approach.
  • According to Galtung, conflict and violence can be well represented with a triangle. Direct, cultural and structural. Visible and less visible. To achieve a lasting peace it’s necessary to work on the roots of conflict. Within the GALTUNG conflict/violence triangle, as a personal interpretation, it’s possible to identify a small circle representing positive connectors and local capacities for peace that bring people together tending to reduce tension like common experiences, shared values and interests. In contrast dividers, represented by red arrows, are those factors that people are fighting about or cause tension increasing the dimension of the triangle pushing the three angles far away from the centre. The several actors and stakeholders involved in the peace building process have to cooperate in an holistic and synergic approach in order to reduce the violence at all levels using the right means and the right way to achieve that goal of lasting peace. Green arrows represent these means, in contraposition to the red ones. Sport is all over present but never alone, just to highlight the importance of a comprehensive approach.
  • According to Galtung, conflict and violence can be well represented with a triangle. Direct, cultural and structural. Visible and less visible. To achieve a lasting peace it’s necessary to work on the roots of conflict. Within the GALTUNG conflict/violence triangle, as a personal interpretation, it’s possible to identify a small circle representing positive connectors and local capacities for peace that bring people together tending to reduce tension like common experiences, shared values and interests. In contrast dividers, represented by red arrows, are those factors that people are fighting about or cause tension increasing the dimension of the triangle pushing the three angles far away from the centre. The several actors and stakeholders involved in the peace building process have to cooperate in an holistic and synergic approach in order to reduce the violence at all levels using the right means and the right way to achieve that goal of lasting peace. Green arrows represent these means, in contraposition to the red ones. Sport is all over present but never alone, just to highlight the importance of a comprehensive approach.
  • Sport can be very effective especially in trauma healing, in building empathy and in rebuilding confidence and trust between enemies breaking down barriers. It can help bridge division between groups and create unity and tolerance. Sport and game activities can create the necessary space through confidence to discuss about problems emerging from the war. The coach can become a confident of children and youth and therefore empowering them. During and after playing of sport, participants can be involved in open discussions, in educational programmes about the benefits of social cohesion, in trainings about conflict management and conflict resolution. Nonetheless sport based projects can have the opposite effect to worsen the situation. Sport is full of discrimination, it can be racist, and can breed intolerance and misunderstanding. As Keim (peace building in SA) points out w e need to be cautious of making false claims for sport or raising expectations that cannot be met. On its own sport cannot reverse poverty or prevent crime or violence, solve unemployment, stop corruption and respect human rights
  • Guest explain in his article Th inking both critically and positively about development through sport. The process is crucial. It is not enough to put a ball in a middle of a football ground to get peace. The understandings of sport employed by relief agencies using sport for post- Emergency and early recovery psychosocial interventions may be very different from the meaning of sport for the beneficiaries of these services. Furthermore any characteristics that are developed through sport come through in the process of interacting with coaches, leaders, teammates, parents, friends, and organizations who are in their daily lives, all of whom can have either positive or negative influences. Finally sport interventions have the potential to develop antagonism or affection: the choice often depends upon the nature of the competition, and the care with which programs are designed and implemented
  • At grassroots level a social space within an identified location will be the field to implement the project. Elite athletes, sport ambassadors, international and local NGO’s will play an important role in coordinate wider projects enlarging the targeted areas, creating a social network, spreading best practices with manuals and logical models to improve accountability and quality of sport interventions. In this way, at middle level will be also easier to cope with the challenge of lack of funds and lack of interest by donors. Finally, at top level, governments, Ministers of youth education and sports should work with the right synergy to create national and international policies to favour and encourage the use of sport in the process of peace and reconciliation.
  • Serena borsani isdpa

    1. 1. The contribution of sport within the process of peace and reconciliation. From trauma healing toward social integration Case study: The impact of sports in Rift Valley-Kenya, after post election violence ISDPA - Power of Sport Summit - 9-12 June 2010 BORSANI SERENA
    2. 2. KENYA PEV Figures Jan 2008 <ul><li>Contested presidential result quickly took on a one week ethnic conflict </li></ul><ul><li>IDP’s : 347,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Deaths : 1001 </li></ul><ul><li>Affected : more than 500,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Refugees in Uganda : 12,000 </li></ul>
    3. 3. DIFFERENT APPROACHES OF THE USE OF SPORT IN HEALING AND RECONCILIATION <ul><li>Even here in Kenya, as in other post conflict situations, it was possible to identify : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Single events with different possible organisers like local NGO’s, famous runners, INGO’s (Shoe4Africa, Tegla Loroupe Peace Run ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sport leagues as single project of a program ( World Vision , Global Peace Game) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sport based projects ( Sp ort-Based Child Protection, Peace and Reconciliation Projects by Kesofo, Ke nya Youth Sports4Peace & Reconciliation Project s by Care International ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sport activities as part of a wider project (Amani Cup by IOM, CFS by IOM) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Combinations of the above </li></ul></ul></ul>
    4. 4. CHILD FRIENDLY SPACE (CFS) AN EARLY EVALUATION <ul><li>Questionnaire 50 youth respondents on questionnaire about the impact of sport in their life after PEV </li></ul>
    5. 5. CHILD FRIENDLY SPACE (CFS) AN EARLY EVALUATION
    6. 6. CHILD FRIENDLY SPACE (CFS) AN EARLY EVALUATION
    7. 7. CHILD FRIENDLY SPACE (CFS) AN EARLY EVALUATION
    8. 8. RECOMMENDATIONS from the field <ul><ul><ul><li>Understand the conflict. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Do not harm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Base the activities on mutual interest; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Use a participatory approach </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Use of Peer educators and train them with sport, peace building and conflict management skills; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Focus on daily activities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Promote fair play rather then win at all costs. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Create a social network </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Focus on the process of healing, building relationship and empathy rather than sport itself; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Develop best practices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Develop a monitoring and evaluation mechanism </li></ul></ul></ul>
    9. 9. From practice to theory
    10. 10. CONFLICT SCHOOLS OF THOUGH <ul><li>CONFLICT TRANSFORMATION : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>based on the basic human needs theory, unless you satisfy all these needs conflicts will erupt. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>transformation of norms, society and social relationship more in general, in order to satisfy all those needs aiming at reaching peace and stability. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>it’s also a peace-building approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Galtung 3R’s theory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CONFLICT PREVENTION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is for conflict not to happen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>attempts to tackle the erupting conflict through early warning signs. </li></ul></ul>CONFLICT MANAGEMENT CONFLICT MITIGATION CONFLICT RESOLUTION different schools of thought
    11. 11. Conflict transformation and sport <ul><li>GALTUNG 3Rs THEORY </li></ul><ul><li>Reconstruction of people and places, </li></ul><ul><li>Reconciliation of relationships, </li></ul><ul><li>and Resolution of issues and animosities. </li></ul><ul><li>If you do only one of these three without the other two you will not even get that one’ </li></ul>
    12. 12. Conflict transformation and sport
    13. 13. Conflict transformation and sport
    14. 14. Conflict transformation and sport
    15. 15. SPORT IN RECONCILIATION WHAT <ul><li>RECONCILIATION it’s a long process of social change, of rebuilding relationships, of finding a way to live with hope for a peaceful future, of forgiveness and achievement of justice. </li></ul>SPORT SOCIAL CHANGE HEAL TRAUMA CREATE DIALOGUE BREAK DOWN BARRIERS REBUILD RELATIONS BUILD EMPATHY INCREASE TOLERANCE TIME LINE FOSTER RESILENCE PREDISPONE FORGIVENESS
    16. 16. SPORT IN RECONCILIATION - HOW <ul><li>Sport its self is not good or bad, it is just an empty and neutral box to be filled in and a tool to be used with values , ideas , meaning , dependent on the cultural context in which takes place and people who take part </li></ul>Empty Box Values Ideas Meaning Context Process Role models (coaches) INGREDIENTS T O O L B E S T P R A C T I C E
    17. 17. EXAMPLE OF SPORT PROJECT CYCLE <ul><ul><ul><li> Identifying local community conditions and resources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Formulate programme aims and objectives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Train peer leaders/coaches </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Assure sport inclusion and nature of participant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Control the Process of providing the programmes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Measure sporting outcomes through indicators </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Assess the personal and social impact on participants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Assess the non-sporting outcomes </li></ul></ul></ul>
    18. 18. EXAMPLE OF NON SPORTING OUTCOME <ul><ul><li>to develop citizenship values and commitment to collective responsibility, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to heal psychosocial trauma , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to address gender -related issues, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to build relationships among different communities, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to development a commitment to education , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to develop conflict resolution and conflict management skills , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to reduce social isolation and tension, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to provide opportunities to empower participants , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to address health-related issues , including HIV/AIDS </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. WHO Actors in sport for reconciliations MIDDLE-LEVEL, SPORT AMBASSADORS , NGO’s, ELITE ATHLETES TOP LEVEL GRASSROOTS AND CIVIL SOCIETY, CBO’S, SOCIAL SPACE WHERE TO IMPLEMENT SPORT PROJECTS Coordination of wide projects, creation of social network, spreading of best practice and toolkits, to improve accountability and quality Governments, Ministers of youth, education and sport: establishment of nat. and int.l policies to favour the use of sport in the process of reconciliation
    20. 20. MECHANISM FOR SOCIAL CHANGE
    21. 21. CONCLUSION <ul><li>The holistic approach must be used not only in peace building process but also in sport programs themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>Healing is the first step to re-build relationship in order to achieve a social change . Sport is proofed to be a very feasible tool to achieve this progressive outcome. </li></ul><ul><li>Favourable government policies and development of best practices allow the contribution of sport to be much more significant. </li></ul>
    22. 23. <ul><li>VISION </li></ul><ul><li>TO CREATE A HARMONIOUS FAIR AND JUST SOCIETY HARNESSING THE DEVELOPMENT AND PEACE BENEFITS ACHIEVABLE THROUGH SPORT </li></ul><ul><li>MISSION </li></ul><ul><li>TO EMPOWER UNPRIVILEGED CHILDREN AND YOUTH USING SPORT AS A TOOL FOR A SOCIAL/BEHAVIORAL CHANGE (OR DEVELOPMENT AND PEACE) </li></ul><ul><li>PROJECT </li></ul><ul><li>NEVER GIVE UP - ZAMBIA </li></ul>

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