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Rural Sport Development Initiative (RSDI) Integrating Long Term Athlete Development (LTAD) in Sport Development programs D...
Introduction  <ul><li>What is Sport development? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many researchers, administrators, sport scientists,...
<ul><ul><li>European Council of Sport (1983) two main approaches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1) improving social relati...
<ul><li>HOWEVER; </li></ul><ul><li>According to Spaaij, & Westerbeek. (2009) most people do not engage in sport to achieve...
<ul><li>Sport development and sport science?? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TID (Talent Identification and development)  - identif...
<ul><li>SRSA (National Department of Sport and Recreation) new  approach to sport development:  (grass roots to elite)  </...
<ul><li>Eastern Cape Province in South Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most of the municipal districts experiencing higher  p...
<ul><li>To investigate the implementation of LTAD model in sport development  program in a rural community of the Eastern ...
<ul><ul><li>To examine the influence that LTAD model (training)  has on the growth and development of children living in a...
Rural Sport Development Initiative (RSDI)
<ul><li>HMS at the University of Fort Hare as a community project (Strategic plan 2010-2016) </li></ul><ul><li>4  the Alic...
Methodology  <ul><li>Project will run for 3 years </li></ul><ul><li>Anthropometrical-, physical- and motor characteristics...
Methodology  <ul><li>Possible implications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Other factors might have influences on data (free play, p...
Results  <ul><li>Gender:  No statistical differences were found-literature supports children of this age no gender differe...
Results  Table 1:  Descriptive statistics for anthropometrical-, physical- and motor components of 6-8 year old children i...
Results  Table 2:  A Comparison of the anthropometrical-, physical- and motor components of 6-8 year old children in the N...
Discussion  <ul><li>Table 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Regard to stature and body mass, all ages presented to be higher then 50 th ...
Discussion  <ul><li>Table 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Seeing that no statistical differences could be found between age groups, th...
Conclusion <ul><li>Children participate in sport for various reasons, however to idealize a sport star plays a role, espec...
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Maya van gent rural sport development initiative

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Maya van gent rural sport development initiative

  1. 1. Rural Sport Development Initiative (RSDI) Integrating Long Term Athlete Development (LTAD) in Sport Development programs Dr Maya van Gent, Senior lecturer , Human Movement Science Department, University of Fort Hare, South Africa
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>What is Sport development? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many researchers, administrators, sport scientists, governments/ governing sport federation, academics etc have different views… </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><ul><li>European Council of Sport (1983) two main approaches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1) improving social relationships, which inevitably contributes to social development, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2) improving physical fitness and mental well-being (European Council of Sport 1983) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Potential of sport in the pursuit of development goals has been increasingly acknowledged by important International and National organizations (e.g.UN Task Force Report, 2008; European Parliament Resolution on sport and development, 2007; Sport and recreation South Africa, White Paper: Getting the nation to play, 2003). </li></ul><ul><li>Common description of such movement is the following </li></ul><ul><li>“ Through sport and physical education, individuals can experience equality, freedom and a dignifying means for empowerment, particularly for girls and women, for people with a disability, for those living in conflict areas and for people recovering from trauma” (Kidd 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Sport cost effectiveness approach for dealing with social problems rather than correcting the consequences of aggression, crime, violence and abuse. Problems that are synonymous with rural poor communities (Coalter, 2007). </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>HOWEVER; </li></ul><ul><li>According to Spaaij, & Westerbeek. (2009) most people do not engage in sport to achieve certain societal ends, but rather for enjoyment and health </li></ul><ul><li>Another observation by Seippel (2009) is that social capital </li></ul><ul><li>“ is not necessarily the result of intentional investments aimed at future benefits’ but, to a large extent, ‘probably the unintentional consequences of instrumental, normative and/or expressive actions. ’ </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Sport development and sport science?? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TID (Talent Identification and development) - identifying and developing sporting potential.(grass roots to elite) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internationally minimal documented success had been achieved in the traditional Talent Identification and Development models. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This also seemed to be the case in the South African context. Since 1995 South Africa was readmitted - South Africa’s success, especially in the Olympic Games, has been on the decline since readmission, with only one medal winner in the recent Beijing Olympic Games. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>SRSA (National Department of Sport and Recreation) new approach to sport development: (grass roots to elite) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Long Term Athlete Development (LTAD)” (Balyi 2000) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on inclusion of all athletes and participants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stages are age specific, taking into account maturation and growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensuring physical literacy (competence in all fundamental movement skills), and not just selecting the potentially talented individuals at a specific age and developing them. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The long term goals: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Introduce en ensure physical activity for life , thus contributing to the health of individuals. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide the potential athlete to achieve their full athletic potential- </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>many athletes do not due to a lack of fundamental skills that should be mastered between the ages of 6-10 years. (Balyi & Hamilton (2001) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Eastern Cape Province in South Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most of the municipal districts experiencing higher poverty rates than the national average. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Survey done by Schwabe (2004) revealed the following facts: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unemployment rate in the Eastern Cape is 34% which is higher than the national unemployment rate of 29.5%. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The percentage of people in the Eastern Cape living below the poverty line is 72% and two thirds of that population lives in rural areas. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>To investigate the implementation of LTAD model in sport development program in a rural community of the Eastern Cape </li></ul><ul><li>Conciderations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LTAD model is based on USA and Europen cross sectional and longitudinal data (anthropometrical-, physical- and motor components) . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Previous research has indicated that SA children, especially children from rural areas, grow and develop differently (van Gent et al, 2003, Pienaar 2010). </li></ul></ul>Main research aim
  9. 9. <ul><ul><li>To examine the influence that LTAD model (training) has on the growth and development of children living in a rural environment in the Nkokobe region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To examine the influence that LTAD model (training) has on the social well being of the participants and the community </li></ul></ul>Research objectives
  10. 10. Rural Sport Development Initiative (RSDI)
  11. 11. <ul><li>HMS at the University of Fort Hare as a community project (Strategic plan 2010-2016) </li></ul><ul><li>4 the Alice/ Nkokobe region (2 primary schools, 2 high schools) </li></ul><ul><li>Aim </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sport development : improve sport performance and provide sporting opportunities for each participants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each school 2 x week to UFH with teacher, HMS Hon student coordinate activities specific for age groups and the intervention </li></ul><ul><li>Children from 6-16 years of age </li></ul><ul><li>3 Stages to this program </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 1 : Establish the anthropometrical-, physical, and motor characteristics of the children, and apply these to the intervention (training program) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 2 : Implement sport training (LTAD) through structured training programs specifically designed to address the needs as established by Stage 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 3: Assessing the impact of this program using SDIAT tool (Sport Development Impact assessment tool (Burnett and Hollander 2000) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Methodology <ul><li>Project will run for 3 years </li></ul><ul><li>Anthropometrical-, physical- and motor characteristics are evaluated twice a year, thus providing cross sectional data as well as longitudinal data </li></ul><ul><li>SDIAT (Sport Development Impact Assessment Tool) (Burnett & Hollander 2004) will be used at the end of every 6-8 month interventions </li></ul><ul><li>SDPA 2010- presenting results of the first assessment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anthropometrical, motor and physical assessments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Statistics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Descriptive statistics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>T test (differences among groups) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ANOVA </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Methodology <ul><li>Possible implications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Other factors might have influences on data (free play, participation in sport) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some participants might move </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The teacher support base might change </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Results <ul><li>Gender: No statistical differences were found-literature supports children of this age no gender differences (T-Test) </li></ul><ul><li>Age groups comparisons (ANOVA) no statistical differences were found </li></ul>
  15. 15. Results Table 1: Descriptive statistics for anthropometrical-, physical- and motor components of 6-8 year old children in the Nkokobe region, Eastern Cape, South Africa. Variables 6 year old (n=38) 7 year old (n=31) 8 year old (n=41) Stature (cm) 116.5 119.2 124.8 Body mass (cm) 21.8 23.7 25.6 Coordination (n) Target throw for accuracy 1.9 2.7 1.2 Balance Stork stand (sec) 26.5 25.9 28.8 Speed (sec) 27.4 m sprint 7.1 6.7 6.4 Agility (sec) 5m shuttle run 13.6 12.1 11.5
  16. 16. Results Table 2: A Comparison of the anthropometrical-, physical- and motor components of 6-8 year old children in the Nkokobe region. * P≤0.01 Variables Children that participate in school sport (n=53) Children that DO NOT participate in school sport (n=52) P- Value Stature (cm) 121.91 119.15 0.01* Body mass (cm) 24.22 23.62 0.61 Coordination (n) Target throw for accuracy 1.8 1.4 0.81 Balance Stork stand (sec) 28.4 27.9 0.57 Speed (sec) 27.4 m sprint 6.58 6.87 0.05 Agility (sec) 5m shuttle run 12.06 12.71 0.03
  17. 17. Discussion <ul><li>Table 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Regard to stature and body mass, all ages presented to be higher then 50 th % except for the 8 year olds in terms of stature (between 25-50%) (CDC, 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>taking into account that it is cross sectional-all components seem to improve with age, except for coordination in 8 year olds </li></ul><ul><li>Physical- and motor components: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All ages performed the best in balance (30sec being max) but the worst in coordination </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Concern here is that coordination forms part of all fundamental movement skills </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Discussion <ul><li>Table 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Seeing that no statistical differences could be found between age groups, the sample was divided into two groups according to participant’s response to whether they take part in school sport </li></ul><ul><li>Important to note that at all rural schools in the Alice region structured sport training is non existent-participation is not structured nor compulsory </li></ul><ul><li>No significant differences, except for stature, between the children that participate in sport and those that don’t- thus it seems that the current participation of sport is not contributing to the physical- and motor development of these children. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Conclusion <ul><li>Children participate in sport for various reasons, however to idealize a sport star plays a role, especially at this age… </li></ul><ul><li>Sport (for) development programs that work with youth, especially between the ages 6-10, should seriously consider the growth and development of children and adapt programs appropriately </li></ul><ul><li>These programs should focus on participation- no exclusion, no competition- but they need to address the specific needs of the participants </li></ul><ul><li>None can guarantee that participants will be the next world/Olympic champion- however we can provide them with all the opportunity/skill in the world to become one!!! </li></ul><ul><li>THANK YOU </li></ul>

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