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B blagojevic sport and peacebuilding

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B blagojevic sport and peacebuilding

  1. 1. BOJANA BLAGOJEVIC LAGUARDIA COMMUNITY COLLEGE CITY UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK INTERNATIONAL SPORT AND SOCIETY CONFERENCE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA VANCOUVER BC, CANADA TUE, MARCH 9, 2010 Sport and Peacebuilding: Healing the Wounds of War
  2. 2. Why Sport and Peacebuilding? Source: SportandDev.org, Swiss Academy for Development
  3. 3. Why Sport and Peacebuilding? <ul><li>Personal experience with war and sport </li></ul><ul><li>Contribution </li></ul><ul><li>Summary of argument: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A conceptual framework for how sport fits into peacebuilding is proposed. It is argued that sport facilitates peacebuilding by fostering development at individual and collective levels. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NB: Sport: a piece of a complex, multi-dimensional peacebuilding process. A “small” but (potentially) important role </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Sasha Skenderija, Excerpt “Spasic (More than a Game)” <ul><li>When the country I was born in was forcibly landing us and dislanding, we were cheering each other up by contemplating the championship strategy - […] to get the maximum out of ourselves for the World Cup which was just (out of earshot of the guns) going on – without us. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Paper Outline <ul><li>I - Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>II – Sport and Peacebuilding: A Conceptual Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>III - Principles of Application </li></ul><ul><li>IV - Empowering Individuals: Sport and Well-being </li></ul><ul><li>V- Rebuilding Communities: Sport and Reconciliation </li></ul><ul><li>VI - Existing Efforts </li></ul><ul><li>VII - Conclusion </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>A CONCEPTUAL ANALYSIS </li></ul>II – SPORT AND PEACEBUILDING
  7. 7. DEFINITIONS: KEY CONCEPTS <ul><li>Ethnic Conflict (War) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pursuit of incompatible goals by different ethnic groups. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-destruction of societies? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peacebuilding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A complex, multi-level process that facilitates the establishment of durable peace and tries to prevent the recurrence of violence by addressing root causes and effects of conflict. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sport </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All forms of physical activity that contribute to physical fitness, mental well-being and social interaction, such as play, recreation, organized or competitive sport, and indigenous sports and games. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. PEACEBUILDING <ul><li>To build peace = to facilitate development </li></ul><ul><li>Dimensions of peacebuilding: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical (infrastructural) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Levels of impact: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collective </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. DIMENSIONS OF PEACEBUILDING
  10. 10. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT <ul><li>Process of enlarging people’s choices </li></ul><ul><li>Capabilities = ability to “Be” or “Do” </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: greater access to knowledge, better nutrition and health services, security against crime and violence, satisfying leisure hours, political and cultural freedoms, participation in community activities, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>HDI - life expectancy, education, and GDP </li></ul><ul><li>Sport: most direct impact on health (“a complete state of physical, mental and social wellbeing”) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Human Development: The Bridge from Sport to Peace
  12. 12. (Overlapping) Levels of Impact
  13. 13. III – Principles of Application
  14. 14. Principles of Application <ul><li>Sport = SOCIAL CONSTRUCT </li></ul><ul><li>Effect depends on HOW we construct and apply it in a context </li></ul><ul><li>Sport as a game of war v. sport as a game of peace </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>WAR </li></ul><ul><li>PEACE </li></ul><ul><li>Zero-sum approach (win-lose) </li></ul><ul><li>Aggression, Violence </li></ul><ul><li>Exclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitates: Harm, Hostility </li></ul><ul><li>Non-zero sum approach (win-win) </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperation, Teamwork </li></ul><ul><li>Inclusion* </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitates: Well-being, Tolerance </li></ul>Principles of Application
  16. 16. *Note about inclusion in existing efforts <ul><li>Who is included??? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ ABLE-BODIED BOYS AND YOUNG MEN” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Who is missing??? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WOMEN AND GIRLS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DISABLED </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ADULTS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>If a sport program for development and peace privileges one group over another it is reinforcing the structures of exclusion that perpetuate dynamics working against both development and peace. </li></ul>
  17. 17. IV- EMPOWERING INDIVIDUALS: SPORT AND WELL-BEING
  18. 18. Sport and Well-being <ul><li>War = Trauma </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flashbacks, sleeping problems, self-destructive behavior, “death imprint,” “dissociative experience” etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PTSD, depression, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physical activity => health </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Literature establishing: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physical activity and physical health </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physical activity and mental health </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Sport and Well-Being <ul><li>Recreation, Catharsis, Expression, Physical pleasure, </li></ul><ul><li>Reconnecting with the body, Regain sense of control (transition from victim to survivor) </li></ul><ul><li>Principle of application: trauma awareness!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Therapeutic Recreation? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The prescribed use of recreational and other activities as treatment interventions to improve the functional living competence of persons with physical, mental, emotional and/or social disadvantages.” </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. V – REBUILDING COMMUNITIES: SPORT AND RECONCILIATION
  21. 21. Sport and Reconciliation <ul><li>War and post-war context: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ US” v. “THEM” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DEHUMANIZATION </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sport can: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforce the dynamics of exclusion, hostility OR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promote reconciliation (transformation of relationships) </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Sport and Reconciliation <ul><li>Peacebuilding through Reconciliation: </li></ul><ul><li>Designed to break down, rather than reinforce the dynamics of group hostilities and intolerance </li></ul><ul><li>Create social networks, “webs” that deconstruct “us” v. “them” dichotomies (principles of application) </li></ul>
  23. 23. VI – EXISTING EFFORTS
  24. 24. Existing Efforts (Limited analysis) <ul><li>Increasing number of sport for development and peace initiatives </li></ul><ul><li>Early stages – more research, more convincing is needed </li></ul><ul><li>Short-term, grant funded </li></ul><ul><li>Most projects/programs focus on collective/ community level of impact </li></ul><ul><li>What about the individual level of impact? </li></ul><ul><li>Where are the women, girls, disabled, adults? </li></ul>
  25. 25. CONCLUSION Source: SportandDev.org, Swiss Academy for Development
  26. 26. CONCLUSION <ul><li>Paper: broad, conceptual </li></ul><ul><li>Future research: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Zoom-in on levels of impact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Case-studies to measure impact (especially on individual level) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Further analysis of existing efforts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on excluded groups </li></ul></ul>
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