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Design of Emergency Response Management Information Systems


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Presentation based on the DERMIS article by Turoff, Chumer, Van de Walle and Yao, JITTA 2004.

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Design of Emergency Response Management Information Systems

  1. 1. <ul><li>Dr. Bartel Van de Walle Information Systems and Management Department Tilburg University </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Joint work with Prof. Murray Turoff (NJIT) </li></ul>DERMIS: Dynamic Emergency Response Management Information Systems RIEŠENIE KRÍZOVÝCH SITUÁCIÍ V  ŠPECIFICKOM PROSTRED Í
  2. 2. <ul><li>Strike </li></ul><ul><li>Court Case </li></ul><ul><li>Cost overrun </li></ul><ul><li>Delivery delay </li></ul><ul><li>New regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Terrorist action </li></ul><ul><li>Supply shortage </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Disaster </li></ul>Organizational Emergency Situations <ul><li>Production delay </li></ul><ul><li>Product malfunction </li></ul><ul><li>Contract Negotiation </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of a key employee </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of a key customer </li></ul><ul><li>Responding to an RFP </li></ul><ul><li>New Competitive product </li></ul>Emergencies – crises - disasters
  3. 3. Emergencies – crises - disasters <ul><li>Unpredictable: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who will be involved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What information will be needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What resources will be needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What actions will be taken, when, where, and by who </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No time for training, meeting, or planning </li></ul><ul><li>No contingency plan that fits perfectly </li></ul>Emergency Characteristics
  4. 4. Emergency Management Requirements <ul><li>Obtain data, status, views </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain expertise, liaison, action takers, reporters </li></ul><ul><li>Draft contingencies </li></ul><ul><li>Validate options </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain approvals, delegate authority </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinate actions, take actions, evaluate actions </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate outcomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modify scenarios and plans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modify community and operations </li></ul></ul>DERMIS
  5. 5. <ul><li>An emergency system must be regularly used to work in a real emergency </li></ul><ul><li>People are working intense 14-18 hour days and cannot be interrupted </li></ul><ul><li>Timely tacking of what is happening is critical </li></ul><ul><li>Delegation of authority a must and </li></ul><ul><li>Providing related data and information up, down, and laterally is critical </li></ul><ul><li>Plans are in constant modification </li></ul>DERMIS ER Wisdom I
  6. 6. <ul><li>Learning and adaptation of response plans from training and real events is a necessity </li></ul><ul><li>In a crisis exceptions and variations to the norm are common </li></ul><ul><li>The critical problem of the moment collects attention and resources. </li></ul>DERMIS ER Wisdom II
  7. 7. <ul><li>Roles are the constant in an emergency and who is in a role may vary unexpectedly </li></ul><ul><li>Training people in multiple roles is very desirable </li></ul><ul><li>Roles and their privileges must be defined in the response system </li></ul>DERMIS ER Wisdom III
  8. 8. <ul><li>Supporting confidence in a decision by the best possible timely information </li></ul><ul><li>Necessary Properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Free exchange of information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delegation of authority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decision accountability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decision oversight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information source identification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information overload reduction </li></ul></ul>DERMIS ER Wisdom IV
  9. 9. <ul><li>Information Overload is typical </li></ul><ul><li>Heterogeneous groups and individuals </li></ul><ul><li>People work together who do not normally do so </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot predict who will be involved </li></ul><ul><li>Community and Public relations is critical (confidence and trust) </li></ul>DERMIS Supporting Wisdom
  10. 10. <ul><li>The priority problem of the moment is the magnet that gathers the data, information, people, and resources to deal with it </li></ul><ul><li>The integration of qualitative and quantitative information with measures of timeliness, confidence and priority is critical </li></ul><ul><li>Having pre-established existing communities of people and resources to draw upon </li></ul><ul><li>Knowing who and what is available in real time </li></ul><ul><li>Learning from each experience and modifying lore for the future </li></ul>DERMIS Critical Success Factors
  11. 11. <ul><li>Easy to Learn </li></ul><ul><li>High degree of tailoring by users </li></ul><ul><li>Used by trained professionals </li></ul><ul><li>Overcome problem of small screens (PDA) </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual command and control center </li></ul><ul><li>Support use of remote databases in an integrated manner </li></ul><ul><li>Support planning, evaluation, training, updating, maintenance, as well as response </li></ul><ul><li>Communication process independent of content </li></ul>DERMIS DESIGN Objectives
  12. 12. <ul><li>Determine what individuals are looking for and not finding </li></ul><ul><li>Guide individuals to those interested in the same thing at the same time </li></ul><ul><li>Piece relevant data together </li></ul><ul><li>Alert individuals to anything falling in the cracks </li></ul><ul><li>Provide high confidence of a person knowing they have the best information possible at the moment </li></ul>DERMIS Smart Requirements for Emergency Group Communications
  13. 13. <ul><li>System is a helper not a boss </li></ul><ul><li>System allows variable problem solving methods </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction of information overload </li></ul><ul><li>Minimization of execution difficulty </li></ul><ul><li>High degree of comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>High degree of tailoring by individual </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage creativity and improvisation </li></ul><ul><li>Support decision confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor performance and effort for possible fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Multimodal interfaces </li></ul>DERMIS Human Computer Challenges
  14. 14. <ul><li>Fire, Police, Public Works </li></ul><ul><li>Public Health, Hospitals, Clinics, Doctors, Community resources (e.g. bulldozers, contractors, boats, generators, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Utilities, Contractors, Equipment </li></ul><ul><li>State Agencies, National Guard, State Police, Other local regional Governments </li></ul><ul><li>Federal Agencies, Civil Defense, FEMA, Homeland Security </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Profits, Service Organizations, Professionals, Community Groups </li></ul><ul><li>Forms of communication </li></ul>DERMIS Integration Requirements
  15. 15. <ul><li>Metaphors understood by professionals </li></ul><ul><li>Human roles built in </li></ul><ul><li>Notifications integrated into communications </li></ul><ul><li>Context visibility </li></ul><ul><li>Semantic Hypertext relationships </li></ul><ul><li>List processing at user level </li></ul>DERMIS Specific Interaction Design Criteria
  16. 16. Example: the Emergency Metaphor <ul><li>All emergencies have events </li></ul><ul><li>Time logged and archived </li></ul><ul><li>Serves dispatch function </li></ul><ul><li>Used after emergency to understood what took place </li></ul><ul><li>Often separate events on different systems for each agency involved </li></ul><ul><li>Consider dynamic database of events integrated across all agencies </li></ul>DERMIS
  17. 17. Summary on DERMIS <ul><li>A transaction system integrated with a structured group communication system </li></ul><ul><li>Roles and event templates can be created and modified at any time, e.g. the system can be evolved by the users </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used for all phases of the emergency response process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyses, Planning, training, evaluation, and recovery </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can be used for all types of emergencies </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used to support Online Communities </li></ul>DERMIS
  18. 18. PLANNING WITH DERMIS <ul><li>Generating scenarios and evaluating them as a collaborative exercise is quite easy to do in DERMIS </li></ul><ul><li>Additional need of voting and scaling aids to allow determining disagreements and focus discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Generate new event types and roles to deal with new risks </li></ul>DERMIS
  19. 19. <ul><li>Easy to establish training exercises based upon role-event structure </li></ul><ul><li>Simulation driven by a sequence of timed events in real time tied to the clock or can be speeded up for some types of training </li></ul><ul><li>Players can easily be simulated with respect to actions and generated events </li></ul><ul><li>Small teams can participate with a much larger groups of simulated players </li></ul>DERMIS TRAINING WITH DERMIS
  20. 20. <ul><li>Examine log file of events and actions by roles </li></ul><ul><li>Develop appropriate analysis tools to aid this process </li></ul><ul><li>Discover and correct problems by improving system and/or improving training </li></ul>DERMIS EVALUATING WITH DERMIS
  21. 21. <ul><li>Can be used to direct and coordinate the recovery activity </li></ul><ul><li>Can involve any diversity organizations and agencies involved </li></ul><ul><li>Provides a complete record and accountability for the recovery process </li></ul>DERMIS RECOVERY WITH DERMIS
  22. 22. <ul><li>Can be used for all phases of the emergency response process </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used for “little” emergencies which are quite common in any type of organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used to support Online Communities </li></ul>DERMIS SUMMARY ON DERMIS
  23. 23. <ul><li>Tend to be top down </li></ul><ul><li>Follow designs done for single agencies or organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Somewhat bureaucratic </li></ul><ul><li>Assume largely verbal interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-segments groups to “manageable” size </li></ul><ul><li>Tend to encourage rule following and often promotes rigidity </li></ul><ul><li>Can work for single homogenous group </li></ul>DERMIS Traditional Systems
  24. 24. <ul><li>Heterogeneous very large communities </li></ul><ul><li>Allows group formation to be dynamic </li></ul><ul><li>Allows for quick delegation of authority by role assignment </li></ul><ul><li>Provides for timely oversight and accountability </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages flexibility of response </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages strong personal ties among responders and resulting cohesive groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Provides support for all phases of the emergency response process as well as everyday use for other regular functions </li></ul>DERMIS DERMIS Type Systems
  25. 25. <ul><li>Change and disruption is more common than we think, even in commerce, and getting more frequent </li></ul><ul><li>The technology exists to do it </li></ul><ul><li>However, does the organizational motivation and understanding exists to do it? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The issue is designing new virtual organizations and communities that will change existing organizations and the way things are done. </li></ul></ul>DERMIS THE FUTURE
  26. 26. <ul><li>Decision models (‘fast and frugal’ heuristics?) </li></ul><ul><li>Requirements and design of Virtual Command and Control Centers </li></ul><ul><li>How to design human computer interactions to stimulate creativity or improvising by both individuals and groups </li></ul>Research topics in ER I Research topics in ER
  27. 27. <ul><li>How to reduce information overload and it’s negative effects when it occurs </li></ul><ul><li>Design of training scenarios to encourage flexibility of response and reduce rigidity </li></ul>Research topics in ER II Research topics in ER
  28. 28. <ul><li>Design and development of systems to support local, regional, and national virtual communities of experts and professionals in ER </li></ul><ul><li>Lightweight integration of resource databases </li></ul><ul><li>Design and utilization of collaborative knowledge systems for professional communities </li></ul>Research topics in ER III Research topics in ER
  29. 29. <ul><li>Development of Emergency Prevention & Response audit controls in a continuous auditing environment </li></ul><ul><li>Integrating Emergency Response Systems into day to day processes in organizations </li></ul>Research topics in ER IV Research topics in ER
  30. 30. <ul><li>Multimedia information capturing of information in training and real crisis situations </li></ul><ul><li>Development of realistic training games for large groups utilizing the actual response IS system </li></ul><ul><li>Investigations of decision processes in the full cycle of emergency response functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis, planning, preparation, training, response, and evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of improved support tools for all the phases </li></ul></ul>Research topics in ER V Research topics in ER
  31. 31. Research topic: Virtual teams and communities <ul><li>Large numbers of on call advisors did exist in OEP for obtaining information in an emergency </li></ul><ul><li>Today the Web makes this a very economical approach and can encourage local, regional and national communities of volunteer experts </li></ul>Research topics in ER
  32. 32. Virtual Communities <ul><li>Use ERMIS software for virtual communities and people will be trained to join given the right emergency situation </li></ul><ul><li>Allow communities to build a knowledge system in their area </li></ul><ul><li>In organizations employ ERMIS for all teams and committees dealing with problems that cut across the organization </li></ul>Virtual teams and communities
  33. 33. ERMIS is an Interdisciplinary Effort <ul><li>Information System Designers and Researchers </li></ul><ul><li>Software Engineers and Developers </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency Preparedness Professionals and Managers </li></ul><ul><li>Local and Regional Government Professionals and Administrators </li></ul>Conclusion
  34. 34. ISCRAM – Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
  35. 35. <ul><li>Purpose of the ISCRAM Community </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Promote research, development and deployment of information systems for crisis response and management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promote and facilitate international cooperation between </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>scientific institutions, research institutes and universities with activities in the area of crisis response and management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>scientists and the practitioners in this field </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>research in scientific institutions and universities and the technology and solution providers </li></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>Purpose of the ISCRAM Community </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Help define programmes and projects and develop action plans, both national and international, for scientific and technological research in this area, and in collaboration with members of the ISCRAM Community </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>Community website: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>400 registered users December 2004 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>850 registered users December 2005 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1200 registered users December 2006 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1600 registered users December 2007 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ISCRAM Community: </li></ul>
  38. 38. ISCRAM International Conferences: <ul><li>Initiated in 2004, first meeting in Brussels </li></ul><ul><li>As of 2005, alternating between Europe and USA: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brussels, Belgium 2005 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Newark, New Jersey 2006 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delft, the Netherlands 2007 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Washington DC 2008 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gothenburg, Sweden, 2009 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>San Diego, CA 2010 </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Mike Melshkin Award for best PhD paper
  40. 40. ISCRAM PhD SUMMER SCHOOLS <ul><li>originally joint initiative ISCRAM-TIEMS NL </li></ul><ul><li>about PhD Students </li></ul><ul><li>Lectures from international experts </li></ul><ul><li>Varied technical – social program </li></ul>
  41. 42. ISCRAM-CHINA INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOPS <ul><li>Hosted by Harbin Engineering University, Harbin, China </li></ul><ul><li>For and by Chinese researchers in this area </li></ul><ul><li>With an increasing foreign participation </li></ul>
  42. 44. Special Sessions in IS Conferences <ul><li>AMICS (2004 – 2008) and HICSS (2005-2008) </li></ul>Special Issues in Journals <ul><li>JITTA (IT Theory and Applications) </li></ul><ul><li>JHSEM (Homeland Security and Management) </li></ul><ul><li>GDN (Group Decision and Negotiation) </li></ul><ul><li>IJEM (Int’l J. Emergency Management) </li></ul>Targeted Publications/Conferences/Journals
  43. 45. <ul><li>Special Section in Communications of the ACM, March 2007 </li></ul>
  44. 46. IN 2009: <ul><li>Launch of the International Journal of ISCRAM </li></ul><ul><li>To become a quality academic journal </li></ul><ul><li>Academic rigor and practitioner relevance </li></ul><ul><li>Quarterly, first issue to be published in January 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>EICs: Bartel Van de Walle and Murray Jennex (UCSD, USA) </li></ul><ul><li>4 AEs from USA, Europe, China and Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Editorial Board: global representation </li></ul>
  45. 47. <ul><li>JOIN IN! </li></ul>
  46. 48. <ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>References <ul><li>M. Turoff, M. Chumer, B. Van de Walle and X. Yao, “ The design of a dynamic emergency response information system ”, JITTA 5(4), 2004, 1 – 35. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Van de Walle, “ A relational analysis of decision makers’ preferences ”, Int. Journal of Intelligent Systems 18 (2003), 775 – 791. </li></ul><ul><li>Special Issue of JITTA, forthcoming spring 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Special issue of Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management, vol 2 issue 1, 2005 </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>