Thank you very much for your kind introduction. I am very grateful to be part of this conference. I am the head of the Sustainability and Energy Management Unit. It has been directly assigned to the Executive Board since the beginning of this year. Previously, I was responsible for 13 years for the Energy and Environmental Management Unit as part of the Facility Management Department. Before that I worked 11 years as a political scientist at an environmental policy research unit of Freie Universität Berlin.
First of all, let me say that my talk will focus on our energy efficiency policy, which we consider to be the flagship of our sustainable management strategy. I´ll begin by giving you an overview of the most important data and information regarding our university. I will show the long-term energy balances, which are the result of our activities. I will then talk about the key instruments of our sustainable campus management, introducing them in chronological order. Due to the limited time I will only describe three of our twelve key instruments in detail during the presentation.
I will close with some considerations regarding the lessons that we have learned over the last 14 years. As you can read, we will focus on the need for an intensive discussion on governance and participation.
Perhaps these conclusions can be taken as the initial points for a more in- depth discussion which can follow.
This slide shows the most important basic statistics on the Freie Universität. With around - 33,000 students, and- 5,100 employees, including almost 460 professors, the Freie Universität is one of the biggest universities in Germany. It has a budget of 414 million Euros, including third party funds of 112 million Euros. We have more than 200 institute and administrative buildings covering approximately 530,000 square metres in total.
Our environmental costs were as follows: In 2014, we had to pay 13.4 million Euros for electricity and heating, 1.3 million Euros for water supply and wastewater disposal, and 350,000 Euros for waste removal.
As you can see: energy is the most important factor in our environmental or sustainability management – This is due not only to the cost of energy, but also to the environmental impacts of our energy use.
Energy Balance 2000-2013
This is our energy balance from 2000 until 2014. The diagram shows the results of our energy efficiency activities; the red color is power, green is district heating, orange is natural gas and blue is heating oil. On the right, you can see that we have saved approximately 38 million kWh (falling from 161.5 to 123,4 million kWh =24 %) of electricity and heating energy during the last 13 years. However, if you excluded the area growth in the last two years, then you will see that we would have saved more than 26 percent.
Without these measures, the university´s energy expenses would have been 3.8 million Euros more in 2014. Without the area growth of the last two years we would have saved more than 42 million kilowatt hours or 26 percent of our energy.
We succeeded in reducing energy consumption for ten years between 2000 and 2011. Unfortunately, we did not succeed in reducing energy consumption in 2012 and in 2013. However, this was not out of the blue/ or unexpected; since then we have reached a point, where it has become more difficult to make additional energy savings.
It is worth mentioning that we have reduced heating oil use by nearly 90 percent. We therefore saved more energy in the thermal sector (around one third) than in the electricity sector. where we succeeded in reducing by “only” fifteen percent. Clearly, this was more difficult to achieve than the savings in the heating sector.
[Power savings are generally more difficult. On the one hand, this is due to the particularly fragmented structure of electricity appliances, and on the other hand it is due to the fast growing use of electricity in some sectors like IT or cooling - particularly in labs, greenhouses and data centers.]
[For the buildings whose energy was formerly provided by heating oil, we converted the oil-heating systems to gas or district heating. This enabled us to almost completely trim back our whole oil consumption. This year we want to convert the last 10 oil supplied buildings.]
[There is a simple explanation for the significant increase in our natural gas consumption in 2013: Last year we installed two highly efficient block heat and power plants which generate power and heating simultaneously.]
Primary Energy Balance
Here we will take a look at the primary energy input of the university. It shows a reduction of a total of 30 percent, including the area growth and nearly 33 percent without the increased area. Furthermore, the primary energy balance shows the increasing relevance of power, due to upstream energy generation in the field of electricity production. We reached the lowest primary energy consumption last year, this was due in particular to the two block heat and power plants we installed in 2013.
The balance of the CO2 emissions is very similar to the primary energy balance. You would see that we have saved 27 or 30 percent of our energy based CO2 emissions.
Specific Heating Consumption
What do you see here? The graph shows the annual heating consumption of selected buildings. The blue coloured pillars represent the annual heating consumption of our lab buildings, the yellow pillars are the social sciences or humanities buildings. The numbers within or above the pillars show the specific consumption per square meter.
The heterogeneous data you can see here are not surprising. Firstly, the most important buildings are the lab buildings. They need 3 to 7 times more heat per square meter than the humanities or administration buildings. Secondly, you can see a difference of 50 percent between buildings using a lot or little energy, depending on factors such as age, the quality of the building construction or the share of labs.
Therefore our overview demonstrates very clearly that as far as energy efficiency is concerned no simple solution exists. It is important to remember that what you must always do before implementing energy efficiency measures is to analyse the buildings as deeply as possible.
This slide shows the key steps in chronological order, which are also our key instruments. We don´t have time to discuss them extensively. Therefore, I will give you a short overview before talking in more detail about the red colored steps.
We began with the closing of metering gaps in 2001 and the establishment of an energy controlling system. There was no alternative and this enabled us to implement more profound building analyses.
A particularly important step in 2003 was our first energy efficiency programme which focused on modernizing the technical equipment of our buildings. These programmes were implemented annually until 2011. The next step in 2004 was the certification of our environmental management according to the international norm system ISO 14001. The management system includes a lot of different instruments such as controlling and reporting tools. The most important one was the establishment of environmental teams in all our scientific departments. The member of the teams became more and more the social base of the sustainability management.
Another very important key factor is the internal bonus scheme which started in 2007. This gives the departments direct financial incentives to implement their own energy saving measures. Since then the departments have received an annual bonus from the university’s budget if their energy consumption falls below an agreed baseline. The bonus amounts to 50% of the annual cost reductions. If they exceed the baseline, then they have to bear 100% of the costs.
In 2008, we installed the first photovoltaic plant on the roof of our physics building. Since then, eight additional photovoltaic plants have been commissioned, including one initiated and financed by the student initiative, UniSolar. The roofs are rented to external solar investors. The solar plants currently have an overall capacity of 675 kilowatts, which can generate about 600,000 kilowatt-hours (kWh) of solar energy annually.
You can recognize, from our energy balance that electricity must be the key approach in our energy efficiency strategy. Therefore, in 2011, we started a Green IT programme made up of several different instruments. The IT sector requires around a quarter of our entire power consumption. It is a fast growing sector although it involves several problems. Apart from getting staff used to these changes, the most important measures include an energy efficient data centre cooling, improvements in procurement and the optimisation of power management. Another of the main key measures is the consolidation and centralisation of servers.
Freie Universität was also the first higher education institution in Berlin to sign a climate protection agreement with the state of Berlin in 2011. The university has thereby committed itself to reducing its energy consumption by an additional 10 percent between 2010 and 2015.
In 2012 we closed the university for the first time for two weeks during the academic holidays in the Christmas/New Year period. We reduced the temperature in our buildings from the normal 21 degrees to 12 or 14 degrees. In total we saved 240,000 Euros of energy-and water costs and 80,000 Euro of cleaning costs.
In addition, in February 2013, Freie Universität installed two highly efficient block heat and power plants, which will make a significant contribution to reducing the university’s CO2 emissions. This was a typical win-win investment. The payback period for both plants will be less than 3 years. At the end of last year, we added a smaller third block heat and power plant. Furthermore, this month we have put into operation a fourth plant taking a biogas base.
Currently, we are transforming our energy and environmental management to a sustainability management system. I will give more details about this later.
Energy Controlling & Energy Monitoring
As I have mentioned, we started by closing metering gaps in 2001. The main reason for this was that we are not able to implement optimization measures without detailed information about the energy consumption of the buildings. Based on monthly meter readings by the operational staff, we were able to establish an energy controlling system which allowed us to analyze the energy use of our buildings. Since 2010 we have launched an online energy monitoring system step by step which opens the opportunity for more profound analyses. The picture on the left gives an example for such an analysis. It shows the power consumption in our closing time in comparison to the period a year before.
Energy Monitoring Example
This is another monitoring example of the bright colourful graphs obtained from our data centre. It shows the work of the cooling machines and several examples of optimization potential. However, please keep in mind that you can only generate optimization activities with such an analyses, if you discuss them with the operational staff and the scientists working in the building. Without the participation of teams and the engagement of all the staff involved, there is definitely no chance of being successfull in this field.
Annual energy efficiency programmes
Our main focus in the first years was to implement energy efficiency programmes for our buildings. The annual programmes were focused on the technical equipment, especially the modernisation of heating plants combined with new regulating technologies in the ventilation sector. We combined these measures with the insulation of flat roofs and upper storey ceilings. We spent 1.2 million to 2.5 million euros annually on the programmes until 2010. Today, 90 percent of the university's buildings area is heated by modernized energy efficient heating systems. The heating savings were between 15 and 50 percent, averaging 33 percent.
Key figures of selected modernisation projects
Here you see some key figures of selected typical modernisation projects. In every case we have modernized the heating system, partially including the heating plant and some construction works like the insulation of roofs or upper storey ceilings. As you can see from the duration of the pay back period (ROI) the money spent proved to be a very profitable investment.
Bonus Scheme for energy saving
The fourth key factor and a particularly important one is our internal bonus scheme (Prämiensystem), which is based on a defined baseline consumption. After a phase of improvements involving the modernisation of our buildings, we learnt that technical improvements had to be supplemented by organizational and behaviour- focused energy savings. You can read the goals here on the slide. It is a challenge to build up capacities for energy saving on the decentralised level of scientific departments. It involves several different approaches like the mobilisation of our caretakers or the consideration of energy costs when procuring labs or IT equipment.
Prínciples of the bonus scheme
The principles of the Bonus Scheme are very simple. The bonus system gives the departments direct financial incentives to implement their own energy saving measures. The departments receive an annual bonus from the university’s budget if the energy consumed by the departments’ buildings falls below the agreed baseline. The bonus amounts to 50% of the annual cost reductions. If the department exceeds the baseline, it has to bear 100% of the costs.
We call this principle a push & pull mechanism.
The financial results can be seen on the next slide
Bonus scheme - the financial results
These are the financial results of the bonus scheme.
In the last five years, all the departments received a bonus from reducing their energy consumption. Our largest and most energy-intensive academic department Biology, Chemistry, and Pharmacy received more than 212,000 Euro in 2012 and more than 270,000 Euro in 2011. As you can see, in 2007, the first year, the scientific department had to pay nearly 50,000 Euro. This additional payment leads to learning processes and proves the effectiveness of the bonus scheme.
Conclusions Bonus Scheme
In general, the bonus systems works to strengthen our position with regard to our scientific departments. On the other hand, our audits and checks in the buildings show that there is an additional saving potential for many of the university´s buildings. We had the impression that some departments became a little negligent. That´s why we decided to cut the baseline by two percent per year through 2012 and 2013 and by three percent in the last two years.
Furthermore, we decided to close the university over the period of Christmas / New Year for two weeks. This year we have organized the closing of the university for the third time. We reduced the temperature in all buildings to between 12 to 14 degree Celcius. We saved 220,000 to 260,000 Euro of energy costs with these measures.
The next two slides show the heating balances of two buildings. Normally it is very difficult to differentiate the outcomes of technical, organizational and behavioural based energy saving measures. A look at the following two buildings examples allows such analyses.
Institute Building, Faculty of Law
This slide clearly illustrates the different impacts of the energy efficiency measures that we have implemented. You can see the heat consumption of the main building of the Faculty of Law. First, from 2004 to 2005, we optimized the heating system with hydraulic balancing, installed new thermostat valves, and equipped the lecture rooms with manual controls for the ventilation. Before that the ventilation often ran for the whole day. Since 2005, the lecturers have been able to turn on the ventilation whenever needed – otherwise it remains off. This measure has led to a reduction in energy use of nearly 50%.
In 2008, we implemented the bonus system and established environmental teams. Ever since then we have had intensified communication about energy saving measures in this faculty and enabled our caretakers to play an active. The caretakers turn down the thermostats at the weekends and during holidays. As a result we can verify a further decrease of more than 20% in heating consumption. Between 2009 and 2012, the whole building was reconstructed with new windows and new insulation. These measures led to a further reduction of twenty percent. Currently, the building uses only about a quarter of the energy used in 2000/01. Therefore, the energy performance has now achieved the range of a low-energy building. Please notice the differences in consumption in the years since 2012. These differences remain unexplained. However, with online-energy monitoring we now have the possibility to see such negative trends earlier, allowing us to intervene when necessary.
The Chemistry Building
Our main chemistry building is another example of the different outcomes of different optimization measures. It had a huge annual heating consumption of more than 9 million kilowatthours until 2005. However, in 2007 and 2008 we installed frequency converters, enabling the department to save more than a quarter of its heating consumption.
The success was the result of close collaboration between the operational staff and the department administration. In 2010 we established the first online energy monitoring resulting in a very stable level of energy consumption. The two weeks when the building was closed at Christmas and New Year led to a further reduction in energy consumption. The 40 year old building currently consumes nearly 40 percent less heating energy than it did 10 years ago.
Transforming to Sustainability Management
This slide shows our current steps in sustainability management, which I mentioned at the beginning of the presentation. We are currently transforming our energy and environmental management through the implementation of sustainability management, which includes not only activities within the campus management but optimization measures for teaching and some outreach education activities. We will launch a steering committee, led by our president, in the next few weeks.
In January of this year we succeeded in getting funding from the German Academic Exchange Service to establish an international University Alliance for Sustainability. Together with our four strategic partner universities (Peking University, UBC in Canada, Hebrew University Jerusalem and St. Petersburg State University we will use their complementary strengths to develop joint research and teaching projects, and offer exchange options for faculty, staff, and students. We will also try to foster inter-institutional education with regard to management issues. Funding will also be made available for research stays for researchers, summer schools for PhD students and conferences on the topic of “Green Campus” for management personnel. Finally, we will provide several options for study and internships abroad.
What have we learned? Or, to put in in other words: What were the crucial structural success factors in our energy management programme?
On the one hand, we have to consider that the quality of every single project are general success factors, particularly the quality of energy controlling and energy monitoring. It is obvious that the modernization of the technical equipment in all the infrastructural sectors is also relevant. We have often highlighted technical and economic aspects or feasibility questions in studies and internal discussions. These insights are not really surprising. I hope my presentation has also shown that it is very useful and valuable to combine different steering and incentive instruments, and to use management tools as well as possible
On the other hand, it has become significantly clearer that contextual and organizational factors are having a strong influence on our success. What do I mean by this? For instance, I can refer to a holistic view on technology, organization and communication, and a combination of different steering and incentive instruments. The certification of a management system according to the ISO 14001 can be helpful. But, most importantly, sustainability management not only needs classical management instruments, such as controlling and evaluation tools. It is just as important to have the clear and strong (resilient) commitment of our top management and an authentic interest and collaboration with the most relevant management levels and entities.
As we all know, these key factors do not come from nowhere/ or out of the blue. Therefore, it is crucial to involve many levels and entities, in other words to embed your processes as widely as possible within the organization both by forming relevant teams and establishing a culture of esteem.
In summary, you can see that quality aspects of governance and participation matter in particular. Sustainability management is a very complex cross- sectional task. This is the main reason why the quality of governance and participation processes has a stronger influence on success than the appropriate management instruments and technical solutions themselves.
In effect, this means, that we should pay more attention to both these aspects. We all know, that there are a lot of open scientific and qualitative questions in these areas which are based on a micro-level approach. As practitioners we have to find answers to these questions in our daily work. It is certainly a good idea to integrate them in future research projects which we can organize as living labs.
ISCN 2015: WG 1, Andreas Wanke
Sustainability and Energy Management Unit
ISCN 2015: Expanding the Dialogue
Sustainability in a Connected World
Key Instruments for Reducing
the Carbon Footprint
at Freie Universität Berlin
Head of the Unit
Working Group 1, 2015-06-18
- Energy Balances
- In Chronological Order
- Governance and Participation
5,100 employees (4,230 FTE),
incl. 349 professors
(plus 110 junior professors)
ca. 200 buildings
with 530,000 m²
government grant: 298.5 million €
third-party funds: 124 million €
Datas: students 2015, employees end of 2014, energy costs 2014, water costs 2012, disposal costs 2013
13.4 million €
1.3 million €
0.37 million €
(incl. 4,300 PhD students)
founded in 1948
Energy Procurement 2000 – 2014
in million kWh, heating data weather adjusted
change to 2000/01
Cost Reduction 2014 (compared to baseline 2000/01): 3.8 million euro
Primary Energy Input 2000 – 2014
in million kWh, heating data weather adjusted, PE-factors with GEMIS
change to 2000/01
Used primary energy factors power - - - interpolated
Electrical Load Christmas/New Year
Key Instrument 1: Energy Controlling and
2001 / 2010
Closing metering gaps (in 2001)
Monthly meter reading by operational staff
Establishing an energy controlling system
Establishing a web-based online-energy
monitoring system since 2010
Energy Monitoring Example
Refrigerating machine 1
Refrigerating machine 2
Refrigerating machine 3
Free cooling in data center
Key Instrument 2: Annual Energy Efficiency
Programmes for Buildings
Modernisation of heating systems, ventilation plants and
regulating technologies (2003-2011)
Elimination of weak points in the building
construction (insulation of roofs &top storey ceiling)
High economic feasibility with payback periods
< 5 years
Heating savings between 15 % and 50 %,
averaged at 33 %
Key figures of selected modernization projects
Facility Silberlaube Düppel Ihnestr. 22
Used by Education and Psychology /
Veterinary Medicine Political and
Space in m2 31,708 m2 33,989 m2
Measures Modernization of heating
plant, optimization of
ventilation regulation and
Modernisation of Heating
centre (4,2 MW)
and heating plants in 24
Modernization of heating
plant, insulation of upper
Year 2003 2004 2003
Funds 161,972 € 803,578 € 65,849 €
Heating Saving 1,230 MWh/a 3,390 MWh/a 188 MWh/a
Power Saving 90 MWh/a 300 MWh/a 2 MWh/a
ROI (Energy Prices 2005) 2.2 years 4.4 years 6.6 years
ROI (Energy Prices 2008) 1.8 years 3.2 years 5.3 years
ROI (Energy Prices 2010) 1.6 years 3.6 years 4.7 years
Key Instrument 4: Bonus Scheme for
Capacity building in energy saving on
Organizational and behaviourally
based energy saving measures
Consideration of energy efficiency
when procuring labs and IT equipment
Energy Consumption of
Buildings Less of
Energy costs in €/kWh
x 50 %
Energy costs in €/kWh
x 100 %
Cut of the baseline by two percent per year in
2012 and 2013 and by three percent in 2014 and
Closing the university at Christmas / New Year
for two weeks, implemented since 2012/13
Institute Building, Faculty of Law
Heat Consumption, 2003 – 2014 in MWh
(2003: 139 kWh/m2 - 2014: 43,5 kWh/m2)
-22% -48% -46% -46% -60% -69% -71% -67% -71% -65% -69%
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
% changesto 2003
optimization of the heating system,
user buttons for ventilation
reconstruction of the
(insulation & new windows)
Heating Consumption, 2000-2014 in MWh
(2000/01: 400 kWh/m2 – 2014: 246 kWh/m2)
9238 9139 9113 9218 9171 8847
6641 6594 6320 6344 6359
2000/01 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Frequency Converters, Bonus
Scheme, ISO 14001 Certification
Start of Energy Online
compared to 2000/01
- 1.1% -1.4% -0.2% -0.7% -4.2% -10.4% -28.1% -28.6% -31.6% -31.3% -31.1% -37.2% -38.4%
Closing Christmas /
Transforming to Sustainability Management
Steering committee for sustainability
Sustainability mission statement
Certification according to EMAS
University Alliance for Sustainability
Quelle: Bernd Wannenmacher
Assistance from the top
& direct access to it
Combination of different steering
& incentive instruments
Authentic collaboration of
Quality of energy controlling &
Holistic view on technology,
organization & communication
Broad integration into the
university through team building
Involvement of all levels
Thank you very much!
Head of Sustainability and Energy
+49 30 83852254