Harnessing the Potential of      Social NetworksThe ABCs of usingsocial networkapproaches todesign andevaluate familyplann...
Panel Overview 1. What is social network analysis (SNA)? 2. SNA and intervention design 3. SNA and monitoring & evaluation...
Social network analysis: What is it?A theoretical perspective applied to research andprograms• Recognizes that individuals...
Why a social network focus?• Women and men make  decisions not as individuals but  as actors in a social system.• Social s...
How do networks support FP diffusion?Single  FP User                Social                    Support                     ...
Social networks influence diffusion             through….Social learning           Social influenceNetwork members        ...
Networks and FP UpdateFP uptake higher when an  individual is:- Highly interconnected- Centrally located in their  network...
What network research tells us Women who were ambivalent about FP supplement information with experiences of women whose b...
Malawi: Differences between men and     women in social learning about FPMen…                          Women…“Know” what n...
10       Key results: SN-based program review     • Combine elements of SN theory (i.e. social learning and social       i...
Using social networks for learning andinfluence 1. Opinion Leaders / Leaders Influents 2. Strategically Targeted Groups / ...
1. Engaging Opinion Leaders
1. Engaging Opinion LeadersWhat it is:• Working with individuals who have formal  power (religious leaders, clan leaders, ...
2. Working with strategically      selected groups
2. Strategically Targeted GroupsWhat it is:• Designing an intervention to be implemented  by or within the group• Example:...
3. Working with Leaders of Established               Groups
3. Leaders of Established GroupsWhat it is:• Work with leader of group, who in turn,  coordinates/leads the group interven...
4. Snowball Approach
4. Snowball ApproachWhat it is:• One individual informs/influences/invites  two friends. Those two individuals reach  thei...
5. Activating & Supporting Bridgesand ConnectorsWhat it is:• Intervene through individuals who interact  with two or more ...
6. Rewiring Linkages or Ties
6. Rewiring Linkages or TiesWhat it is:• Purposely connecting individuals who would  otherwise not interact with each othe...
How do SN interventions differ from    conventional outreach approaches?•    Focused on changing flow of information and  ...
Project TJ Example:Process for designing SN interventions                             How will the community be           ...
Design Process (cont.)4. Develop criteria for selecting SN intervention    •   Example: scalable, build on existing networ...
Tool: Social Network Design Grid  Problem: FP use among newly married couples considered                      unacceptable...
Monitoring and evaluation of social   network-based approaches
28     Theoretical considerations for     measuring innovation diffusion     • Need to monitor implementation       and ch...
29    Social network approaches to      monitoring and evaluation     Monitoring                Methods      Include proc...
Socio-centric network mappingMOST APPROPRIATE FORFORMATIVE RESEARCH1. Explains how   information and   influence diffuse  ...
Ego-centered network mappingMOST APPROPRIATEFOR EVALUATION1. Measures the effect   of interventions on   individual   know...
Illustrative Outcome Indicators                                           Community Network                               ...
Potential benefits of social networkapproachesDoes the application of network approaches…• Transform family planning progr...
Scale up Indicators           • Level of seed team functioning           • Degree of stakeholder             involvement P...
How do we apply TJ social network    approach at scale?•   Identify connectors/influencers through PLA, RRA    and key inf...
http://tinyurl.com/terikunda-jekuluRebecka Lundgren: lundgrer@georgetown.edu                                            36
For our interpreters: Social network    types in English1. Working with/through opinion leaders or key players2. Working w...
For our interpreters: Social Network types in French1. Travail avec ou via les leaders d’opinions ou les acteurs clés2. Tr...
Harnessing the Potential of Social Networks: The ABCs of using social network approaches to design & evaluate familly plan...
Harnessing the Potential of Social Networks: The ABCs of using social network approaches to design & evaluate familly plan...
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Harnessing the Potential of Social Networks: The ABCs of using social network approaches to design & evaluate familly planning programs

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Sparking Change through Social Networks, Addressing Social Barriers to FP Use

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Harnessing the Potential of Social Networks: The ABCs of using social network approaches to design & evaluate familly planning programs

  1. 1. Harnessing the Potential of Social NetworksThe ABCs of usingsocial networkapproaches todesign andevaluate familyplanning programs
  2. 2. Panel Overview 1. What is social network analysis (SNA)? 2. SNA and intervention design 3. SNA and monitoring & evaluation 4. SNA-based planning interventions
  3. 3. Social network analysis: What is it?A theoretical perspective applied to research andprograms• Recognizes that individuals interact with, learn from, and get information from other people• Focuses on relationships, not individuals “Who delivers the message, and in what interpersonal context, may be just as, if no more important, than the message itself, and may result in better, more relevant, and perhaps more effective programs.” - Valente & Fosados, 2006
  4. 4. Why a social network focus?• Women and men make decisions not as individuals but as actors in a social system.• Social structures are resources to diffuse and support SOCIETY innovations COMMUNITY RELATIONSHIPS INDIVIDUAL
  5. 5. How do networks support FP diffusion?Single FP User Social Support More FP Users Social Learning Social Influence
  6. 6. Social networks influence diffusion through….Social learning Social influenceNetwork members Network membersexchange ideas and follow norms of gatekeepers to gaininformation; and approval and avoidevaluate the relative conflict.benefits of innovation 6
  7. 7. Networks and FP UpdateFP uptake higher when an individual is:- Highly interconnected- Centrally located in their network- In a network with others who support and use FP
  8. 8. What network research tells us Women who were ambivalent about FP supplement information with experiences of women whose bodies and circumstances they perceive to be similar to their own. Women weigh reproductive decisions, not as individuals, but as actors in a traditional social system in which the needs of the extended family outweigh the significance of individual preferences. 8
  9. 9. Malawi: Differences between men and women in social learning about FPMen… Women…“Know” what network “Know” what networkmembers do from members do fromobservation conversationDiscuss pros and cons of FP Discuss details of FP methods, sources, sideHear about FP from radio or effectshealth-drama groups Hear about FP at hospital
  10. 10. 10 Key results: SN-based program review • Combine elements of SN theory (i.e. social learning and social influence) to give legitimacy to new ideas (social influence) while allowing individuals to adopt a behavior change through social learning. • When working with informal groups, such as grins or tontines, involve group members in identifying the “natural” leader of the group. • Use radio to complement SN focused interventions and create a supportive environment that encourages dialogue between friends, family members and peers. • Involve stakeholders in developing messages and encourage sharing these ideas with their discussion networks to relay the message to a larger network.
  11. 11. Using social networks for learning andinfluence 1. Opinion Leaders / Leaders Influents 2. Strategically Targeted Groups / Groupes Stratégiquement Ciblé 3. Leaders of Established Groups / Leaders des groupes établis 4. Snowball Approach / Chacun invite trois 5. Bridges and Connectors / Liaison & connecteurs 6. Rewiring linkages, ties / Reconfiguration de liens
  12. 12. 1. Engaging Opinion Leaders
  13. 13. 1. Engaging Opinion LeadersWhat it is:• Working with individuals who have formal power (religious leaders, clan leaders, elected officials)• Work with supporters or transform negative opinions into positive onesConsiderations:• Legitimizes innovation• Role models• Addressing norms leads to sustainable change
  14. 14. 2. Working with strategically selected groups
  15. 15. 2. Strategically Targeted GroupsWhat it is:• Designing an intervention to be implemented by or within the group• Example: Field workers lead FP discussions during water and sanitation committee meetingsConsiderations:• Information travels easily throughout group• Builds on existing connections• Reinforce/support new behaviors• Changing group norms reduces individual risk
  16. 16. 3. Working with Leaders of Established Groups
  17. 17. 3. Leaders of Established GroupsWhat it is:• Work with leader of group, who in turn, coordinates/leads the group intervention• Example: Leaders of women’s savings and loans associations trained in FP and asked to discuss during group meetingsConsiderations:• Depends on leader’s persuasiveness• Leader may not wish to be “positive deviant”
  18. 18. 4. Snowball Approach
  19. 19. 4. Snowball ApproachWhat it is:• One individual informs/influences/invites two friends. Those two individuals reach their friends and so on.• Example: Chacun invite trois , peer educatorsConsiderations:• Effective in reaching “hard-to-reach” groups• Participants “own” intervention• Model positive “deviant” behavior
  20. 20. 5. Activating & Supporting Bridgesand ConnectorsWhat it is:• Intervene through individuals who interact with two or more unconnected groups• Create or break bridge ties to strengthen or weaken information diffusion• Example: CBD workers bridges clinics and clients, mothers-in-law bridge FP information to daughter-in-lawConsiderations:• Can diffuse information between groups• Bridge persons can be bottlenecks
  21. 21. 6. Rewiring Linkages or Ties
  22. 22. 6. Rewiring Linkages or TiesWhat it is:• Purposely connecting individuals who would otherwise not interact with each other• Example: creating elder learning groups to connect women elders; connecting MOH staff in different technical areas by rearranging office spaceConsiderations:• Strengthens communication flow• Difficult to purposively change current network
  23. 23. How do SN interventions differ from conventional outreach approaches?• Focused on changing flow of information and social influence, rather than on individual behavior• Address social norms rather than practices• Work through informal as well as formal leaders to diffuse change through networks• Use influencers/connectors to inform, facilitate comparison, filter conflicting information and model attitudes/behaviors
  24. 24. Project TJ Example:Process for designing SN interventions How will the community be different as a result of this program?1. Formative research identifies structure of What will you see and hear social networks and FP as you walk through the community in five years? attitudes of network members2. Visioning exercise3. Define intervention goals and objectives
  25. 25. Design Process (cont.)4. Develop criteria for selecting SN intervention • Example: scalable, build on existing networks, gender perspective, potential for sustained change5. Brainstorm interventions (using resources such asresearch results, selection criteria, taxonomy of SNapproaches) • Identify problem to address (e.g. male opposition) • Brainstorm SN intervention approaches • Prioritize/select intervention(s)6. Obtain input from broader group of stakeholders
  26. 26. Tool: Social Network Design Grid Problem: FP use among newly married couples considered unacceptable Who will Who will be What activities? SN influence? influenced? approach(es)Mothers-in- • Daughters-in- Teas with mothers-in-laws Snowballlaw law • Sons Activity-based discussions facilitated by animators MILs talk with othersGrin • Grin Animators catalyze reflective Informal leadersmembers via members dialogs with grin leaders of groupssocial leader • Their wives • Other male Request to talk with others Snowball friendsMOH • Male social CHWs visit grins and give Reconfiguringsupervisors groups clinic tour networksand CHWs
  27. 27. Monitoring and evaluation of social network-based approaches
  28. 28. 28 Theoretical considerations for measuring innovation diffusion • Need to monitor implementation and change at multiple levels • Theory of change draws from: • Individual behavior change models (Health Belief Model, Trans- theoretical) • Ecological models
  29. 29. 29 Social network approaches to monitoring and evaluation Monitoring Methods  Include process • Ego-centric mapping indicators related to conducted with a networks representative sample generalizable to entire population • Measure changes in network structure and member attitudes
  30. 30. Socio-centric network mappingMOST APPROPRIATE FORFORMATIVE RESEARCH1. Explains how information and influence diffuse through entire network2. Guides development of interventions to harness social learning and influence
  31. 31. Ego-centered network mappingMOST APPROPRIATEFOR EVALUATION1. Measures the effect of interventions on individual knowledge, attitudes and practices2. Identifies changes in the way information and influence diffuse3. representative sample generalizable to entire population
  32. 32. Illustrative Outcome Indicators Community Network Individual Social factors catalyzingproperties changes capacity Flow of Perception that Ownership/ fertility/FP info husband and participation Use of FP through network network partners among members services partners support FP to interventions Couple % of members Mean/% of Men/women with communication with favorable network unmet need (index score) attitudes Size and Cohesive social Proportion of Woman/couple composition of network segments p/year efficacy for FP women’s supporting FP with met need use network use for effective FP % who report Methodnetwork partners continuation use FP
  33. 33. Potential benefits of social networkapproachesDoes the application of network approaches…• Transform family planning programs?• Focus attention on the social factors influencing unmet need and FP?• Increase the efficiency and effectiveness of community mobilization efforts?
  34. 34. Scale up Indicators • Level of seed team functioning • Degree of stakeholder involvement Process • Pace of scale up • Cost of implementation • Feasibility • Use of LQAS or sentinel sites toOutcomes measure unmet need
  35. 35. How do we apply TJ social network approach at scale?• Identify connectors/influencers through PLA, RRA and key informant interviews• Apply intervention in communities with similar social network structures• Identify people who are “equivalent” in the networks (similar social roles or positions in relation to others such as mothers-in-law and daughters-in- law, co-wives)• SNA considers similarities in relationship patterns
  36. 36. http://tinyurl.com/terikunda-jekuluRebecka Lundgren: lundgrer@georgetown.edu 36
  37. 37. For our interpreters: Social network types in English1. Working with/through opinion leaders or key players2. Working with/through groups located within the network3. Working with/through leaders within groups4. Snowball approach: Working with/ through individuals to reach/ connect with others in their social networks5. Bridges and Connectors6. Rewiring linkages, ties
  38. 38. For our interpreters: Social Network types in French1. Travail avec ou via les leaders d’opinions ou les acteurs clés2. Travail avec / via des groupes situés au sein du réseau3. Travail avec / via des dirigeants dans des groupes, ou combiner les dirigeants / les apprenants au sein des groupes4. Approche « boule de neige » : Travail avec / via des personnes pour atteindre / se connecter avec d’autres dans leurs réseaux sociaux5. Liaison & connecteurs6. Reconfiguration de liens

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