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Energy Efficient Solutions for FPSO
             Applications

    Presentation by Arne Spetalen
Head of Global Sales, Topsides Systems




                   Solutions for the Oil & Gas Industry
Scope of Presentation



1. Energy Efficient Solutions – What it means to Siemens.

2. Energy Efficient Solution for FPSO’s – Variable Speed Drive (VSD)

3. Mechanical versus Electrical Drive (Case Study)

4. Summary




                               Innovative and Reliable Solutions for Cleaner Energy Worldwide
Page 2
Energy Efficient Solutions;
  It all begins with Commitments


Our Vision is to Create Innovative and           Major R&D investments in Siemens AG
Reliable Solutions for Cleaner Energy
                                                   €3.9 billion in fiscal 2009, or 5.1% of revenue
Worldwide
                                                   31,800 R&D employees worldwide
                                                   17,000 software engineers
                                                   176 R&D locations in over
                                                   30 countries around the world
                                                   7,700 inventions in FY2009
                                                   More than 56,000 active patents


                                                   Our patent position in fiscal 2009:
                                                     Germany:               No. 2
                                                     Europe:                No. 2
                                                     USA:                   No. 12




                                         Innovative and Reliable Solutions for Cleaner Energy Worldwide
  Page 3
Subsea Power and Processing

                                                                 What’s involved?

                                                                   Production systems moved to sea bed
                                                                   Now – minimizing topsides
                                                                   Future – sub sea to beach – no topsides


                                                                   Operating - subsea transformers, VSD, motor, power
                                                                 distribution
                                                                   Near future – sub sea compression, process packages



Pros / Cons                                                      Selected References

  Significantly lower investment than surface installations        Statoil testing – subsea capable compressor ordered
  Unmanned facilities – safety for personnel                        StatoilHydro – SnoA, COP 8 Control System
  Reduced environmental impact                                     Statoil – SnoB, Gas Detection
  Suitable for arctic conditions / hurricane areas                 Norsk Hydro – SnoA, X-tree & Well Control
 Sound economic arguments                                          Saga / Hydro – Snorre B, DIACS
  Subsea experience to be built for machinery – reliability
subsea to be proven


                                                         Innovative and Reliable Solutions for Cleaner Energy Worldwide
  Page 4
Electric Power on Sea (EPOS)




•EPOS explores the value of stranded gas in areas in areas with no or limited gas transport infrastructure
                                                                no
•EPOS employs commercial plant technologies with very low risks related to production and operation
                                                                related
•It refines “lost” and marginal energy resources and offers a very low environmental footprint
             lost”                                                     environmental


                                               Innovative and Reliable Solutions for Cleaner Energy Worldwide
    Page 5
Cable from Shore

                                                              Involves:
                                                                Centralized power plant onshore
                                                                Electrical power transmission by HVAC or HVDC
                                                              technology depending on distance to grid/consumer and
                                                              power capacity
                                                                All electric drives on vessel / platform




Overall Objective                                             Selected References
   Removes CO2 obligations from platform operator
   Centralised power production reduces overall emissions        Statoil FEED - Luva project, North Sea
   and increases efficiency                                     300km offshore
   Maintenance costs reduced by removing the GT’s
   Increases reliability / availability on platform
   Economic case strong for cables to say 100km; study
   looking at 300km



                                                      Innovative and Reliable Solutions for Cleaner Energy Worldwide
 Page 6
Utilization of VSD as an Energy Efficient Solution
for FPSO Applications


                       Variable Speed Drive (VSD) Definition

  A VSD regulates the speed and rotational force, or torque output, of an
                            electric motor.


•Significant technology improvement over the last 15 years

•General knowledge about VSD’d have resulted in a larger
market share in the offshore market - fixed and floaters

•Wide speed range up to 15.000 rpm

•Currently, VSD’s up to 65 MW are being put in operation


                                                                        23 MW VSD in Holland



                                              Innovative and Reliable Solutions for Cleaner Energy Worldwide
Page 7
Development of Variable Speed Drive Systems

                                                                                                                  Project Snøhvit/
                                                                                                                  Hammerfest

                                                                                        Project SEGAS
   technical complexity & power range




                                                               Project TIGA



                                                                                                                   2x65 MW VSDS
                                                                                                                   1x32 MW VSDS
                                         Project OMAN                                     2x17 MW starter-         as prime movers
                                                                                          helper VSDS              of refrigerant
                                                                                          network analysis         compressors
                                                               4x10 MW starter-
                                                                                          dynamic &                network analysis
                                                               helper VSDS
                                                                                          vibration study          dynamic &
                                                               incl. scheme for
                                                                                          full load                vibration study
                                                               export of power
                                                                                          performance test         full load
                                                               MV switchgear
                                                               Automation                                          performance test
                                          4x7,5 MW VSDS
                                                               SHELL-
                                                               specification


                                        order date      1996                   1999                     2002                         2002
                                        operational     2000                   2003                     2004                         2005

                                                                              Innovative and Reliable Solutions for Cleaner Energy Worldwide
 Page 8
VSD Drive – Key Features

  Converter transformer                                                                 Frequency Converter

  Adapt the power system voltage to the converter                                       Rectify incoming power voltage & frequency to
  & motor voltage                                                                       generate a variable output voltage & frequency
  Provide for isolation and the pulse supply system                                     for the motor
  Limit possible fault current in thyristor circuit


                                                      Motor
                                                       Induction motor ~2-
                                                      20MW, to 15,000 rpm
                                                       Synchronous above
                                                       ~8MW, to 7000 rpm




                          VSD’s provides:
•Limited thermal and mechanical stress                                                                                     In Summary:
•No measurable tear and weir over time
                                                                                                                 A VSD solution is robust
•Not sensitive towards frequent starts and loads variations                                                           and almost
       .
•Limited number of moving components – easy to handle                                                               maintenance free
•Suited for 3-5 years continuous operation
            3-
•Small demand for stocking spare parts (very few required)


                                                                             Innovative and Reliable Solutions for Cleaner Energy Worldwide
 Page 9
Mechanical versus Variable Speed Drive; Case Study




                            Innovative and Reliable Solutions for Cleaner Energy Worldwide
Page 10
Energy Efficient Solutions Specifically for FPSO’s


    Selection of drivers for high speed
            rotating machinery.

           Electrical versus mechanical

 On what basis is this decision being made?

 By the mindset of individuals and/or by what’s
       regarded as ”company standard”?

                        Or

     By a proper case evaluation where energy
efficiency is one of the key criteria for making the
                      decision?

                                       Innovative and Reliable Solutions for Cleaner Energy Worldwide
 Page 11
Commercial Considerations

                                       Gas Turbine                          Electric VSD

    Auxiliary equipment    - Air intake, anti-icing and exhaust      - Utility substation
                           silencer                                  - Harmonic Filters
                           - Air filtration & Noise enclosure        - Converter building or module
                           - Fire and gas detection & Fighting       if required
                           - Emission control and regulation
                           - Additional lube oil system
                           - Hydraulic starter
                           - Water-washing system on-/offline
                           - Ventilation for cooling and pressure-
                           preset
    Maintenance            Very High                                 Very Low

    Scheduled Downtime     Approx. 5 days p.a.                       Approx. 1 day p.a.

    CAPEX                  Low                                       High

    Spare Parts            High                                      Low

    Insurance cost         High (Due to fire hazard)                 Low

    Pollution, emissions   High                                      “None”
                                                Innovative and Reliable Solutions for Cleaner Energy Worldwide
Page 12
Performance Related Considerations
                                        Gas Turbine                               Electric VSD
Output Power                            Highly depends on temperature             No adjustments for site conditions.
Output power vs speed                   Almost constant                           Proportional to speed
Full load efficiency                    < Approx 40 %                             > 96%

Part load efficiency                    < low at 70% load                         Always running at high efficiency

Starting reliability                    Lower than 100 %                          Typically 100%
Reliability                             Medium                                    High
Availability                            Medium                                    High
Restart after forced shut-down (trip)   Typically about 2 hours                   Immediately

Speed control range                     Limited speed range                       Less limitation
Speed control accuracy                  High                                      High
Design flexibility                      Low                                       High
Starting time                           Medium                                    Short (seconds)
Load assumption                         Approx. 15 min. after successful start    Instantaneous after switch-on, but limited
                                                                                  to compressor
Influence on power supply               None                                      Depends on char. of grid. Harmonic study
                                                                                  required
Dynamic braking                         Impossible                                Standard
Run out by power failure                Short time to stop                        Longer time (motor inertia), requires
                                                                                  more oil
                                                      Innovative and Reliable Solutions for Cleaner Energy Worldwide
  Page 13
Summary of Evaluation Criteria

                                                                             Speed control
                   Impact of ambient                                          range / part       Operational
                      conditions           CAPEX*              OPEX         load efficiency      flexibility **




                                                            Starting
                     Availability /    Interfaces /        reliability/       Weight /
                      Reliability        hook up        # starts allowed      footprint       Start up time




          *CAPEX – based on multiple GTGs and comps
          ** When moving from one field to another – ease of adaptation with existing VSD drives

                                                      Innovative and Reliable Solutions for Cleaner Energy Worldwide
Page 14
Case Study: Mechanical versus Electrical Drives


 Traditional concept using gas turbines as compressor drives: In this example
 your drive configuration on the FPSO appears as follows:

 Electrical load, GT rated at 32 degC                       19,000 kW (3 x 50%)
 Compression 2 x 100% LP shaft power                         2,200 kW each
 Compression 3 x 50% HP shaft power                          4,300 kW each
PG: 3 x 13 MW ISO (n+1)          LP: 2 x 3.1 MW ISO             HP: 3 x 6.0 MW ISO

                 G


                 G

                          Total installed gas
                 G
                           turbine power:
                                    Innovative and Reliable Solutions for Cleaner Energy Worldwide
  Page 15                        63,2 MW
Case Study: Mechanical versus Electrical Drives


 Here, the gas turbine drives are replaced by VSD’s:
 Power Generation                             19,000 kW                19,000
 Power for LP Compression (2x100%)             2,200 kW each            2,200
 Power for HP Compression (3x50%)              4,300 kW each            8,600
                                                            Σ 29,800 kW
PG: 4 x 13 MW ISO (n+1)

                             LP: 2 x 2.4 MW drives              HP: 3 x 4.7 MW drive


                                                                M
                                    M
          G

               G
          G

               G
 G




                      G
 G




                      G




                                                                M
                                    M
     Total installed gas                                        M
      turbine power:

Page 16
              52 MW                Innovative and Reliable Solutions for Cleaner Energy Worldwide
Summary of Example

Initial concept:
                                  By introducing VSD’s, your
          G
                                   total installed gas turbine
          G
                                  duties drops from 63,2 MW
          G
                                            to 52 MW.
                                   More importantly, number
                                   of gas turbines is reduced
Alternative concept:               by 50% (from eight to four)
                                   and we’re only having one
                                          turbine type
                       M
  G
  G
  G


  G
  G
  G
  G


  G




                       M
              M        M
              M

                           Innovative and Reliable Solutions for Cleaner Energy Worldwide
Page 17
Final Word: Why are VSD systems normally the
”looser” when decisions are made ?
                  1. Commercial                 2. Psychological:                  3. Technical:
 If the reasons
                    :
                   No secure source of            Electrical equipment, high            Outside the comfort
      are not      electrical power available     voltage in particular,                zone of mechanical
psychological,
                   at the facility                represent a safety issue for          personnel when it
then these are
  the reasons.                                    the workers                           comes to vibrations and
                                                  Uncertainty regarding the             harmonics as applies to
                   The procurement policy is      rotor dynamics from an                VSD systems.
                   focusing entirely on           electrically driven shaft
                   CAPEX, OPEX is not                                                  Need for step-up gear for
                                                  Lack of offshore
                   considered important                                                special applications
                                                  references
                                                  "Unproven equipment“
                                                  Outside the comfort
                    Focus is on rotating          zone of ops personnel
                    machinery drives alone
                    and not in combination        Lack of competence and
                    with the power generation     skills to evaluate VSD
                    plant                         systems and solutions




                                                  Innovative and Reliable Solutions for Cleaner Energy Worldwide
   Page 18
Thank you for listening
                                                     Water treatment
                     Power Distribution




         VSD




                                                                       Power Generation




Power Management
     System

                                                                               Compressor Systems


                                             Control system & Communication
                                                   (Offshore – Onshore)


                                    Innovative and Reliable Solutions for Cleaner Energy Worldwide
     Page 19

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Energy Efficient Solutions for FPSO Applications

  • 1. Energy Efficient Solutions for FPSO Applications Presentation by Arne Spetalen Head of Global Sales, Topsides Systems Solutions for the Oil & Gas Industry
  • 2. Scope of Presentation 1. Energy Efficient Solutions – What it means to Siemens. 2. Energy Efficient Solution for FPSO’s – Variable Speed Drive (VSD) 3. Mechanical versus Electrical Drive (Case Study) 4. Summary Innovative and Reliable Solutions for Cleaner Energy Worldwide Page 2
  • 3. Energy Efficient Solutions; It all begins with Commitments Our Vision is to Create Innovative and Major R&D investments in Siemens AG Reliable Solutions for Cleaner Energy €3.9 billion in fiscal 2009, or 5.1% of revenue Worldwide 31,800 R&D employees worldwide 17,000 software engineers 176 R&D locations in over 30 countries around the world 7,700 inventions in FY2009 More than 56,000 active patents Our patent position in fiscal 2009: Germany: No. 2 Europe: No. 2 USA: No. 12 Innovative and Reliable Solutions for Cleaner Energy Worldwide Page 3
  • 4. Subsea Power and Processing What’s involved? Production systems moved to sea bed Now – minimizing topsides Future – sub sea to beach – no topsides Operating - subsea transformers, VSD, motor, power distribution Near future – sub sea compression, process packages Pros / Cons Selected References Significantly lower investment than surface installations Statoil testing – subsea capable compressor ordered Unmanned facilities – safety for personnel StatoilHydro – SnoA, COP 8 Control System Reduced environmental impact Statoil – SnoB, Gas Detection Suitable for arctic conditions / hurricane areas Norsk Hydro – SnoA, X-tree & Well Control Sound economic arguments Saga / Hydro – Snorre B, DIACS Subsea experience to be built for machinery – reliability subsea to be proven Innovative and Reliable Solutions for Cleaner Energy Worldwide Page 4
  • 5. Electric Power on Sea (EPOS) •EPOS explores the value of stranded gas in areas in areas with no or limited gas transport infrastructure no •EPOS employs commercial plant technologies with very low risks related to production and operation related •It refines “lost” and marginal energy resources and offers a very low environmental footprint lost” environmental Innovative and Reliable Solutions for Cleaner Energy Worldwide Page 5
  • 6. Cable from Shore Involves: Centralized power plant onshore Electrical power transmission by HVAC or HVDC technology depending on distance to grid/consumer and power capacity All electric drives on vessel / platform Overall Objective Selected References Removes CO2 obligations from platform operator Centralised power production reduces overall emissions Statoil FEED - Luva project, North Sea and increases efficiency 300km offshore Maintenance costs reduced by removing the GT’s Increases reliability / availability on platform Economic case strong for cables to say 100km; study looking at 300km Innovative and Reliable Solutions for Cleaner Energy Worldwide Page 6
  • 7. Utilization of VSD as an Energy Efficient Solution for FPSO Applications Variable Speed Drive (VSD) Definition A VSD regulates the speed and rotational force, or torque output, of an electric motor. •Significant technology improvement over the last 15 years •General knowledge about VSD’d have resulted in a larger market share in the offshore market - fixed and floaters •Wide speed range up to 15.000 rpm •Currently, VSD’s up to 65 MW are being put in operation 23 MW VSD in Holland Innovative and Reliable Solutions for Cleaner Energy Worldwide Page 7
  • 8. Development of Variable Speed Drive Systems Project Snøhvit/ Hammerfest Project SEGAS technical complexity & power range Project TIGA 2x65 MW VSDS 1x32 MW VSDS Project OMAN 2x17 MW starter- as prime movers helper VSDS of refrigerant network analysis compressors 4x10 MW starter- dynamic & network analysis helper VSDS vibration study dynamic & incl. scheme for full load vibration study export of power performance test full load MV switchgear Automation performance test 4x7,5 MW VSDS SHELL- specification order date 1996 1999 2002 2002 operational 2000 2003 2004 2005 Innovative and Reliable Solutions for Cleaner Energy Worldwide Page 8
  • 9. VSD Drive – Key Features Converter transformer Frequency Converter Adapt the power system voltage to the converter Rectify incoming power voltage & frequency to & motor voltage generate a variable output voltage & frequency Provide for isolation and the pulse supply system for the motor Limit possible fault current in thyristor circuit Motor Induction motor ~2- 20MW, to 15,000 rpm Synchronous above ~8MW, to 7000 rpm VSD’s provides: •Limited thermal and mechanical stress In Summary: •No measurable tear and weir over time A VSD solution is robust •Not sensitive towards frequent starts and loads variations and almost . •Limited number of moving components – easy to handle maintenance free •Suited for 3-5 years continuous operation 3- •Small demand for stocking spare parts (very few required) Innovative and Reliable Solutions for Cleaner Energy Worldwide Page 9
  • 10. Mechanical versus Variable Speed Drive; Case Study Innovative and Reliable Solutions for Cleaner Energy Worldwide Page 10
  • 11. Energy Efficient Solutions Specifically for FPSO’s Selection of drivers for high speed rotating machinery. Electrical versus mechanical On what basis is this decision being made? By the mindset of individuals and/or by what’s regarded as ”company standard”? Or By a proper case evaluation where energy efficiency is one of the key criteria for making the decision? Innovative and Reliable Solutions for Cleaner Energy Worldwide Page 11
  • 12. Commercial Considerations Gas Turbine Electric VSD Auxiliary equipment - Air intake, anti-icing and exhaust - Utility substation silencer - Harmonic Filters - Air filtration & Noise enclosure - Converter building or module - Fire and gas detection & Fighting if required - Emission control and regulation - Additional lube oil system - Hydraulic starter - Water-washing system on-/offline - Ventilation for cooling and pressure- preset Maintenance Very High Very Low Scheduled Downtime Approx. 5 days p.a. Approx. 1 day p.a. CAPEX Low High Spare Parts High Low Insurance cost High (Due to fire hazard) Low Pollution, emissions High “None” Innovative and Reliable Solutions for Cleaner Energy Worldwide Page 12
  • 13. Performance Related Considerations Gas Turbine Electric VSD Output Power Highly depends on temperature No adjustments for site conditions. Output power vs speed Almost constant Proportional to speed Full load efficiency < Approx 40 % > 96% Part load efficiency < low at 70% load Always running at high efficiency Starting reliability Lower than 100 % Typically 100% Reliability Medium High Availability Medium High Restart after forced shut-down (trip) Typically about 2 hours Immediately Speed control range Limited speed range Less limitation Speed control accuracy High High Design flexibility Low High Starting time Medium Short (seconds) Load assumption Approx. 15 min. after successful start Instantaneous after switch-on, but limited to compressor Influence on power supply None Depends on char. of grid. Harmonic study required Dynamic braking Impossible Standard Run out by power failure Short time to stop Longer time (motor inertia), requires more oil Innovative and Reliable Solutions for Cleaner Energy Worldwide Page 13
  • 14. Summary of Evaluation Criteria Speed control Impact of ambient range / part Operational conditions CAPEX* OPEX load efficiency flexibility ** Starting Availability / Interfaces / reliability/ Weight / Reliability hook up # starts allowed footprint Start up time *CAPEX – based on multiple GTGs and comps ** When moving from one field to another – ease of adaptation with existing VSD drives Innovative and Reliable Solutions for Cleaner Energy Worldwide Page 14
  • 15. Case Study: Mechanical versus Electrical Drives Traditional concept using gas turbines as compressor drives: In this example your drive configuration on the FPSO appears as follows: Electrical load, GT rated at 32 degC 19,000 kW (3 x 50%) Compression 2 x 100% LP shaft power 2,200 kW each Compression 3 x 50% HP shaft power 4,300 kW each PG: 3 x 13 MW ISO (n+1) LP: 2 x 3.1 MW ISO HP: 3 x 6.0 MW ISO G G Total installed gas G turbine power: Innovative and Reliable Solutions for Cleaner Energy Worldwide Page 15 63,2 MW
  • 16. Case Study: Mechanical versus Electrical Drives Here, the gas turbine drives are replaced by VSD’s: Power Generation 19,000 kW 19,000 Power for LP Compression (2x100%) 2,200 kW each 2,200 Power for HP Compression (3x50%) 4,300 kW each 8,600 Σ 29,800 kW PG: 4 x 13 MW ISO (n+1) LP: 2 x 2.4 MW drives HP: 3 x 4.7 MW drive M M G G G G G G G G M M Total installed gas M turbine power: Page 16 52 MW Innovative and Reliable Solutions for Cleaner Energy Worldwide
  • 17. Summary of Example Initial concept: By introducing VSD’s, your G total installed gas turbine G duties drops from 63,2 MW G to 52 MW. More importantly, number of gas turbines is reduced Alternative concept: by 50% (from eight to four) and we’re only having one turbine type M G G G G G G G G M M M M Innovative and Reliable Solutions for Cleaner Energy Worldwide Page 17
  • 18. Final Word: Why are VSD systems normally the ”looser” when decisions are made ? 1. Commercial 2. Psychological: 3. Technical: If the reasons : No secure source of Electrical equipment, high Outside the comfort are not electrical power available voltage in particular, zone of mechanical psychological, at the facility represent a safety issue for personnel when it then these are the reasons. the workers comes to vibrations and Uncertainty regarding the harmonics as applies to The procurement policy is rotor dynamics from an VSD systems. focusing entirely on electrically driven shaft CAPEX, OPEX is not Need for step-up gear for Lack of offshore considered important special applications references "Unproven equipment“ Outside the comfort Focus is on rotating zone of ops personnel machinery drives alone and not in combination Lack of competence and with the power generation skills to evaluate VSD plant systems and solutions Innovative and Reliable Solutions for Cleaner Energy Worldwide Page 18
  • 19. Thank you for listening Water treatment Power Distribution VSD Power Generation Power Management System Compressor Systems Control system & Communication (Offshore – Onshore) Innovative and Reliable Solutions for Cleaner Energy Worldwide Page 19