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Leo Vegoda - IPv6: a universe if addresses


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Leo Vegoda - IPv6: a universe if addresses

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Leo Vegoda - IPv6: a universe if addresses

  1. 1. IPv6: a universe of addresses Leo Vegoda Number Resources Manager, IANA ICANN
  2. 2. IPv4: spreads like a pandemic1985IPv4  alloca+ons  began  in  1980.  Usage  was  light  in  1985  and  primarily  in  academic  and  research  networks. Data  source:  AfriNIC,  APNIC,  ARIN,  LACNIC,  RIPE  NCC 2
  3. 3. IPv4: spreads like a pandemic1995As  +me  progressed,  Internet  Service  Providers  building  IPv4  networks  and  offering  email  and  other  Internet  services.RFC  1466,  in  1993,  proposes  geographic  alloca+on  of  address  blocks  to  RIRs.    Classless  Inter-­‐Domain  rou+ng  introduced  in    1993. Data  source:  AfriNIC,  APNIC,  ARIN,  LACNIC,  RIPE  NCC 3
  4. 4. IPv4: spreads like a pandemic2000Mainstream  telecommunica+ons  providers  and  cable  companies  offering  broadband  services  using  IPv4.  ICANN  founded  in  1998  to  oversee  Internet  Assigned  Numbers  Authority.  RFC  2460  for  IPv6  standardized  in  1998. Data  source:  AfriNIC,  APNIC,  ARIN,  LACNIC,  RIPE  NCC 4
  5. 5. IPv4: spreads like a pandemic2010Today’s  concentra+on  of  IPv4  addresses  by  geography  based  on  data  maintained  by  RIRs. Data  source:  AfriNIC,  APNIC,  ARIN,  LACNIC,  RIPE  NCC 5
  6. 6. IPv4: launched the InternetOnly  3.7  of  IPv4’s  4.3  billion  addresses  are  available  to  the  RIRs  for  alloca+on.  The  rest  are  reserved  for  IP  Mul+cas+ng,  future  use,  loopback,  local  iden+fica+on  and  private  use.With  a  popula+on  of  about  7  billion,  only  about  half  of  the  world  can  have  an  address. 6
  7. 7. IPv4 Status 2010 /8s  allocated • 19 /8s have been allocated2010 19 so far this year • 8 have been allocated to2009 8 APNIC • ARIN & RIPE NCC have each2008 9 received 4 • LACNIC has received 22007 13 7
  8. 8. IPv4 Status 2010 • 7 unallocated /8s remain • 2 will be allocated under the global policy that was11:58 ratified in 2005 • The last 5 blocks will be allocated simultaneously as per the special global policy ratified in 2009 8
  9. 9. State of the IPv4 PoolLess  than  3%  of  total  IPv4  space  le  in  the  pool.  That  is  approximately  115  million  unique  addresses.Photo  by  Silverstealth.   9
  10. 10. IPv6: more than enoughIf  all  of  Earth’s  7  billion  people  received  a  /48  there  would  be  enough  for  trillions  of  worlds.  That’s  far  more  than  can  fit  in  Earth’s  orbit  around  the  sun,  which  can  only  hold  about  3,250.Each  /48  is  equivilant  to  1,208,925,819,614,629,174,706,176  unique  IP  addresses. 10
  11. 11. IPv6: spread evenly, like butterIn  2006,  all  five  RIRs   /12s  Allocatedreceived  a  /12,  when  the  global  IPv6  alloca+on  policy  was  ra+fied.   1 1None  of  the  RIRs  have  requested  addi+onal  IPv6  address  space  yet. 1 1 AfriNIC APNIC ARIN 1 LACNIC RIPE  NCC 11
  12. 12. Looking  in  more  detail2010  is  s+ll  early  days  for  IPv6  deployment.  But   Alloca2ons /32sit  is  clear  that  early  growth  is  happening  in  a  different  set  of  regions   85 87than  we  see  with  IPv4. 1004 27702 35224 2248 AfriNIC APNIC ARIN 1031 LACNIC 349 15599 338 RIPE  NCC Data  source:  AfriNIC,  APNIC,  ARIN,  LACNIC,  RIPE  NCC 12
  13. 13. One  missing  piece  for  IPv6  success? • One  key  suppor+ng  technology  is   DNS   • Deployment  of  IPv6  DNS  services   needed  in: • The  root • Top  Level  Domains • Support  for  glue  registra+on 13
  14. 14. IPv6 glue for TLDs in the rootIPv6  glue  for  TLDs  was  first  added  to  the  root  in  July  2004.  Since  then,  most  TLDs  have  added  IPv6  connec+vity  for  their  nameservers  and  we  track  the  diversity  of  rou+ng  for  TLDs’  nameservers.Red  =  0  networksOrange  =  1  networksYellow  =  2  networksPale  Green  =  3  networks Situa+on  in  mid-­‐October  2010Green  =  4+  networks 14
  15. 15. IPv6 has taken root in the DNSIPv6  addresses  for  the  root  DNS  servers  were  added  to  the  root  in  January  2008.  Addi+onal  servers’  addresses  have  been  added  since  then.The  map  shows  loca+ons  where  root  DNS  servers  are  available  over  IPv6. hgp://www.root-­‐­‐1.xml 15
  16. 16. Thank you