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Week2b Chpt 3 Learning Objectives


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Week2b Chpt 3 Learning Objectives

  1. 1. Assessment in Schools Developing Learning Objectives
  2. 2. Question (choose the best answer) <ul><li>Content Standards </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure that what is being taught is tested </li></ul><ul><li>Specify how well student are expected to perform </li></ul><ul><li>Identify what should be taught and tested </li></ul><ul><li>Determine the quality of an assessment </li></ul>
  3. 3. Test Maker Troubles <ul><li>What to Measure </li></ul><ul><li>How to Measure it </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The quality of an achievement test depends on how well both these problems are solved </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Revised Blooms Taxonomy Cognitive Domain Outcomes <ul><li>Remembering – recognize & recall </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding – interpret, classify, infer, explain, compare, summarize </li></ul><ul><li>Applying – execute, implement </li></ul><ul><li>Analyzing – differentiate, organize </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluating – critique, judge </li></ul><ul><li>Creating – plan, generate, produce </li></ul>
  5. 5. Test Planning <ul><li>There should be a direct relationship/alignment between Instructional Goals/Objectives of the course and the planned assessment of students’ learning. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Instructional/Learning Objectives <ul><li>When should they be written? </li></ul><ul><li>What might happen if you don’t? </li></ul>[2-3]
  7. 7. Selecting Objectives <ul><li>Complete and Comprehensive : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are all important objectives covered? Is each important? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Appropriate: </li></ul><ul><li>Are they in harmony with school goals and societal values? </li></ul><ul><li>Pedagogically Sound : </li></ul><ul><li>Considering Age, interests, needs of students. </li></ul><ul><li>Feasible : (Practical Utility) </li></ul><ul><li>Are they realistic (ability, time, facilities)? </li></ul>[pg. 58-59; 2-25]
  8. 8. Behavioral Objectives <ul><li>Focus is on observable action (Mager) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior – what the student will do </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conditions – of the performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Criteria – the standard of performance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What difficulties do you see with these? </li></ul>
  9. 9. Instructional Objectives <ul><li>Gronlund’s instructional objectives defined in terms of intended learning outcomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GIO – General Instructional Objective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Specific Learner Outcomes (SLO) - examples of what the student might do to provide evidence that GIO has been accomplished satisfactorily </li></ul></ul></ul>[pg. 62-63; 2-4]
  10. 10. GIOs and SLOs <ul><li>GIOs – Describe intended learning outcome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SLOs describe the intended outcomes in terms of explicitly stated, observable performances or behavioral patterns which provide evidence that the instructional goal has been accomplished. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. GIOs and SLOs <ul><li>GIOs – Provide context (significance & relevance) for the accompanying SLOs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Separately, none of the SLOs are ends in and of themselves. They are only a sample of the behaviors, skills, ability, or dispositions that a students is likely to demonstrate. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. GIOs and SLOs <ul><li>GIOs – Need not be stated in terms of observable behaviors (e.g., understands). They can be somewhat vague (general). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SLOs clarify the meaning of the GIO. They provide the operational definition of the GIO and make it measurable. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. GIOs and SLOs <ul><li>GIOs – Used to communicate main intent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SLOs define what we are willing to accept as evidence that the main goal has been achieved. They provide a sample of specific indicators of the main goal. There may be others. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. General Guidelines for Objectives <ul><li>Objectives should </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Begin with an action verb </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be stated in terms of observable changes in behavior or actions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stated in unambiguous terms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Context free </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relate to only one process </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Objectives & Verbs (see Appendix G2) <ul><li>Objectives should begin with a verb </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Domain : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knows, understands, applies, recognizes, formulates, judges </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Affective Domain: </li></ul><ul><li>Listens, enjoys, appreciates, accepts, displays </li></ul><ul><li>Psychomotor Domain: </li></ul><ul><li>Relates, demonstrates, performs, operates, creates, develops </li></ul>
  16. 16. Question (choose the best answer) <ul><li>Learning Outcomes should be stated in terms of </li></ul><ul><li>what and how the teacher should teach </li></ul><ul><li>the learning process students will employ </li></ul><ul><li>the specific content students will learn </li></ul><ul><li>None of the above </li></ul>[pg. 60; 2-5]
  17. 17. Guidelines for Writing GIOs <ul><li>Describe what the student should be able to do rather than what the teacher is expected to do </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor: demonstrate how to interpret weather maps, or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase students ability to interpret weather maps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better: Interprets weather maps correctly </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Guidelines for Writing GIOs <ul><li>Describe the intended product or result not the process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor: gains skills in problem solving, or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> studies various methods for solving algebraic equations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better: Solves basic algebraic equations correctly </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Guidelines for Writing GIOs <ul><li>Focus the task on what the learner is expected to do or know in general terms rather than specific topics or subject-matter content. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor: understands photosynthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better: Understands basic science principles </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Guidelines for Writing GIOs <ul><li>Define only one intended goal in each objective. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor: Knows and understands basic science principles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better: Understands basic science principles </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Guidelines for Writing GIOs <ul><li>Select an appropriate level of Generality. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Too General: Communicates effectively </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>About Right: Writes clear effective English </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Too Specific: Punctuates sentences properly </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Guidelines for Writing SLOs <ul><li>Start each SLO with an action verb. </li></ul><ul><li>The SLOs should provide a representative sample of outcomes students might be expected to demonstrate. </li></ul><ul><li>Each SLO must be relevant to the GLO. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep the SLOs context free. </li></ul><ul><li>Add a third level of specificity to the list if needed. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Practice <ul><li>Exercise 1 [handout 18-11] </li></ul>
  24. 24. Instructional Objective Example <ul><li>GIO – Students will </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare written plans for constructing instruments & procedures for assessing instructional outcomes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SLO – Students will </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create and submit written specifications for constructing an achievement test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide a well written description of the specific purposes for an assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify appropriate instructional objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outline content to be covered in an assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create a table of specifications for a test </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Practice <ul><li>Write 2 or 3 GIOs with appropriate SLOs. </li></ul><ul><li>Work with those at your table to refine and improve your work. </li></ul>