RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENERGY STORAGEA PRESENTATION BYKARAN DHAULGLOBAL ENERGY PVT LTD
RENEWABLE ENERGY….TODAYS REALITYWithout storage renewables will go back to the 60’s
WHAT IS ENERGY STORAGE?Storing energy allows grids tobalance the supply and demand.Energy storage systems incommercial use today can bebroadly categorized as mechanical,electrical, chemical, biological andthermal. • In the absence of storage, electricity must be used when it is produced. This requires a system that is constantly able to balance electricity generation with electricity demand (Swedish Energy Agency, 2010). • Excess supply of electricity in the grid will cause the voltage and alternating frequency to rise above the safe level causing electricity “surges,” too little supply and there will not be enough electricity in the grid for demand, causing shortages or “brown- outs” (CESPOS, 2009).
TYPES OF ENERGY STORAGEPower Source Storage Energy Type Status TechnologySolar Thermal Heat Salts Thermal Heat Pilot Projects EnergyWind 2 Gas Water Thermo-Chemical Under Development Electrolysis EnergyHydro Pumping Physical Energy Commercial Production Stations (Gravity Potential) (90% of energy storage worldwide)Geothermal Heat Salts Thermal Heat Commercial Production Energy where salt caverns are naturally occurringElectrical Li Ion, NAS, Chemical Energy Commercial Production Vanadium Redox
WHY DO WE NEED IT?1 Demand And SupplyWith a Steady Increase in Renewable Power Sources that Generate varying amounts of power and that tooonly during certain hours of the day, The Herculean Task of Matching Demand with Supply is getting harderday by day . PV and CSP, Wind, and non dam connected hydro are all must run type projects and cannot bemade to back down.2 Transmission BottlenecksAs most transmission capacities are usually utilized at a steady optimum point, during Surges in Productiongeneration can outstrip transmission by almost 50% of Line Capacities ( Case In point Tamil Nadu WindCapacity v/s Transmission Capacity).International Case Study:The ability to export excess electricity is limited by the transmission capabilities to do so.Larke and Lund note that in in 2006 and 2007, when Danish wind production only accounted toapproximately 15% of electricity generation, there were several occurrences when extremely heavy windsgenerated electricity volumes that exceeded not only domestic demand but the capacity of transmission linesto export it. A critical over-supply situation was avoided only by shutting down CHP production and 200MWsof turbines (Larke & Lund, 2008). As Denmark is now at 25% wind generation, and will likely be nearing 40%by 2020, there is potential for this situation to become more common.
THE SUN SHINES ON RENEWABLES Indian Capacity Addition in RE Power By 2017 Source: PGCIL Report on Green Corridors Global Capacity Addition in Renewable Energy % Increase % Increase 2009 2010Per annum 2011Per annumInvestment in New RenewableCapacity (Annual) 161 220 26 257 14Renewable Power Capacity(Excluding Hydro) 250 315 20 390 19Renewable Power Capacity(Including Hydro) 1170 1260 7 1360 7HydroPower Capacity (total) 915 945 3 970 2Solar PV Capacity (total) 23 40 42 70 42CSP (Total) 0.7 1.3 46 1.8 27Wind Power (Total) 159 198 19 238 16Solar heat/Hot Water (Total) 153 182 15 232 21Ethanol Production (annual) 73.1 86.5 15 86.1 -1Biodiesel production (Annual) 17.8 18.5 3 21.4 13Countries with policy targets 89 109 18 118 7Average YOY INCREASE 19.5 15.18Source:
RENEWABLE ENERGY PROGRESS REPORT- AN UPDATESOLAR THERMAL HEATING AND COOLING.Solar heating capacity increased by an estimated 27% in 2011to reach approximately 232 GW, excluding unglazed swimming pool heating. China again led the world for solar thermal installations, withEurope a distant second. Most solar thermal is used for water heating, but solar space heating and cooling are gaining ground, particularly inEurope.CONCENTRATING SOLAR THERMAL POWER (CSP)More than 450 megawatts (MW) of CSP was installed in 2011, bringing global capacity to almost 1,760 MW. Spain accounted for the vastmajority of capacity additions, while several developing countries launched their first CSP plants and industry activity expanded its attentionfrom Spain and the United States to new regions. Parabolic trough plants continued to dominate the market, but new central receiver andFresnel plants were commissioned during 2011 and others were under constructionGEOTHERMAL HEAT AND POWER.Geothermal energy provided an estimated 205 TWh (736 PJ) in 2011, one- third in the form of electricity (with an estimated 11.2GW ofcapacity) and the remaining two-thirds in the form of heat. At least 78 countries used direct geothermal energy in 2011. Most of the growth indirect use was associated with ground-source heat pumps (GHP), which can provide heating and cooling and have experienced growth ratesaveraging 20% annually. Geothermal electricity saw only modest expansion in 2011, but the rate of deployment is expected to accelerate withprojects under development in traditional markets and the movement into new markets in East Africa and elsewhere.HYDROPOWER An estimated 25 GW of new capacity came on line in 2011, increasing global installed capacity by nearly2.7% to approximately 970 GW. Hydropower continues to generate more electricity than any otherrenewable resource, with an estimated 3,400 TWh produced during 2011. Asia was the most activeregion for new projects, while more mature markets focused on retrofits of existing facilities forimproved output and efficiency. Hydropower is increasingly providing balancing services, includingthrough expansion of pumped storage capacity, in part to accommodate the increased use of variablesolar and wind resources.OCEAN ENERGY.After years that saw development of only small pilot projects, global ocean power capacity almost doubled in2011. The launch of a 254 MW tidal power plant in South Korea and a 0.3 MW wave energy plant in Spainbrought total global capacity to 527 MW.
In $$$$ and Cents….Global investment in renewable power and fuels increased 17% to a new record of $257 billion in 2011. This was morethan six times the figure for 2004, and 94% more than the total in 2007, the last year before the acute phase of theworld financial crisis.Wind is the most mature of the “new” renewable power technologies, and has usually been the biggest single sector forinvestment over recent years. However in 2011, it was out-stripped by solar, which attracted nearly twice as muchinvestment.Total investment in solar power jumped 52% to $147 billion.By contrast, total investment in wind power slipped 12% to $84 billion, impacted by lower turbine prices, policyuncertainty in Europe and a slowdown in China’s previously hectic growth in wind installations.Beaten into a distant second place by China in both 2009 and 2010, the USrallied to neck-and-neck with China in 2011, on the back of a 57% surge in USinvestment in renewables to $51 billion. Investment in renewable power andfuels in China gained a more modest 17% to $52 billion.
WORLDWIDE ANNOUNCEMENTSDenmark has announced that by the end of this decade, it will produce a third of its energy fromrenewable sources - wind power, in particular, but also solar power and the burning of "biomass.”Furthermore, the Danish Government has set a goal of running the entire country on renewables by2050.With the 20% Renewable Energy Standard mandate expected to be on the grid by 2013, and anongoing solar ramp-up to get to 33% by 2020, California now joinscountries like Finland and US regions like the Pacific Northwest that areconsidering distributed storage to gain more control during times ofover-generation, congestion and extreme system ramps.(6000 MW by 2020 )India is now enforcing Renewable energy Purchase obligations forlarge utilities, distribution Companies and Open Access Consumersof Electricity, boosting the Renewable energy Markets
Indian Experience – Ripe For storagePresently the total installed electricity generation capacity in India is about 200 GW (as on 31.03.12). Out of this about 12 % (24915 MW) is throughrenewable generation mainly wind (17353 MW) and balance is in the form of small hydro (3396 MW), Biomass (3225 MW) and solar (941 MW).• As per the FOIR Report, States with High wind Capacity Installed have major problems in managing the sudden surge in generation during the early monsoon, and are forced to back down conventional generation stations in order to avoid Over-Frequency Grid Tripping.• The Difference in Power prices on the exchange vary from a minimum of Rs. 2 per KWh to an average maximum of Rs. 9 depending on the time of Day (Peak/Offpeak).
More than a Smart Grid, WE need a “wise” grid,one that can store energy and use it wheN required THANK YOU