Day-4, Mr. Rajesh Kumar water power nexus


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Day-4, Mr. Rajesh Kumar water power nexus

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Day-4, Mr. Rajesh Kumar water power nexus

  1. 1. The Water:Power Nexus Rajesh Kumar Chairman Central Water Commission
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION  Interdependence between water and power.  The relationship can be mutually constraining.  It presents an opportunity to address both power and water issues together, because conserving one leads to conservation of the other.  The way we manage the delicate relationship between the two will have major implications on the future of our water and power crises.
  3. 3. WATER AND POWER RELATIONSHIP Power Process needs water • Hydropower • Thermal • Extraction and mining Water Process needs power • Transport • Pumping • Treatment
  6. 6.  2.45% of World’s Land Area  4% of World’s Renewable Water Resources  17% of World’s Population Indian Scenario
  7. 7. 7 Water – A vital Resource Essential for: • Life • Livelihood • Ecology Vital for Economic Development Crucial for: • Food Security • Energy security • National Security
  8. 8. Water Availability - INDIA Total utilizable water resources 1121 BCM Ground Water 431 BCM Presently meets the demand but is Inadequate for future demand Surface water 690 BCM Current utilization of SW 450 BCM ( 65% ) Current utilization Of GW 231 BCM (58%) Total water availability 1869 BCM Total Precipitation (rainfall + snowfall) 4000 BCM
  9. 9. PER CAPITA WATER AVAILABILITY (NATIONAL AVERAGE) Water Scarcity Line 1000 cu. m. per person per year Water stress Line 1700 cu. m. per person per year 5177 2200 1340 1140 1545 1820 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 1951 1991 2001 2011 2025 2050 WaterAvailibilty(Cubicmetreper capitaperyear)
  10. 10. Sector-wise Future Demand (BCM) Sector Probable Water Demand as Projected by NCIWRD (1999) (High Demand) 2010 2025 2050 Irrigation 557 611 807 Domestic 43 62 111 Industry 37 67 81 Energy 19 33 70 Others 54 70 111 Total 710 843 1180
  11. 11. DEVELOPMENT OF PROJECTS No. of projects Plan period Major Medium ERM Pre-plan period 74 143 0 Upto X Plan (2002-2007) 186 813 121 Reported completed during XI Plan 35 62 19
  12. 12. CONSTITUTIONAL STATUS OF WATER  Under the Indian Constitution, water comes under the State List (Item 17 in List II of the Seventh Schedule or the State List).  There has been an increasing debate about studying water in a holistic manner with a national perspective in mind.  Water is being handled by many Ministries in the Centre.
  13. 13. INTER STATE WATER DISPUTES  Interstate water disputes in India often prolong over long periods and tend to recur.  These long delays are partly due to elaborate judicial proceedings and deliberations. But more importantly, the adjudication proceedings are often circumvented and impeded by variety of political interests.
  14. 14. CURRENT INTER STATE RIVER WATER DISPUTES AND TRIBUNALS  Ravi & Beas Waters Tribunal  Vamsadhara River Water Dispute  Mahadeyi/ Mandovi River  Krishna River Water Dispute Tribunal  Cauvery Water Disputes
  15. 15.  Planning, development and management of water resources need to be governed by national perspectives.  Water resources development and management will have to be planned for a hydrological unit.  Appropriate river basin organisations should be established for the planned development and management of the river basins.  Water should be made available to water short areas by transfer from other areas including transfer from one river basin to another, after taking into account the requirements of the areas/basins.  Planning of water resources development projects should, as far as possible, be for multi- purpose with an integrated and multi-disciplinary approach having regard to human and ecological aspects including those of disadvantaged sections of the society. National Water Policy 2012
  16. 16.  There is need to ensure that the water charges for various uses should be fixed such as to cover at least the operation and maintenance charges initially and a part of the capital costs subsequently.  Management of the water resources for diverse uses should incorporate a participatory approach by involving users and other stakeholders alongwith various governmental agencies.  Both surface water and ground water should be regularly monitored for quality.  Effluents should be treated to acceptable levels and standards before discharging them into natural streams.  Minimum flow should be ensured in the perennial streams for maintaining ecology.  Efficiency of utilization should be improved in all the diverse uses of water and conservation consciousness promoted through education, regulation, incentives and disincentives. National Water Policy 2012
  18. 18. POWER SCENARIO IN INDIA  Growth in production of electricity has led to its extensive use in all the sectors of economy in the successive five years plans.  Over the years the installed capacity of Power Plants (Utilities) has increased to about 1,86,655 MW (by December, 2011) from a meagre 1713 MW in 1950.  Similarly, the electricity generation increased from about 5.1 Billion kwh to 789 Billion kwh in 2010-11.
  19. 19. GROWTH OF POWER SECTOR  Per capita consumption of electricity in the country increased from 15 kWh in 1950 to about 814 kWh in 2011.  About 90% of the villages have been electrified.  However, the country continues to have mismatch between demand and supply.  Energy and peak shortages to the tune of 8.5% and 10.3% respectively during the year 2010- 11.
  20. 20.  During the 11th Five Year Plan (2007—12), nearly 55,000 MW of new generation capacity was created.  Yet, there continues to be a peak shortage of about 9 per cent.  Peak power shortage is shortfall in generation capacity when electricity consumption is maximum. GROWTH OF POWER SECTOR
  21. 21. WATER- POWER NEXUS  There exists an inter-twining relationship between water and power.  Water is often regarded as an input for generating power in case of thermal and hydro-electric power stations.  However, when it comes to usage, the situation is reversed, particularly when it is used for extracting and distributing water.  Urban and rural water supply systems need power to distribute water through pipe networks and farmers need power to run pump sets and irrigate their fields.
  22. 22.  Given that agriculture is the largest user of water (80% in India), it is imperative that it is one of the focus areas of research in order to fully unravel the water-energy nexus. WATER- POWER NEXUS: IRRIGATION SECTOR
  23. 23.  Gradual shift to ground water as dependable source of water even in the areas covered under canal irrigation due to  In-adequate supply of canal water  Poor surface irrigation infrastructure  Today, ground water meets nearly 55% of irrigation requirements in the country.  Over-exploitation of ground water compounded by subsidized power for pumping in many states.  Excessive exploitation may lead to reduction in well yield, drying up of shallow wells, deterioration of water quality, increased energy required to lift water from greater depth and its consequent high cost. WATER- POWER NEXUS: EXCESSIVE DEPENDENCE ON GROUND WATER FOR IRRIGATION
  24. 24.  Energy efficiency could help address the adverse impact on small farmers due to increase in power tariff.  Innovative approaches are called for to better understand the water-energy nexus particularly from the farmer’s perspective.  Such research would help in scenario planning and take into account drivers such as demographics, consumption and production patterns, technology, globalization and environmental issues. WATER- POWER NEXUS: IRRIGATION SECTOR
  25. 25.  Another area, where water and energy are most visibly connected is the hydroelectric sector.  Further in-depth research and analysis could help identify the potential sites for hydroelectric projects taking into consideration resettlement and rehabilitation, submergence, social and cultural losses. WATER- POWER NEXUS: HYDRO-ELECTRIC POWER SECTOR
  26. 26.  Capacity building is required to bridge knowledge gaps, particularly at the local level. Awareness regarding the efficient use of energy and water is also crucial.  School and college curricula need to include these aspects which are a glaring gap that needs to be filled by developing suitable courses for the youth and training modules for teachers. WAY FORWARD
  27. 27. WAY FORWARD  Some observers feel that in addition to the knowledge gap and paucity of research, there is no single source where information on water and energy is readily available in India.  There are now several knowledge platforms on water, energy and climate change but they view these themes in isolation.  It may be possible for some of these knowledge platforms to find common sub-sets and present it to the public in a more coherent manner.