Grid Protection Systems - New Technologies


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Grid Protection Systems - New Technologies

  1. 1. GRID PROTECTIONSYSTEMS – NewTechnologies
  2. 2. © Siemens Ltd 20122Wide Area monitoringGrid Stability & SecurityProtection SystemsPower System OverviewTable of contentsFeedback
  3. 3. © Siemens Ltd 2012PageEnergy systems worldwide are changing…There is nothingpermanent except change
  4. 4. © Siemens Ltd 2012Capacity problems are posing economic risks…
  5. 5. © Siemens Ltd 2012The Smart Grid by Siemens is part of the answer.Constant energyin a world of constant change
  6. 6. © Siemens Ltd 2012Changing infeed patterns are challenging existinggrid infrastructuresWeekly loading of a transformer station in the rural area ofLEW-Verteilnetz GmbH – 2003 and 2011Source: LEWLoad in kW2001000-100-200-30012:00 0:00 0:00 0:00 0:00 0:00 0:00 0:0012:00 12:00 12:00 12:00 12:00 12:00 12:00Load profile 2003 Load profile 2011
  7. 7. © Siemens Ltd 2012Challenges inchanging energysystemsSignificant changes in energy systems requirea new Smart Grid infrastructureRenewable anddistributedgenerationLimitedgeneration andgrid capacityAging and/orweakinfrastructureCost andemissions ofenergy supplyRevenue losses,e.g. non-technical lossesSmart GridSolutionsBalancinggeneration &demand, newbusiness modelsLoadmanagement &peak avoidanceReliability throughautomatic outagepre-vention andrestorationEfficient generation,transmission, distri-bution &consumptionFull transparencyon distribution leveland automated lossprevention   
  8. 8. © Siemens Ltd 2012Transmission Applications
  9. 9. © Siemens Ltd 2012Transmission ApplicationsAging and/or weakinfrastructureTrendsIntegration ofrenewablesGrid capacity /Reliable energy supplyRegulationsCustomerchallengesIntegration of renewables:E.g. Feeding into the transmissionnetwork - in 2009 a power reversal intoa 400 kV network occurred due to PVgeneration, this now appears weekly in2011(1Aging and/or weak/ Complex gridinfrastructure:E.g. in 2012, a scale power blackoutoccurred in Northern/Eastern/NorthEastern India and, more than 650Mpeople were affected (2Grid capacity:Total worldwide installed generationcapacity will nearly double from 5324GW in 2010 to 9669 GW in 2030 (3Source: 1) LEW 2) Wikipedia 3) Energy Trends Study
  10. 10. © Siemens Ltd 2012TransmissionApplicationsGrid-specificenterprise ITOperationalITInformation &CommunicationAutomationFieldequipmentConsulting, planning up toimplementation and installationservicesBlackout prevention through intelligentsimulation and monitoring softwareAsset Management ISCM: IntegratedSubstation Condition Monitoring basedon new and existing componentsMinimization of life-cyclecosts and a long assetlifetime can be achievedthrough optimalmaintenance and avoidanceof overloads.Smart GridServicesBusiness analytics, IT integrationEnergy management system, networkstability and blackout prevention, gridplanning softwareBackbone communication technologypower line carrier systemSubstation automation with SICAM PASand SICAM 1703RTU, protection devices,power quality devicesNetwork consulting, asset management,product-related services, performancecontractsIntegratedsolutionsTransmission Applications – current portfolio ofSiemens Smart Grids
  11. 11. © Siemens Ltd 2012Distribution Applications
  12. 12. © Siemens Ltd 2012Key challenges drive automation in distribution gridsDistributed energysourcesTrendsRenewablesAging and/or weakinfrastructureNon-technical lossesCustomerchallengesIncreasing distributed and/orfluctuating generation:E.g. share of world renewablegeneration to triple from 4% to 13% in2030 1)Aging and/or weak gridinfrastructure:E.g. in 2002, outages in distributiongrids affecting industrial, commercialand residential customers cost the U.S.over $79 billion in total 2)Non-technical losses:E.g. in India T&D losses (5%), in Brazil(5.8%) due to non-technical causes,e.g. electricity theft, cable theft3)Source: 1) Energy Trends Study 2) U.S. 2002 CPI-weighteddollars 3) Brazil Regulator, Energy Trends Study
  13. 13. © Siemens Ltd 2012DistributionApplicationsGrid-specificenterprise ITOperationalITInformation &CommunicationAutomationFieldequipmentProducts – from field level to controlsystemsIntegration of SCADA and enterprise IT(existing and build-up)Systems are scalable and adaptable toexisting and future standardsCost reduction of operationson distribution level anddrop in outage timesthrough implementation ofintegrated solutions – fromfield level up to enterpriseIT.Smart GridServicesBusiness analytics, IT integrationDistribution management system, gridplanning & simulationWireless & wireline communicationDistribution / feeder automation substationautomationProtection devices, power quality devices,distribution / feeder automation devicesNetwork consulting, asset management,product-related servicesDifferentiationDistribution Application – current portfolio ofSiemens Smart Grids
  14. 14. © Siemens Ltd 2012Renewable Integration
  15. 15. © Siemens Ltd 2012Key challenges drive renewable integrationRenewable generationin distribution gridsTrendsIncreasing electricalloads in LV distributiongridsAging and/or weakinfrastructureCustomerchallengesOverload of distribution grids due tofluctuating renewable in-feedE.g. share of world renewablegeneration to triple from 4% to 13% in2030 1)High cost for integration ofrenewable generation through gridextensionLimited transparency on distributiongridDistribution grids are not designedfor bidirectional energySource: 1) Energy Trends Study 2) U.S. 2002 CPI-weighteddollars 3) Brazil Regulator, Energy Trends Study
  16. 16. © Siemens Ltd 2012MicrogridGrid-specificenterprise ITOperationalITInformation &CommunicationAutomationFieldequipmentSmart Grid diagnostics kit: consistentand continuous measurement deliverstransparency in the distribution gridoverloads and power qualityPlug & play configuration: install thepackage without difficult configurationsvarious communication solutionssecure VPN via GSMSignificant reduction ofinvestment cost required forintegration of renewablesand increase in efficiency ofdistribution grid.Smart GridServicesBusiness analytics, IT integrationDistribution management systemSmart Grid diagnostics kitSupport of standard communicationprotocols (e.g. IEC 870-5-101/104)RTUs for integration of power generation &loads and for controllable LV transformerPower quality devices, controllable LVtransformers, communication devicesConsulting for cost efficient grid extension,installation, commissionIntegratedsolutionsRenewable Integration – current portfolio of IC SGIntegration of distributed and renewable generation
  17. 17. © Siemens Ltd 2012Demand Response/Virtual Power Plants
  18. 18. © Siemens Ltd 2012Key challenges drive implementation of DemandResponse &Virtual Power PlantsGeneration & networkbottlenecksTrendsIncreasing peak loadpricesIncreasing distributed &renewable generationCustomerchallengesGeneration & network capacitybottlenecks:E.g. California, USIncreasing peak load prices:E.g. Germany 6% in 2009Dispatch load as most economicpower supply: Avoidance ofgeneration and network bottlenecksand high peak load pricesIncreased grid stability throughemergency load shed & selectiveload dispatchNew market opportunities fordistributed energy resourcesRising consumption
  19. 19. © Siemens Ltd 2012Virtual Power PlantGrid-specificenterprise ITOperationalITInformation &CommunicationAutomationFieldequipmentBusiness consulting for identificationand analysis of customer businessmodelsEnergy management system formonitoring, planning and optimizedoperation of DER, loads and storageFully automated demand responsemanagement system: DRMS platformfor load aggregation and enablementForecasting system for consumptionand renewable generationLinking together a number of individualplants to be combined to form a large-scale virtual power plantOptimized operation of decentralizedenergy resources, load & storage,enabling trading of energy flexibilityat minimized risk.Smart GridServicesBusiness analytics, IT integrationDemand response management system (DRMS) ,decentralized energy management system (DEMS)Support of standard communication protocols likeIEC 104 and OPC, etc. over public/private TCP/IPnetworksDistributed energy resources (DER) controllerDER controller, load controllerConsulting, system installation & maintenancesite enrollment & enablementIntegrated solutionsDemand Response & Virtual Power Plant – currentportfolio of Siemens Smart Grids
  20. 20. © Siemens Ltd 201220Wide Area monitoringPower System OverviewProtection SystemsGrid Security & StabilityTable of contentsFeedback
  21. 21. © Siemens Ltd 2012GSES System Structure and Tasks
  22. 22. © Siemens Ltd 2012Framework for futuristic Transmission Protection
  23. 23. © Siemens Ltd 2012DSA Procedure
  24. 24. © Siemens Ltd 2012
  25. 25. © Siemens Ltd 2012Page 25Security Requirements for Smart Grid Applicationsfrom a Variety of Potential Attacks (Examples)Generation / DER• Misuse of localadministrative rightsDistribution and Transmission• Falsified status information, e.g., from synchrophasors (PMU)in widely dispersed locations may limit the power flow.Customer• Prosumer behavior tracking,e.g., through smart meters• Fraud through smart metermanipulationMarket• Fraud based on falsified offers andcontracts (Customer, Utilities, DNOs, …)Operation• Unauthorized remoteservice access
  26. 26. © Siemens Ltd 2012Page 26Priorities in IT SecurityCapacity problems today –Cyber attacks tomorrowSwitch-Off is seen as one of the biggest risk in the context ofcyber security !Availability / Protection – Integrity – Confidentiality26th July 2012:America preparednessfor a large scale cyberattack is ‘3’ on a scale of1 to 10
  27. 27. © Siemens Ltd 2012Page 27Core Standards for Smart GridIEC TC57 Reference ArchitectureMarket CommunicationIEC 62325Common Information ModelIEC 61970 / 61968Cyber SecurityIEC 62351Smart MeteringIEC 61334 DLMS, IEC 62056COSEMSubstation AutomationDistribution AutomationDER AutomationIEC 61850Tele-control ProtocolsIEC 60870DKE RoadmapEU Mandate ReportIEC RoadmapNIST Interop Report
  28. 28. © Siemens Ltd 2012Page 28IEC 62351 produced by IEC TC57 WG15 –Enables secure modern Energy Control Networks Integrity protection and encryption of controldata Part 1: Introduction Part 2: Glossary Part 3: Profiles including TCP/IP (cover thoseprofiles used by ICCP, IEC 60870-5 Part 104, DNP3 over TCP/IP, and IEC 61850 over TCP/IP) Part 4: Profiles including MMS (cover those profilesused by ICCP and IEC 61850) Part 5: Security for IEC 60870-5 and derivatives(covers both serial and networked profiles) Part 6: Security for IEC 61850 Peer-to-Peer Profiles(profiles that are not based on TCP/IP) Part 7: Network and System Management Part 8: Role Based Access Control Part 9: Key Management Part 10: Technical Report regarding SecurityArchitecture Guidelines for TC 57 Systems Part 11: Security for XML FilesMergingUnitCircuitBreakerControllerCBCStation BusProcess BusSubstationControllerFieldDevicesControl CenterIEC61850IEC60870-5-101IEC60870-5-104DNP3GOOSESVMMS
  29. 29. © Siemens Ltd 201229Power System OverviewGrid Stability & SecurityProtection SystemsTable of contentsFeedbackWide Area Monitoring
  30. 30. © Siemens Ltd 201202.11.2012Wide Area MonitoringWhat is new?Measurements via RTU / SubstationAutomationSynchrophasors via PMUUpdate slowly (for example every 5 s) Continous update (measurementstream) with for example 10 valuesper second (= reporting rate)No time correlation for measurements Every measurement has a timestampRMS values without phase angles Phasor values (Amplitude and phaseangle) for voltage and currentDynamic View on Power Swingsand other dynamic phenomena
  31. 31. © Siemens Ltd 201202.11.2012PMUCalculation of “Total Vector Error”Amplituden- und Phasenwinkelfehlermüssen beide für die Synchrozeiger-genauigkeit betrachtet werden.Both amplitude and phase angle errorhave to be considered forsynchrophasor accuracy.
  32. 32. © Siemens Ltd 201202.11.2012Structure of a Wide Area Monitoring SystemUser Interface 1 User Interface 2PMU1 PMU2 PMU nIEEE C37.118PDC 1PDC 2ICCPto Control CenterRegion 1 Region 2PMU : Phasor Measurement UnitPDC: Phasor Data Concentrator
  33. 33. © Siemens Ltd 201202.11.2012SIGUARD Phasor Data Processing SystemApplicationSIMEAS R-PMUTPR / CPRSICAMPQSOffline-AnalyzingMeasurementsOnline/OfflineAnalyzingIEEEC37.118SIGUARDPDP
  34. 34. © Siemens Ltd 201202.11.2012UserinterfacePower System Status CurveMonitoring of- Online view or- Historic view (selectable)Phasor diagramsTime chartsGeographical View (Google Earth based)Event List
  35. 35. © Siemens Ltd 201235Power System OverviewGrid Stability & SecurityWide Area MonitoringTable of contentsFeedbackProtection Systems
  36. 36. © Siemens Ltd 2012Protective Relaying is the most importantfeature of power system design aimed atminimising the damage to equipment andinterruption to service in the event of faults. Itis therefore a co-factor among other factorsresorted to improve reliability of power system.Protective RelayingRole of Protection
  37. 37. © Siemens Ltd 2012The Purpose of ProtectionBut it can:Limit the damage caused by shortcircuitsWhile:Protecting people and plant fromdamageSelectively clearing faults inmilisecondsProtecting plant from overloadconditionsThe protection can not prevent system faults,Power system must operate in a safe manner at all times.
  38. 38. © Siemens Ltd 2012Causes and Probability of System Disturbances
  39. 39. © Siemens Ltd 2012Since protective relaying comes into action at the time ofequipment distress, a certain safeguard is necessary inthe unlikely event of its failure to act at the hour of need.Hence, two groups of protective schemes are generallyemployed -a) Primary Protectionb) Back-up ProtectionPrimary Protection is the first line of defense, whereasback-up relaying takes over the protection of equipment,should the primary protection fail.Principles of Relaying
  40. 40. © Siemens Ltd 2012The Primary Protection has following characteristicfeatures -1. It has always a defined zone of operation.2. It should operate before any back-up protectioncould operate, therefore, it should be faster inoperation.3. It should be able to completely isolate the faultfrom all the current feeding sources.4. It should be stable for all operating conditions.Primary Protection
  41. 41. © Siemens Ltd 20121. Back-up protection should provide sufficient timefor the primary protection to perform its duty.2. Back-up protection covers a wider zone ofprotection. Therefore, there is always a possibilityof large scale disturbance, when back-up relaysoperate.3. Under primary protection failure, several back-uprelays may operate for complete isolation of fault.Back-up Protection
  42. 42. © Siemens Ltd 2012Primary protections failure could be due to any of thefollowing reasons -1. Current or Potential Transformer failure2. Loss of Auxiliary Control Voltage3. Defective Primary Relays4. Open Circuits in Control & Trip Coil5. Failure of BreakerIt is therefore logical that back-up relays should notutilise any of the above items as common with primaryrelays.Reasons of Primary Protection Failure
  43. 43. © Siemens Ltd 2012Protection Concept The system is only as strong as the weakest link!DISTANCE RELAYCabling
  44. 44. © Siemens Ltd 2012Basic Protection Requirements Reliability dependability (availability)high dependability = low risk of failure to trip Security stable for all operating conditions ,high security = low risk of over-trip Speed high speed minimizes damagehigh speed reduces stability problems Selectivity trip the minimum number of circuit breakers Sensitivity notice smallest fault value
  45. 45. © Siemens Ltd 2012EvolutionFirst use ofelectromagneticrelaysFirst digitalapplication inWürzburg,GermanyThe digital agebegins for relaysIntroduction ofthe SIPROTEC4 product groupSiemens ishonored by Frost& Sullivan for theimplementation ofIEC 61850SIPROTECCompact –outstandingfunctionality andcompact designMore than onemillionSIPROTEC-devices inoperationSIPROTEC 5The newbenchmark forprotection,automation andmonitoring
  46. 46. © Siemens Ltd 2012EquipmentSignalconversionSignaltailoringProcessing(calculation)SignalanalysisTrippingsignalTrippingcoilCircuitbreakerProtection deviceAuxiliary supply Settings AnnunciationBinary InputsGeneral Structure of a Numerical Protection Device
  47. 47. © Siemens Ltd 2012Functional Integration
  48. 48. © Siemens Ltd 2012Functional ProtectionsBreakermanagementLine differentialprotectionOvercurrent andfeeder protectionBay controllerCombined linedifferential and distanceprotectionDistance protectionTransformerdifferentialprotectionFault Recorder
  49. 49. © Siemens Ltd 2012Scenario for a decentralized Feeder Automationsolution approach with 7SC80Substation BDMSBackhaulto ControlCenterCB Substation ARecloserLoad SwitchTransformerIEC 61850CommunicationNetwork, e.g. .WIMAX, Wi-Fi iNOP
  50. 50. © Siemens Ltd 2012Ethernet and IEC 61850The Initial Situation Devices communicate with oneanother through wiring. Slow serial communicationsprotocols are used (master-slavetechnique). Within a switchgear system,diverse, in part proprietarycommunications protocols areused. Frequently, a cost-intensive dataconversion is necessary. Redundancy can only beachieved by doubling thecommunication (two busses).Network Control LevelStation LevelField LevelProcess Level100V..120V, 1A/5A HardwiredHardwiredbinary inputs and outputsIEC 60870-5-101, DNP, ...IEC 60870-5-101 / 103, DNP, ...
  51. 51. © Siemens Ltd 2012Ethernet and IEC 61850The Solution Currently, an integratedcommunication without protocolconversion is possible up to theStation Level. Siemens masters andimplements communication up tothe Network Control Level andbrings this experience into thecontinuous standardization. IEC 61850 uses the standardEthernet. The standard supplies thought-out migration concepts, even forheterogeneous systems. The data model is future-oriented, independent ofinnovation advancements.Network Control LevelStation LevelField LevelProcess LevelIEC61850IEC61850solutionsfromSiemens
  52. 52. © Siemens Ltd 2012IEC 61850 communication within a substationControl CenterIEC 608705-104DNP3 TCPDigital InstrumentTransformerData via IEC61850-9-2CTVTxCircuitBreakerController123rdpartydeviceParallel wiringSubstation ControllerProcess bus3Station busControl / Inforeport(ca. 500 ms delay time)12GOOSE Inter IED Communication(ca. 10-100 ms, dep. on application)3Sampled Values(ca 2 ms delay time)MergingUnit
  53. 53. © Siemens Ltd 2012IEC 61850 – Future of the Communication of theEnergy Automation SystemsConventional andunconventional CT / VTNetzleitstelleDevice DeviceRouterFirewallMergingUnitIEC 61850 Station busProcess bus (sampled measured values IEC 61850 9-2)Communicationwith CCCIM IEC 61970IEC61850 CommunicationbetweenSubstationsData SecurityIEC 62351- 6IEC 61850Edition 2and Application forHydro and WindPower, andDistributedEnergyResourcesNetwork redundancyandtime synchronizationacc. IEEE 1588
  54. 54. © Siemens Ltd 2012Ethernet and IEC 61850We Think BeyondIEC 61850 and EthernetProtection & ControlDigital ConverterData Transmission according to IEC 61850-9-2*Standardization in workNetwork Control CentreDevice DeviceRouterFirewallGatewayMergingUnitCBControl UnitIEC 61850 Station BusIEC 61850 Process BusHarmonizationwith CIMIEC 61970* Communicationwith other Switch-gear Systems*Process ControlSystem
  55. 55. © Siemens Ltd 201256Power System OverviewGrid Stability & SecurityWide Area MonitoringTable of contentsProtection SystemsFeedback
  56. 56. © Siemens Ltd 2012Shaping tomorrow’s power networksThank You!