Vegetable Insecticide Update for Retailers

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This is a portion of the talk given at the Certified Horticultural Retailer meetings across Alabama. This provides some more research-based insecticide updates compared to the earlier uploaded talk. Both organic and conventional insecticides have been discussed. Extension resources are mentioned at the end of the slide show. For feedback, email bugdoctor@auburn.edu. Join me on Facebook - look for ALABAMA VEGETABLE IPM.

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Vegetable Insecticide Update for Retailers

  1. 1. Vegetable Insecticide Update 2013 Dr. Ayanava Majumdar (Dr. A) Ext. Entomologist & State SARE Coordinator Auburn, AL 36849 Tel: (251) 331-8416 bugdoctor@auburn.edu CHR Training Program, Summer 2013
  2. 2. Reference for this talk: 2013 SE Vegetable Production Handbook Download at http://www.thegrower.com/so uth-east-vegetable-guide/
  3. 3. What is IPM? • “Integrated pest management (IPM) is a threshold based decision management system which leads to judicious use of multiple pest control tactics.” • IPM is currently insecticide-intensive… • Major losses occur due to: • Lack of early detection of insects • Insecticide resistance by misuse • Loss of natural control with insecticides
  4. 4. USDA Crop Pest Management Practice Standard (NOP) • Level 1: Systems-based practices (cultural practices, sanitation, crop rotation, trap crops) • Level 2: Mechanical and physical practices (barriers, lures/traps, repellents, hand-picking) • Level 3: Biorational & other material (OMRI approved insecticides)
  5. 5. Insecticide Mode of Action (MoA) Receiving neuron Sensory neuron Neonicotinoids, Spino syn (mimic neurotransmitter) Cyclodienes, Pyr ethroids (act on receiving neuron) Carbamates, OP (act in the synaptic gap) Inhibit enzyme that breaks down neurotransmitter Flow of info Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC): 28 MoA classification
  6. 6. Trends in synthetic chemistries • Early insecticides were short chain>>quick activation • New insecticides: need “activation” by insect enzyme systems (target-specific) Carbaryl Malathion Zeta-cypermethrin Imidacloprid Spinetoram Chlorantraniliprole
  7. 7. Step-by-step handbook use • Pest confirmed >> locate crop page • Think about IPM – start with cultural control tactics • E.g., brown stink bug confirmed on tomato, then… Synthetic pyrethroids are listed in Table 2-26, Page 165 (details on next slide) Table 2-22, page 159
  8. 8. Step-by-step handbook use • Identify the pest by traveling to the site • Misidentification is common! • E.g., predatory stink bug (A) vs. phytophagous stink bug (B) Source: Clement Akotsen-Mensah, Alabama IPM Communicator newsletter, 2011, Vol. 2, Issue 3
  9. 9. Common name Product Pesticide type Oral LD50 (mg/kg) Best against Carbaryl Sevin D/S In, Ac (St, Co) 300 FB, FAW, SVB Methamidophos Monitor 4L In, Ac(Sys) 16 Aph, Thr, BAW Methomyl Lannate 40SP In, Ac (Sys, Co) 17 Thr, BAW IRAC Chemical class: 1A (Carbamates) MoA: inhibitor of enzyme (AChE), hyperexcites insects, nonselective
  10. 10. Updates for Class 1A, 1B • Inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme…NERVE ACTION • Lower control efficacy than other new insecticides (+, ++) – APPLY EARLY • Methomyl (Lannate) – good against loopers, hornworm, fruitworm, pinworm • Malathion (57% generic) – effective against small loopers; • very short residual against cucumber beetles, stink bugs in AL (2010, 2012 study)
  11. 11. Common name Product Pesticide type Oral LD50 (mg/kg) Best against Malathion Malathion In (Co) 1000+ FB, CB, SqB, SB?? Acephate Orthene In (Sys) 800+ FAW, Aph, Thr Diazinon Diazinon (RUP) I (Co) 400 WW, MGT, SqB Chlorpyrifos Lorsban 15G In (Co) 95 MGT, CW, WW, FAW IRAC Chemical class: 1B (Organophosphates) MoA: inhibitor of enzyme (AChE), hyperexcites insects
  12. 12. Common name Product Pesticide type Oral LD50 (mg/kg) Best against Cyfluthrin Baythroid XL In (Co, St) 1200+ ImCW, SqVB, CW, SB Gamma cyhalo Proaxis 0.5EC In (Co) - FB, CB, ECB, ImCW, SqVB, CW Fenpropathrin Danitol 2.4EC In, Ac (Co, St) 450 ImCW, SqVB, SqB Zeta-cyper Mustang Max 0.8 EC In (Co) 150-400 FB, CW, CB, SB, ImCW, SqVB Bifenthrin Brigade 2EC In, Ac (Co) 54 FB, CB, ImCW, SqVB, CW IRAC Chemical class: 3A (Pyrethroids) MoA: Act on sodium channels (receiving neuron) Contact/stomach: use for quick knock-down, nonselective Asana® XL insecticide
  13. 13. Fruit quality with Sniper (Bifenthrin) (Late season treatment, Cullman, 2012) Check plots Sniper (bifenthrin)
  14. 14. Updates for Class 4A • Neonicotinoid insecticides against sucking pests • Most can be applied to soil (transplant drench, drip irri.) or foliar spray • Systemic & contact action depending on application method • Imidacloprid (Admire): • Aphid, Colorado potato beetle, thrips control in tomatoes • Soil application @ 7 oz (21 d PHI) • Foliar application @ 1.2 oz (0 PHI) • Transplant water @ 2 oz per 10,000 plants (21 d) • Dinotefuran (Venom 70SG, Scorpion 35SL): • Cucumber beetle & squash bugs – Venom @ 4 oz , 21 d PHI • Stink bugs, whitefly in tomato – Scorpion @ 2 to 7 oz, 1 d PHI • Good action against stink bugs (tested in AL, 2012)
  15. 15. Insecticide study: Venom 70SG Location: Addison, AL, 2012 Crop: Squash Pest: Squash bugs Observation: Numbers indicate squash bugs per 10 plants randomly observed. 7.2 1.2 0.2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Obs. 1 (Sep. 4, 0DAT) Obs. 2 (Sep. 6, 2DAT) Obs. 3 (Sep. 12, 8DAT) Squash bug numbers (per 10 plants) Insects become paralyzed with outstretched legs.
  16. 16. Efficacy of Imidacloprid Observations: • Imidacloprid provides early season protection • Promotes plant establishment & growth • Earlier fruit harvest • Less buildup of insects
  17. 17. Master Gardeners IPM Project (2010): Plant Yield from Integrated Treatments Details Bell pepper yield, lb per plant ± SD Okra yield, lb per plant ± SD Tomato yield, lb per plant ± SD IPM Regime 1 Imida + Carb FR + Mala FR 3.6 ± 0.3 1.1 ± 0.6 1.9 ± 0.5 IPM Regime 2 Imida + Carb HR + Mala HR 2.1 ± 0.1 1.7 ± 0.5 3.2 ± 1.0 IPM Regime 3 Untreated check 1.8 ± 0.8 1.3 ± 0.7 2.2 ± 1.5 F 10.829 0.624 1.107 P 0.010** 0.567 0.390 Findings: • Yield response significant for bell peppers but not for okra, tomato • Yield increases: 100% bell pepper, 45% tomato • Spray of carbaryl & malathion did not provide large returns Baldwin County, 2010
  18. 18. Common name Product Pesticide type Oral LD50 (mg/kg) Best against Spinosyn A, D Entrust (SpinTor phase out) In (St) >5000 CPB, ImCW, CEW, FAW, BAW, CL, DBM Spinetoram Radiant 1SC In (St) >5000 CPB, CEW, ECB, ImCW, CL, Thr IRAC Chemical class: 5A (Spinosyns) MoA: Mimic neurotransmitter, hyperexcite insects Spinetoram (Radiant 1SC): • Microbial fermentation derivate • Application rate = 6-8 oz • Preharvest interval (PHI) = 1-3 days • Registered for many leafy veg., fruit crops, root crops, etc. Entrust: for ORGANIC producers
  19. 19. Fruit quality with Radiant (Clanton, 2012) Untreated check Radiant 8 oz + 0.25% NIS
  20. 20. Updates for Class 7 Pyriproxyfen (Knack/Distance): Insect growth regulator Very good against whiteflies (immatures only) Some delay in action Get absorbed in eggs Updates for Class 16 Buprofezin (Courier, Talus): Insect growth regulator (disrupts cuticle formation) Very good against whiteflies (immatures only) 3-7 d delay in action Talus for greenhouse tomatoes Whiteflies Biotype Q
  21. 21. Growth Regulator Insecticides Common name Product Pesticide type Oral LD50 (mg/kg) Best against Less effective Methoxyfenozide Intrepid 2F I (Co) >5000 CL, FAW, ImCW DBM, SqVB Buprofezin Courier I, Mi (Co) >5000 WF Pyriproxifen Knack I (Co) >5000 WF IRAC Chemical class: 7C, 16, 17, 18 Growth regulators: • Methoxyfenozide forces molting, long- lasting, 4-10 oz, 1 day PHI • Buprofezin inhibits chitin biosynthesis (homopteran), 9-13 oz, 7 day PHI • Pyriproxifen mimics juvenile hormone (homop.), 8-10 oz, 14 day PHI
  22. 22. Updates for Class 9 Pymetrozine (9B, Fulfill) Flonicamid (9C, Beleaf) • Selective homopteran feeding blockers (50% AI) • Specific to aphids (over 19 sp, incl. green peach aphid) • Suppression of whiteflies • Applied through spray or chemigation • 0 d PHI in tomatoes, 14 d PHI in watermelon • Excellent rotation partner
  23. 23. Spirotetramat (Movento) • New lipid biosynthesis inhibitor • Foliar systemic movement in plants (7 d activation time) • Good aphid, whitefly control • Alternative to neonicotinoids • Needs a surfactant • Residual action for 21 d (leaf surfaces) • 1 d PHI Updates for Class 23
  24. 24. Updates for Class 28 Chlorantraniliprole (Coragen) Flubendiamide (Synapse 24WG/Belt 4SC) • Ryanodine receptor modulators (nerve/muscle action) • Rapid cessation of feeding • Belt 4SC against armyworms @1.5 fl. oz. • Synapse 24WG against loopers, hornworms, fruitworms @ 2-3 oz • Apply early for small caterpillars • Foliar application • 1 d PHI • Excellent rotation partner
  25. 25. Fruit quality with Coragen (chlorantraniliprole) (Late season treatment, Cullman, 2012) Check plots Coragen foliar treatment 90% fruit damage 20% fruit damage
  26. 26. Fruit quality with Belt (flubendiamide) Cullman, 2012 Untreated check Belt 90% fruit damage <10% fruit damage
  27. 27. Spider mite management CAUTION: Many synthetic pyrethroids can flare up spider mites by removing predatory mites and other beneficial insects. Abamectin (AgriMek, 8-16 fl oz/acre): • Good rescue insecticide. • Contains synthetic abamectin and provides long-term residual control of TSM. • Do not apply more than two sequential applications of abamectin. • PHI on tomatoes is 7 days.
  28. 28. Spider mite management Bifenazate (Acramite, 0.75-1 lb/acre): • MOA: GABA agonist • Contact poison against motile stage of TSM • Has some ovicidal action (kills eggs) • Reduced toxicity to predaceous mites and beneficial arthropods. • Do not make more than one application per season. • PHI on tomatoes is 3 days.
  29. 29. Fenpyroximate (Portal, 2 pts/acre): • Mitochondrial electron transport inhibitor (METI), blocking cellular respiration • Stops mite feeding & egg laying, 7 days to kill • Good late season rescue insecticide • Limit to one application per year • Softer on predatory mites • Complete coverage essential Spider mite management
  30. 30. Insecticides for Organic Vegetable Production
  31. 31. Organic Approved Insecticides
  32. 32. Insecticide Mode of Action (MoA) Physical dessicant – kaolin clay, ash Contact action – vegetable oils, horticultural oils, neem, pyrethrin, insecticidal soap, spinosyn, Beauveria, Metarhizium Stomach action – Bt (Dipel), botanicals Volatile action – Garlic Barrier, Cinnamite
  33. 33. Pyrethrin/Pyrethrum • Broad-spectrum insect control • Pyganic 1.4EC, 5 EC – OMRI approved •Pyrethrin + piperonyl butoxide (PBO- synergist) not organic • Insects may recover 6% AI 6o% PBO Permethrin – NOT organic insecticide!
  34. 34. Friend of friends – Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) • Bt kurstaki acts on small caterpillars • Caterpillars in cool-season crops, tomatoes, pepper • Bt tenebrionis for beetles • Frequent appl., thorough coverage needed • Prefer the liquid than concentrate • 0 Pre Harvest Interval (PHI)
  35. 35. Fruit quality with Xentari (Bt aizawai) (Late season treatment, Cullman, 2012) Untreated crop with 90% caterpillar damage Xentari foliar treatment with 20% damage
  36. 36. Fruit quality with Pyganic (pyrethrum) (Cullman, 2012) Untreated check Pyganic foliar 90% fruit damage 30% fruit damage
  37. 37. Fruit quality with Xentari (Bta) + Pyganic (Late season treatment, Cullman, 2012) Check plots Xentari + Pyganic foliar
  38. 38. Insect pathogen: Beauveria bassiana • Contact action • Slow acting but effective • Target pests: nymphs & adults of whiteflies, thrips, aphids, mealy bugs, scarab beetles • Check label for OMRI OMRI approved
  39. 39. Neem-based Insecticides Neem (oil) OMRI approved Neem II (oil + pyrethrin) • Contact action, controls immature insects! • Look for azadirachtin on label (Molt- X, Neemix) • Target pests: aphids, armyworms, scales, thrips, WF • Clarified hydrophobic extract of neem oil may have no azadirachtin For commercial producers
  40. 40. Insecticide Premixes Azera (MGK): • OMRI approved • Mix of azadirachtin + pyrethrin • Interferes with molting, rapid knock-down • Contact, stomach action, IGR • Effective against stink bugs (brown marmorated stink bug) Mix of neem + pyrethrin (Green Light)
  41. 41. Common name Product Pesticide type Oral LD50 (mg/kg) Best against Spinosyn A, D Entrust (SpinTor phase out) In (St) >5000 CPB, ImCW, CEW, FAW, BAW, CL, DBM Spinetoram Radiant 1SC In (St) >5000 CPB, CEW, ECB, ImCW, CL, Thr MoA: Mimic neurotransmitter, hyperexcite insects Entrust: for ORGANIC producers Spinosyn
  42. 42. Spinosyn…a good rotation partner • Excellent for thrips, leafminers, looper, DBM, CPB, control • Monterey product is OMRI approved • 1 day PHI
  43. 43. Insecticidal Soap • Potassium salt of fatty acids • Control soft-bodied insects (aphids, whiteflies) • Some short-chain fatty acids are herbicides (household detergent) • No residual action, not rain fast OMRI Approved Not OMRI Approved
  44. 44. Kaolin Clay • Present naturally in soil in tropical countries • Foliar spray at high rate (25 lb/A) • OMRI approved – Surround WP (95% clay) • Natural desiccant, feeding deterrent
  45. 45. Vegetable Oils • Physical poisons • Short residue • Effective against soft-bodied insects • Do not use if temps are >90F • May not be OMRI approved Canola oil (96%) Soybean oil (93%) Sesame oil 5% Fish oil 92% Pyola Insect Spray = vegetable oil + pyrethrin
  46. 46. Organic Insecticide Research – Insecticide rotations – New formulations/delivery systems Good rotation partners
  47. 47. EXTENSION RESOURCES
  48. 48. Know the IPM Campaign! Campaign items: Display magnets, bookmarks (4 designs), IPM exhibitions
  49. 49. Vegetable IPM Website www.aces.edu/go/87
  50. 50. Alabama SARE Website
  51. 51. Join Vegetable IPM on Facebook! Advantages: Live updates, interact with researchers, videos and photos, IPM contest
  52. 52. The IPM Communicator (A FREE electronic newsletter) To signup: Email bugdoctor@auburn.edu Or sign up today on the sheet provided!
  53. 53. Organic Approved Insecticides

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