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Insect Orders to Know for Master Gardeners


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Insect Orders to Know for Master Gardeners

  1. 1. Entomology Crash Course for Master Gardeners Dr. Ayanava Majumdar Extension Entomologist Alabama Cooperative Extension System Gulf Coast Research & Extension Center 8300 State Hwy 104, Fairhope, Alabama 36532 Cell phone: 251-331-8416
  2. 2. Entomology Crash Course for Master Gardeners <ul><li>Objectives & course lay-out: </li></ul><ul><li>Techniques for basic insect identification </li></ul><ul><li>Practical ways of scouting </li></ul><ul><li>Use of monitoring devices </li></ul><ul><li>Use of trap crops for sustainable veg. prod. </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion on new invasive insects </li></ul>All presentations will be available on CD or website. … with emphasis on vegetable production
  3. 3. IMPORTANT INSECT PEST ORDERS Dr. Ayanava Majumdar Extension Entomologist Alabama Cooperative Extension System Gulf Coast Research & Extension Center 8300 State Hwy 104, Fairhope, Alabama 36532 Cell phone: 251-331-8416 PART 1
  4. 4. Fun Facts <ul><li>Insects have been around for at least 350 million years </li></ul><ul><li>Over 900,000 described species </li></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. has about 91,000 described species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less than 1% of these are considered pests </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Four largest insect orders: beetles (Coleoptera), flies (Diptera), ants (Hymenoptera), moths (Lepidoptera) </li></ul><ul><li>In the typical backyard there are >1000 insects at any given time </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><ul><li>have exoskeletons, segmented bodies and jointed appendages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>exoskeleton must be shed periodically </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Insects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three body regions (head, thorax and abdomen) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Six legs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Arachnids (spiders, mites, ticks): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two body regions (head and abdomen) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adults have eight legs </li></ul></ul>Insects and Their Relatives (Arthropods)
  6. 6. <ul><li>Insects need to shed (molt) their skin (exoskeleton) and produce a new larger one in order to grow. </li></ul><ul><li>The period between molts is called an instar. </li></ul><ul><li>Most insect life cycle consist of between 4 and 8 instars before they become an adult and stop growing. </li></ul>Insect Growth
  7. 7. <ul><li>Insects can drastically change in shape and form during their growth and development. This is called metamorphosis (change in form). </li></ul><ul><li>There are two forms of metamorphosis, complete and incomplete . </li></ul><ul><li>The stage of development of an insect will affect way you attempt to manage that insect. </li></ul>Insect Growth
  8. 8. Complete Metamorphosis <ul><li>Four distinct growing stages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Egg- immobile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Larvae- feeding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pupa- immobile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adult- reproduction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Butterflies, moths, flies, beetles, wasps, and bees. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Incomplete Metamorphosis <ul><li>Young resemble adults but without wings </li></ul><ul><li>No Pupal stage </li></ul><ul><li>Egg -> nymph -> adult </li></ul><ul><li>True Bugs, dragonflies, grasshoppers, termites </li></ul>
  10. 10. Coleoptera (beetles,weevils) Mexican bean beetle Some insect have defense markings (click beetle) Wireworms Vegetable weevil
  11. 11. Facts about beetles (Coleoptera) <ul><li>Characteristics: forewings are hard, hindwings are membranous, long-lived in soil, poor fliers </li></ul><ul><li>Have four life stages – egg, larva (grub), pupa, adult </li></ul><ul><li>Grubs have strong mouthparts & are root feeders </li></ul><ul><li>Beetles (adult) are foliage/flower feeders and may transmit diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Often overwinter in adult or larval stage which are tough-skinned </li></ul>
  12. 12. Diptera (flies) Vegetable leafminer Seedcorn maggots Mouth hooks of maggots
  13. 13. Facts about flies (Diptera) <ul><li>Characteristics: very good flier (one pair of wings), hairy body of adult, larva (maggots) hairless & reduced head, antennae small </li></ul><ul><li>Have four life stages – egg, larva (maggot), pupa, adult </li></ul><ul><li>Larva have mouth hooks to scrape root surface </li></ul><ul><li>Adult flies feed on nectar or solids (sponging mouth type) </li></ul><ul><li>Often overwinter in larval stage – tough-skinned maggots </li></ul>
  14. 14. Hemiptera (true bugs) Piercing-sucking mouthparts (beak) Stink bug Leaf-footed bug Aphids
  15. 15. Facts about true bugs (Hemiptera) <ul><li>Characteristics: triangular area on top, wings are partially hardened, antennae short </li></ul><ul><li>Some are beneficial species (assassin bugs, big-eyed bugs) </li></ul><ul><li>Have three life stages – egg, larva (nymph), adult </li></ul><ul><li>Often overwinter in adult stage – immatures are vulnerable to predation. </li></ul><ul><li>Piercing-sucking mouthparts </li></ul>
  16. 16. Lepidoptera (moths, butterflies) Fall armyworm Granulate cutworm Tomato hornworm Imported cabbageworm
  17. 17. Identifying larvae by structure Thoracic legs Abdominal prolegs Anal proleg Normal number of prolegs = 4 (cutworms, armyworms) < Number of prolegs = 3 (green cloverworm) Number of prolegs = 2 (cabbage looper) >>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Complete lifecycle – egg, larva (caterpillar), pupa, adult </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the adult moths are fastest fliers in insect kingdom. </li></ul><ul><li>Larvae are damaging stage, adult has siphoning mouthparts for sucking nectar </li></ul><ul><li>Some members have become insecticide tolerant (diamondback moth, corn earworm) </li></ul><ul><li>Try controlling these pests in early stages (small larva) </li></ul>Facts about moths & butterflies Head of butterfly showing siphoning mouthparts (coiled beak)
  19. 19. Orthoptera (grasshoppers) All you wanted to know about grasshoppers: <ul><li>Short-horned grasshopper (Acrididae) </li></ul><ul><li>Crickets (Gryllidae) </li></ul><ul><li>Mole crickets (Gryllotalpidae) </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Life stages: egg, nymph, adult </li></ul><ul><li>Damage is caused by overlapping generations (nymphs + adults) </li></ul><ul><li>Damage intense in dry years </li></ul><ul><li>Eggs laid in clusters in soil with sharp ovipositor, food for many natural enemies </li></ul><ul><li>Extremely mobile and have unique behavior patterns (e.g., infections) </li></ul>Facts about grasshoppers
  21. 21. Thysanoptera (thrips) Flower thrips Actual size = 5 mm Tobacco thrips
  22. 22. <ul><li>Actual size = 5 mm, commonly seen on flowers </li></ul><ul><li>Life stages: egg, larva, prepupa, pupa, adult </li></ul><ul><li>Damage is caused by the rasping mouthparts </li></ul><ul><li>Damage intense in dry years </li></ul><ul><li>Extremely mobile, moved by storms </li></ul><ul><li>Transmit diseases between plants </li></ul>Facts about thrips
  23. 23. Key insect orders <ul><li>Coleoptera </li></ul><ul><li>Diptera </li></ul><ul><li>Hemiptera </li></ul><ul><li>Lepidoptera </li></ul><ul><li>Orthoptera </li></ul><ul><li>Thysanoptera </li></ul>Questions?