Identification and threat from the Asian Citrus Psyllid


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Identification and threat from the Asian Citrus Psyllid

  1. 1. Dr. Ayanava Majumdar Extension Entomologist Alabama Cooperative Extension System Gulf Coast Research & Extension Center 8300 State Hwy 104, Fairhope, AL 36532 Cell phone: 251-331-8416
  2. 2. <ul><li>Discuss identification & biology of ACP </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss threat of ACP to Alabama citrus orchards </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss insects that may look like ACP </li></ul><ul><li>Extension & other resources </li></ul>Asian Citrus Psyllid = ACP Panel will discuss quarantine & management issues: Henry Fadamiro, Monte Nesbitt, Dennis Barclift, Ayanava Majumdar
  3. 3. ACP was first detected in 1998 in 1 county of Florida on backyard plantings of Murraya paniculata At present, 33 counties in FL have ACP Baldwin County (AL) has ACP! ACP has been found in many states, but Citrus Greening Disease is present in two states (LO & FL)  
  4. 4. Invasive insects share the same latitude, proliferate in absence of natural enemies? Florida Guangdong Soybean aphid Emerald ash borer Asian citrus psyllid India New York Human Activities 2002 2000 1998
  5. 5. <ul><li>Eggs are almond shaped </li></ul><ul><li>Eggs pale when fresh, turn yellow or opaque </li></ul><ul><li>Eggs laid on tips of growing shoot or tender leaves in clusters </li></ul>Host plants: all citrus plants, 2 species of Murraya (all Rutaceae) ACP EGGS
  6. 6. <ul><li>Nymphs: 5 instars, white to yellow color, red eyes, large wing pads </li></ul><ul><li>Development fails below 50 o F </li></ul><ul><li>Live in feeding pits created by adults </li></ul>53F* 51F 50F 51F 52F NYMPHS *Liu & Tsai 2000
  7. 7. <ul><li>Adult is 3 mm long, forewings broad apically </li></ul><ul><li>Brown band on wings around the border </li></ul><ul><li>Wings with reduced venation , prominent veins </li></ul>ADULT PSYLLID
  8. 8. <ul><li>Terminal antennal segment is darker… </li></ul><ul><li>Short, stout body covered partially by wings </li></ul><ul><li>Most favorable temp. for reproduction = 82 o F </li></ul><ul><li>Each female can lay 700-800 eggs </li></ul>ADULT PSYLLID
  9. 9. <ul><li>Active insect that rests with body at an angle </li></ul><ul><li>Adult psyllids readily jump on approach </li></ul><ul><li>Dispersion: good fliers, moved by wind </li></ul>Auburn Team at a Baldwin County location
  10. 10. <ul><li>Defense mechanism: </li></ul><ul><li>Masses of waxy filaments produced by nymphs to keep honey dew away! </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>ACP has piercing-sucking mouthparts </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of plant sap from foliage </li></ul>High reproductive capacity & survival of eggs/nymphs can cause rapid infestation (check new terminals)
  12. 12. <ul><li>CITRUS GREENING DISEASE (CGD) or Huanglongbing: </li></ul><ul><li>Worst disease of citrus </li></ul><ul><li>Bacterium Liberibacter </li></ul><ul><li>Originated in Guangdong Province, China (??) </li></ul><ul><li>ACP + Liberibacter in India (??) </li></ul><ul><li>Short feeding inoculates ACP </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>SYMPTOMS OF CGD: </li></ul><ul><li>Slowly kills the tree (vascular) </li></ul><ul><li>Deformed yellow leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Blotchy mottling, asymmetrical </li></ul><ul><li>Twig dieback </li></ul>CGD Video (Florida Dept of Agric.)
  14. 14. <ul><li>SYMPTOMS OF CGD: </li></ul><ul><li>Lopsided fruit </li></ul><ul><li>Partially green </li></ul><ul><li>Distasteful fruit </li></ul><ul><li>Aborted black seeds </li></ul>CGD Video (Florida Dept of Agric.) Remember: other disorders may cause diagnostic problems
  15. 15. of Asian Citrus Psyllid Michaud, 2004; Grafton-Cardwell et al., 2006
  16. 16. Lacewings: Chrysoperla rufilabris
  17. 17. Ash-gray lady beetle, Olla v-nigrum Multi-colored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis Spotless lady beetle, Cycloneda sp.
  18. 18. <ul><li>Tamarixia radiata , in FL from Taiwan </li></ul><ul><li>Female wasp lays eggs under ACP nymph </li></ul><ul><li>Parasite develops inside the body (arrow in picture) </li></ul><ul><li>Adult wasp emerges from an exit hole </li></ul>
  19. 19. Citrus thrips (Scirtothrips citri) Long bristles on wings Citrus mealybug (Planococcus citri) No wing-pads! Brown citrus aphid (Toxoptera citricida) Have tail-pipes! Trash bug (trash-carrying lacewing)
  20. 21. <ul><li>Has insect ID section </li></ul><ul><li>Has a Citrus Greening Tracker </li></ul><ul><li>Has a list of high risk activities </li></ul><ul><li>“ What to do if you sight ACP?” </li></ul>
  21. 24. <ul><li>Select a state </li></ul><ul><li>Directs you to local contact </li></ul>
  22. 25. ACP sighting should be reported to Alabama State Department of Agriculture
  23. 26. <ul><li>YouTube videos </li></ul>Image repositories:
  24. 27. <ul><li>Close collaboration with AL Dept. of Agric. </li></ul><ul><li>Workshops: 2 in Fall 2008 and continuing… </li></ul><ul><li>Factsheets with insect ID: </li></ul><ul><li>Web resources: </li></ul>WWW.ACES.EDU
  25. 28. <ul><li>Images: Univ. Florida, Univ. Nebraska,,, USDA-APHIS, USDA-ARS </li></ul><ul><li>Publications: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mead, 2008. The Asiatic Citrus Psyllid. UFL – IFAS Extension. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capoor et al. 1974. Greening Disease of Citrus. UC, Richmond </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grafton-Cardwell et al. 2006. UC Pub. 8205 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Michaud. 2004. Natural mortality of ACP. Biological Control. 29 (2). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liu & Tsai. ACP Biology & Lifetable parameters. Annals of Applied Biology. 137 (3). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tsai et al. 2002. Season abundance of ACP. Florida Entomologist. 85 (3). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Halbert and Manjunath. 2004. ACP & Greening Disease. Florida Entomologist. 87 (3). </li></ul></ul>
  26. 29. <ul><li>PANEL DISCUSSION </li></ul>Monte Nesbitt Henry Fadamiro Dennis Barclift Ayanava Majumdar
  27. 30. Pests Critical Times Control Materials Citrus Red Mites February-April 435 Oil, various miticides (new: Portal) Whiteflies March/April and July/August 435 Oil, Provado, Movento Thrips April/petal fall Insecticides: Portal, Movento, Success Citrus Rust Mites June-September 435 Oil, various miticides (Portal, Nexter, Agri-Mek) Scales July-September 435 Oil, Lorsban, Provado Leaffooted Bugs September-October Danitol, Mustang Maxx
  28. 31. February-April (prior to bloom) 435 Oil at 2% v/v Citrus red mites, whiteflies, ACP prevention June (early summer flush) 435 Oil at 2% v/v ACP prevention, citrus leafminer, rust mites, scales July Lorsban Scale, ACP prevention August Provado, Oil and Neemix Scales, Whiteflies, Rust mites, ACP prevention September Danitol with Oil LFB, Rust Mites, ACP prevention October Danitol or Mustang Maxx LFB, ACP prevention
  29. 32. January Lorsban 4e ACP overwintering February-April (prior to bloom) 435 Oil Citrus red mites, whiteflies, overwintering ACP Late April-early May; petal fall complete Movento or Portal ACP prevention, thrips, citrus leafminer June; early summer flush Provado + 435 Oil ACP, citrus leafminer, rust mites, scales July Portal or Movento Rust Mites, ACP prevention August Provado + 435 Oil Scales, Whiteflies, Rust mites, ACP prevention September Danitol + 435 Oil LFB, Rust Mites, ACP prevention October Danitol or Mustang Maxx LFB, ACP prevention