Certified Horticultural Retailer Training in Vegetable Pest Management (Fall 2013)


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This presentation was provided to small retailers that participated at the CHR training courses statewide in Alabama in 2013. It includes research highlights of conventional and organic insecticides suitable for retailers and small producers.

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Certified Horticultural Retailer Training in Vegetable Pest Management (Fall 2013)

  1. 1. Introduction to Vegetable Insect Pests & Insecticides Dr. Ayanava Majumdar (Dr. A) Ext. Entomologist & State SARE Coordinator Auburn, AL 36849 Tel: (251) 331-8416 bugdoctor@auburn.edu CHR Training Program, Fall 2013
  2. 2. Know the IPM Campaign! Campaign items: Display magnets, bookmarks (4 designs), IPM exhibitions 2
  3. 3. Vegetable IPM Website www.aces.edu/go/87 3
  4. 4. IPM Training Videos: ACES Fresh From the Field 4
  5. 5. Alabama SARE Website 5
  6. 6. Join Vegetable IPM on Facebook! Advantages: Live updates, interact with researchers, videos and photos, IPM contest 6
  7. 7. Join Commercial Horticulture on Facebook! Advantages: Live updates, interact with researchers, videos and photos, IPM contest 7
  8. 8. The IPM Communicator (A FREE electronic newsletter) To signup: Email bugdoctor@auburn.edu Or sign up today on the sheet provided! 8
  9. 9. 9
  11. 11. Squash vine borer (Mellitia cucurbitae) Prefer cucumber, squash, gourd. Females are clear wing moths. Females lay 150-200 eggs singly. Larvae burrow inside the stem & feed inside the stem. Abundance of excreta. Larvae overwinter in soil. Row covers & field sanitation. Hubbard trap crop on perimeter 11
  12. 12. Squash bugs (Anasa tristis) Flattened dorsal surface – great for hiding. Nymphs are whitish with reddish heads & legs Both adults & nymphs feed. Overwinter as adults. Eggs laid in masses. Heavy feeding causes sudden wilting of squash. Remove crop debris promptly. Transmit cucurbit yellow vine disease. 12
  13. 13. Cucurbit yellow vine disease • Transmitted by SqBs • Can be misdiagnosed as bacterial wilt • Caused by Serratia marcescens. • Survives in SqBs CYVD in Addison, AL, 2013 • Young seedlings more susceptible • Sudden wilting of vines midseason or after fruiting 13
  14. 14. Cucumber beetles Striped cucumber beetle, Acalymma vittatum Spotted cucumber beetle, Diabrotica undecimpunctata Severe feeding injury on watermelons • Attack seedlings – first 2 to 3 wk critical • Use row covers, reduce weeds • Transmit bacterial wilt on squash, cantaloupe, cucumber 14
  15. 15. What is it? Potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae Green peach aphid, Myzus persicae Monitoring/scouting techniques: Sample ten plants in several locations Yellow sticky traps at edge of field Like cool, dry weather Watch for ants and lady beetles ET = 50% leaves with aphids Host range: 40 host plants 15
  16. 16. What is it? Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca Host plants: tomato, peanuts, cotton, beans Monitoring/scouting techniques: Use sticky cards (yellow, blue) Bag and shake technique No action threshold Use resistant varieties (BHN 444, 589, 640, Bella Rosa) Tomato spotted wilt destroys plants 16
  17. 17. What is it? Monitoring/scouting techniques: Flea beetles (many species) Monitor level of defoliation Sample small plants with sweep net during morning hours Observe activity of parasitoids, predators (sweep net) ET = 5-10% defoliation early season, 2530% defoliation mid-season Host plants: potato, tomato, peppers, broccoli, cabbage, okra, etc. 17
  18. 18. What is it? Tomato fruitworm, Helicoverpa zea Monitoring/scouting techniques: Examine green fruit, stem terminals Scout for egg masses or larvae Host plants: tomato, cotton, soybean, corn (16 host plants) Use pheromone traps to detect first flight; ET = 5-10 moths per night when temp. is <85F ET is ½ if temp. is >85F Tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens 18
  19. 19. What is it? Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda • Caterpillars have an inverted Y mark on head • 4 black warts on 8th abdominal segment • Curl up when disturbed • Eats leaves and fruits • Moths can be detected using pheromone traps • Overwinters in Gulf coast • Host range: sweet corn, tomato, peppers • Premature drop & fruit rot 19
  20. 20. What is it? • Polyphagous insect (tomato, pepper, cotton, soybean, alfalfa) • Have many wild hosts – lambsquarter & pigweed Beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua • Creamish or light-green caterpillar, 4 pairs of prolegs • Black spot on thorax just above the leg • Early instars feed voraciously • Moths are attracted to weak plants Damage to pepper plant 20
  21. 21. What is it? Tomato hornworm, Manduca quinquemaculata • Overwinter as pupae in soil • Adults are hawk moths – rapid flyers • Larva has 8 white stripes on side • Larvae feed on foliage, then attack fruit • Host range: tomato, pepper, eggplant, potato • Repelled by marigold • ET = >1 larva per plant 21
  22. 22. What is it? Southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula Monitoring/scouting techniques: Use a sweep net Use pheromone trap (expensive? cumbersome?) Intensify scouting at fruit setting ET = 0.25 bugs per 10 plants (green fruit stage) Host: >52 plants Brown stink bug, Euschistus servus Lygus bug, Lygus lineolaris Stink bug feeding injury 22
  23. 23. Leaffooted bugs Leptoglossus gonagra Leptoglossus phyllopus Mass feeding causes fruit drop Leptoglossus zonatus 23
  24. 24. Spider mites • • • • Major pest of open field & high tunnel crops Extensive webbing on leaves/stems Rapid buildup in hot dry weather Difficult to control with approved pesticides 24
  25. 25. Emerging Crop Pests: Invasive Insects Brown marmorated stink bug, Hyalomorpha halys Bean plataspid, Megacopta cribraria Detected in AL in 2010 Seeks shelter in homes Infests kudzu, soybean, kidney beans, lima beans, etc. UGA Photos 25
  26. 26. What is IPM? • “Integrated pest management (IPM) is a threshold based decision management system which leads to judicious use of multiple pest control tactics.” • IPM is currently insecticide-intensive… • Major losses occur due to: • Lack of early detection of insects • Insecticide resistance by misuse • Loss of natural control with insecticides 26
  27. 27. Decision making in IPM… • • • • • • Insect detection & monitoring Insect identification Population pressure Economic threshold Make treatment decision Choosing right insecticide 27
  28. 28. USDA Crop Pest Management Practice Standard (NOP) • Level 1: Systems-based practices (cultural practices, sanitation, crop rotation, trap crops) • Level 2: Mechanical and physical practices (barriers, lures/traps, repellents, hand-picking) • Level 3: Biorational & other material (OMRI approved insecticides) 28
  29. 29. CONVENTIONAL VEGETABLE INSECTICIDES CAUTION: Use of product names does not mean endorsement by university! Use cultural, mechanical, and other pest management tactics first Insecticide use should be last resort! Read pesticide labels – LABEL IS THE LAW. 29
  30. 30. Insecticide Mode of Action (MoA) Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC): 28 MoA classification Inhibit enzyme that breaks down neurotransmitter Sensory neuron Flow of info Carbamates, OP (act in the synaptic gap) Cyclodienes, Pyr ethroids (act on receiving neuron) Neonicotinoids, Spinosyn (mimic neurotransmitter) Receiving neuron 30
  31. 31. Trends in synthetic chemistries • Early insecticides were short chain>>quick activation • New insecticides: need “activation” by insect enzyme systems (target-specific) Carbaryl Malathion Spinetoram Chlorantraniliprole Zeta-cypermethrin Imidacloprid 31
  32. 32. Step-by-step handbook use • Pest confirmed >> locate crop page • Think about IPM – start with cultural control tactics • E.g., brown stink bug confirmed on tomato, then… Table 2-22, page 159 Synthetic pyrethroids are listed in Table 2-26, Page 165 (details on next slide) 32
  33. 33. Check the efficacy table (Table 2-25, Page 164) Chemical classes (rotate!) Major pests on top of page Stink bug/H. bug +++ Very effective ++ Effective + Somewhat effective - Ineffective/insufficient data 33
  34. 34. Step-by-step handbook use • Identify the pest by traveling to the site • Misidentification is common! • E.g., predatory stink bug (A) vs. phytophagous stink bug (B) Source: Clement Akotsen-Mensah, Alabama IPM Communicator newsletter, 2011, Vol. 2, Issue 3 34
  35. 35. IRAC Chemical class: 1A (Carbamates) MoA: inhibitor of enzyme (AChE), hyperexcites insects, nonselective Common name Product Pesticide type Oral Best against LD50 (mg/kg) Carbaryl Sevin D/S In, Ac (St, Co) 300 FB, FAW, SVB Methamidophos Monitor 4L In, Ac(Sys) 16 Aph, Thr, BAW Methomyl Lannate 40SP In, Ac (Sys, Co) 17 Thr, BAW 35
  36. 36. Updates for Class 1A, 1B • Inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme…NERVE ACTION • Lower control efficacy than other new insecticides (+, ++) – APPLY EARLY • Methomyl (Lannate) – good against loopers, hornworm, fruitworm, pinworm • Malathion (50-55% generic) – effective against small loopers; • very short residual against cucumber beetles, stink bugs in AL (2010, 2012 study) 36
  37. 37. IRAC Chemical class: 1B (Organophosphates) MoA: inhibitor of enzyme (AChE), hyperexcites insects Common name Product Pesticide type Oral Best against LD50 (mg/kg) Malathion Malathion In (Co) 1000+ FB, CB, SqB, SB?? Acephate Orthene In (Sys) 800+ FAW, Aph, Thr Diazinon Diazinon (RUP) I (Co) 400 WW, MGT, SqB Chlorpyrifos Lorsban 15G In (Co) 95 MGT, CW, WW, FAW Dimethoate Dimethoate IN (Sys) Aph, leafhoppers, psyllids, thrips 37
  38. 38. IRAC Chemical class: 3A (Pyrethroids) MoA: Act on sodium channels (receiving neuron) Contact/stomach: use for quick knock-down, nonselective Common name Product Pesticide type Oral LD50 (mg/kg) Best against Cyfluthrin Baythroid XL In (Co, St) 1200+ ImCW, SqVB, CW, SB Gamma cyhalo Proaxis 0.5EC In (Co) - FB, CB, ECB, ImCW, SqVB, CW Fenpropathrin Danitol 2.4EC In, Ac (Co, St) 450 ImCW, SqVB, SqB Zeta-cyper Mustang Max 0.8 EC In (Co) 150-400 FB, CW, CB, SB, ImCW, Brigade 2EC In, Ac (Co) Bifenthrin SqVB 54 FB, CB, ImCW, SqVB, CW Asana® XL insecticide 38
  39. 39. Synthetic pyrethroid insecticides Table 2-26 4th gen. 3rd gen. 39
  40. 40. Fruit quality with Sniper (Bifenthrin) Late season treatment, Cullman, 2012 Check plots Sniper (bifenthrin) 40
  41. 41. Updates for Class 4A • • • • Neonicotinoid insecticides against sucking pests Most can be applied to soil (transplant drench, drip irri.) or foliar spray Systemic & contact action depending on application method Imidacloprid (Admire): • Aphid, Colorado potato beetle, thrips control in tomatoes • Soil application @ 7 oz (21 d PHI) • Foliar application @ 1.2 oz (0 PHI) • Transplant water @ 2 oz per 10,000 plants (21 d) • Sulfoxaflor (Closer): For aphid control, 2 applications/season • Dinotefuran (Venom 70SG, Scorpion 35SL): • Cucumber beetle & squash bugs – Venom @ 4 oz , 21 d PHI • Stink bugs, whitefly in tomato – Scorpion @ 2 to 7 oz, 1 d PHI • Good action against stink bugs (tested in AL, 2012) 41
  42. 42. IRAC Chemical class: 4A (Neonicotinoids) MoA: Mimic neurotransmitter at neuromuscular joints, hyperactivity Systemic action: many weeks of protection against pests, apply early Common name Product Pesticide type Oral LD50 (mg/kg) Best against Thiamethoxam Platinum SC In (Sys) >5000 Aph, FB, CB, SB Dinotefuran Venom 70SG In (Sys) >5000 FB, CPB, CB, SB, WF Clothianidin Belay 3G In (Sys) 4700 FB, CPB, SqB, CB Imidacloprid Admire 1.6F In (Sys, Co, St) 450 FB, CPB, Aph, SB Provado F Acetamiprid Assail 30SG CPB, CB, Aph, Thr In (Sys) - Aph, CPB, Thr Assail® insecticide 42
  43. 43. Master Gardeners IPM Project (2010): Efficacy of Imidacloprid Observations: • Imidacloprid provides early season protection • Promotes plant establishment & growth • Earlier fruit harvest • Less buildup of insects 43
  44. 44. Systemic insecticide (imidacloprid) reduces virus transmission in tomatoes Results of 1999 tomato test at Tifton, GA in terms of main plot (BHN444 resistance and silver reflective mulch) and subplot (different length periods of insecticide control of thrips) effects on number of thrips, % TSWV, and $ yield per acre, respectively. BHN444-silver mulch 47 b 28% b $7,233 a Sunny Hyb.-silver mulch 49 b 57% a $4,721 ab Sunny Hyb.-black mulch 64 a 67% a $3,602 b Admire + four weeks of foliar sprays 53 b 28% c $6,685 a Admire + two weeks of foliar sprays 57 b 56% ab $6,102 a Admire + eight weeks of foliar sprays 13 c 44% ab $5,781 a Admire + one week of foliar sprays 70 a 58% ab $3,777 b Untreated check 73 a 67% a $3,580 b David Riley, UGA, http://wiki.bugwood.org/Thrips_and_Spotted_Wilt_Management_in_Tomato 44
  45. 45. IRAC Chemical class: 4C MoA: Nerve poison, primarily by ingestion Limited to 2 applications/season Common name Product Pesticide type Oral LD50 (mg/kg) Best against Sulfoxaflor Closer In Aph, leafhopper, scale insects 45
  46. 46. IRAC Chemical class: 5 (Spinosyns) MoA: Mimic neurotransmitter, hyperexcite insects Common name Product Pesticide type Oral LD50 (mg/kg) Best against Spinosyn A, D Entrust (SpinTor phase out) In (St) >5000 CPB, ImCW, CEW, FAW, Radiant 1SC In (St) Spinetoram BAW, CL, DBM >5000 CPB, CEW, ECB, ImCW, CL, Thr Spinetoram (Radiant 1SC): • Microbial fermentation derivate • Application rate = 6-8 oz • Preharvest interval (PHI) = 1-3 days • Registered for many leafy veg., fruit crops, root crops, etc. Entrust: for ORGANIC producers 46
  47. 47. Updates for Class 5 Radiant: • 2nd generation spisosyn with long residual (10-14 d) • Strong contact poison (nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activators) • Foliar application, overhead chemigation • Excellent against thrips, CEW, ICW, loopers, armyworms • In AL, provides 7-10 d relief against cabbage loopers & armyworms • 1 d PHI • Great fruit quality 47
  48. 48. Fruit quality with Radiant (spinetoram) Late season treatment, Cullman, 2012 Check plots Radiant foliar treatment 48
  49. 49. Updates for Class 7 Pyriproxyfen (Knack/Distance): Insect growth regulator Very good against whiteflies (immatures only) Some delay in action Get absorbed in eggs Updates for Class 16 Buprofezin (Courier, Talus): Insect growth regulator (disrupts cuticle formation) Very good against whiteflies (immatures only) 3-7 d delay in action Whiteflies Biotype Q Talus for greenhouse tomatoes 49
  50. 50. Growth Regulator Insecticides IRAC Chemical class: 7C, 16, 17, 18 Common name Product Pesticide type Oral LD50 (mg/kg) Best against Less effective Methoxyfenozide Intrepid 2F I (Co) >5000 CL, FAW, ImCW DBM, SqVB Buprofezin Courier I, Mi (Co) >5000 WF Pyriproxifen Knack I (Co) >5000 WF Growth regulators: • Methoxyfenozide forces molting, longlasting, 4-10 oz, 1 day PHI • Buprofezin inhibits chitin biosynthesis (homopteran), 9-13 oz, 7 day PHI • Pyriproxifen mimics juvenile hormone (homop.), 8-10 oz, 14 day PHI 50
  51. 51. Updates for Class 9 Pymetrozine (9B, Fulfill) Flonicamid (9C, Beleaf) • Selective homopteran feeding blockers (50% AI) • Specific to aphids (over 19 sp, incl. green peach aphid) • Suppression of whiteflies • Applied through spray or chemigation • 0 d PHI in tomatoes, 14 d PHI in watermelon • Excellent rotation partner 51
  52. 52. IRAC Chemical class: 9 (new chemistry) MoA: Unknown; selective homopteran feeding blockers Common name Product Pesticide type Oral LD50 (mg/kg) Best against Pymetrozine (9B) Fulfill 50WDG In (St) >5000 Aph, WF Flonicamid (9C) Beleaf 50SG In(St) >2000 Aph Fulfill 50WDG (Syngenta): • Selective insecticide for aphid control • Good residual, rainfast • Application rates low: 2-2.8 oz/acre product • PHI = 0 days 52
  53. 53. Updates for Class 23 Spirotetramat (Movento) • New lipid biosynthesis inhibitor • Foliar systemic movement in plants (7 d activation time) • Good aphid, whitefly control • Alternative to neonicotinoids • Needs a surfactant • Residual action for 21 d (leaf surfaces) • 1 d PHI 53
  54. 54. Updates for Class 28 Chlorantraniliprole (Coragen) Flubendiamide (Synapse 24WG/Belt 4SC) • Ryanodine receptor modulators (nerve/muscle action) • Rapid cessation of feeding • Belt 4SC against armyworms @1.5 fl. oz. • Synapse 24WG against loopers, hornworms, fruitworms @ 2-3 oz • Apply early for small caterpillars • Foliar application • 1 d PHI • Excellent rotation partner 54
  55. 55. IRAC Chemical class: 28 (new chemistry-diamides) MoA: Ryanodine receptor modulators (acts inside muscles) Common name Product Pesticide type Oral LD50 (mg/kg) Best against Chlorantraniliprole Coragen 1.67SC In (St, Co, Sys) >5000 CPB, CEW, ECB, FAW, BAW, CL, SqVB, SB Flubendiamide Synapse 24WG In (Sys) >2000 CEW, ECB, CL, ImCW, BAW, FAW Diamides: • Rapid inhibition of feeding, paralysis • Selective insecticides, contact/stomach action • No aphid or mite flaring • Appl. rate = 3-5 oz (Coragen), 2-3 oz (Synapse) • 1 day PHI 55
  56. 56. Fruit quality with Coragen (chlorantraniliprole) Late season treatment, Cullman, 2012 Check plots Coragen foliar treatment 20% fruit damage 90% fruit damage 56
  57. 57. Fruit quality with Belt (flubendiamide) Cullman, 2012 Untreated check Belt 90% fruit damage <10% fruit damage 57
  58. 58. Insecticides for Organic Vegetable Production 58
  59. 59. Organic Approved Insecticides 59
  60. 60. Insecticide Mode of Action (MoA) Physical dessicant – kaolin clay, ash Contact action – vegetable oils, horticultural oils, neem, pyrethrin, insecticidal soap, spinosyn, Beauveria, Metarhizium Stomach action – Bt (Dipel), botanicals Volatile action – Garlic Barrier, Cinnamite 60
  61. 61. Friend of friends – Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) • Bt kurstaki acts on small caterpillars • Caterpillars in cool-season crops, tomatoes, pepper • Bt tenebrionis for beetles • Frequent appl., thorough coverage needed • Prefer the liquid than concentrate • 0 Pre Harvest Interval (PHI) 61
  62. 62. Fruit quality with Xentari (Bt aizawai) (Late season treatment, Cullman, 2012) Xentari foliar treatment with 20% damage Untreated crop with 90% caterpillar damage 62
  63. 63. Pyrethrin/Pyrethrum Permethrin – NOT organic insecticide! 6% AI 6o% PBO • Broad-spectrum insect control • Pyganic 1.4EC, 5 EC – OMRI approved •Pyrethrin + piperonyl butoxide (PBOsynergist) not organic • Insects may recover 63
  64. 64. Fruit quality with Pyganic (pyrethrum) (Cullman, 2012) Untreated check Pyganic foliar 30% fruit damage 90% fruit damage 64
  65. 65. Fruit quality with Xentari (Bta) + Pyganic (Late season treatment, Cullman, 2012) Check plots Xentari + Pyganic foliar 65
  66. 66. Insect pathogen: Beauveria bassiana • Contact action • Slow acting but effective • Target pests: nymphs & adults of whiteflies, thrips, aphids, mealy bugs, scarab beetles • Check label for OMRI OMRI approved 66
  67. 67. Neem-based Insecticides • Contact action, controls immature insects! • Look for azadirachtin on label (Molt-X, Neemix) • Target pests: aphids, armyworms, scales, thrips, WF • Clarified hydrophobic extract of neem oil may have no azadirachtin Neem (oil) OMRI approved Neem II (oil + pyrethrin) For commercial producers 67
  68. 68. Fruit quality with GOS Neem Foliar Spray Clanton, AL 2013 Untr. Check: 45-70% crop loss with live caterpillars (Aug 12) Neem foliar (7DAT3) 20-30% fruit loss. 68
  69. 69. Fruit quality with GOS Neem Foliar Spray Cullman, 2013 Untr. Check Untreated crop with caterpillar damage & irregular fruit size Neem Oil Foliar (7DAT2) 69
  70. 70. Spinosyn MoA: Mimic neurotransmitter, hyperexcite insects Common name Product Pesticide type Oral LD50 (mg/kg) Best against Spinosyn A, D Entrust (SpinTor phase out) In (St) >5000 CPB, ImCW, CEW, FAW, Radiant 1SC In (St) Spinetoram BAW, CL, DBM >5000 CPB, CEW, ECB, ImCW, CL, Thr Entrust: for ORGANIC producers 70
  71. 71. Spinosyn…a good rotation partner • Excellent for thrips, leafminers, looper, DBM, CPB, control • Monterey product is OMRI approved • 1 day PHI 71
  72. 72. Insecticidal Soap • Potassium salt of fatty acids • Control soft-bodied insects (aphids, whiteflies) • Some short-chain fatty acids are herbicides (household detergent) • No residual action, not rain fast Not OMRI Approved OMRI Approved 72
  73. 73. Kaolin Clay • • • • Present naturally in soil in tropical countries Foliar spray at high rate (25 lb/A) OMRI approved – Surround WP (95% clay) Natural desiccant, feeding deterrent 73
  74. 74. Vegetable Oils • • • • • Physical poisons Short residue Effective against soft-bodied insects Do not use if temps are >90F May not be OMRI approved Pyola Insect Spray = vegetable oil + pyrethrin Sesame oil 5% Fish oil 92% Soybean oil (93%) 74 Canola oil (96%)
  75. 75. Pyola • Pyrethrin 0.5% + canola oil 89.5% • Contact insecticide • Controls aphids, caterpillars, mites, flea beetles 75
  76. 76. Fruit quality with Pyola applications Clanton, AL 2013 Untr. Check: 45-70% crop loss with live caterpillars (Aug 12) Pyola (Pyrethrin + canola oil, 7DAT3) 20% fruit loss. Good fruit quality. 76
  77. 77. • Microbial pesticide derived from Chromobacterium subsugae strain PRAA4-1 (30% AI) • Can be used in open field and greenhouse – OMRI appr. • Complex and broad mode of action against caterpillars & small sucking insects (aphids, thrips, WFs) + mites • Doesn’t interfere with beneficial insects • Use a surfactant • Good activity against BAW and SAW on tomato applied at 2 lb/A, 2 to 4 weekly treatments (UFL & UC 2011 studies) • Reduced ACP nymphs and adults at 2lb/A after 1 to 2 weekly treatments. 77
  78. 78. Insecticide Premixes Azera (MGK): • OMRI approved • Mix of azadirachtin + pyrethrin • Interferes with molting, rapid knock-down • Contact, stomach action, IGR • Effective against stink bugs (brown marmorated stink bug) Mix of neem + pyrethrin (Green Light) 78
  79. 79. Fruit quality with Azera Thomaston, AL (2013) Untr. Check Wet year with abundant rain Low to moderate caterpillar & stink bug pressure Uneven fruit size Azera, 2 appl. (4 oz/Ga) Consistent fruit size, good quality Good caterpillar control Weak on stink bugs 79
  80. 80. Introduction to Vegetable Insect Pests & Insecticides Dr. Ayanava Majumdar (Dr. A) Tel: (251) 331-8416 bugdoctor@auburn.edu QUESTIONS?