Methyl parathion use cancelled in May 2010 and existing stocks can be used till 2013. In May 2010, cucurbit yellow vine decline (caused by Serratiamarcescens, transmitted by squash bugs) was found in AL – symptoms look like bacterial wilt. Endosulfan (Gr 2 insecticide) was cancelled by EPA in June 2010. Temik was cancelled by EPA in August 2010 and all use must cease after December 31, 2010.
Ayanava tomato pepper pests 2012
Insect Management in Tomatoes & Peppers Dr. Ayanava MajumdarExtension Entomologist (Peanuts, Vegetables) State SARE Coordinator (Auburn U) Alabama Cooperative Extension System Cell phone: 251-331-8416 Email: email@example.com AFVG Conf., February 11, 2012
What is it?Potato aphid, Macrosiphum Monitoring/scouting techniques:euphorbiae Sample ten plants in several locations Yellow sticky traps at edge of field Like cool, dry weather Watch for ants and lady beetlesGreen peach aphid, Myzus ET = 50% leaves with aphidspersicae Host range: 40 host plants
What is it?Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Monitoring/scouting techniques: Use sticky cards (yellow, blue) Bag and shake technique No action threshold Use resistant varieties (BHN 444, 589, 640, Bella Rosa)Tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca Host plants: tomato, peanuts, cotton, beans Tomato spotted wilt destroys plants
What is it? Monitoring/scouting techniques: Flea beetles (many Monitor level of defoliation species) Sample small plants with sweep net during morning hours Observe activity of parasitoids, predators (sweep net) ET = 5-10% defoliation early season, 25- 30% defoliation mid-seasonHost plants: potato,tomato, peppers, broccoli,cabbage, okra, etc.
What is it?Colorado potato beetle, Monitoring/scouting techniques:Leptinotarsa decemlineata Start looking on border rows Scout intensely short crop (<6 inch) ET = 5 beetles per 10 seedling or 10% defoliation in short crop Larva of lady beetle (beneficial insect!)
What is it? Tomato fruitworm, Helicoverpa zea Monitoring/scouting techniques: Examine green fruit, stem terminals Scout for egg masses or larvaeHost plants: tomato, cotton, soybean, Use pheromone traps to detectcorn (16 host plants) first flight; ET = 5-10 moths per night when temp. is <85F ET is ½ if temp. is >85F Tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens
What is it?Southern green stink bug, Monitoring/scouting techniques:Nezara viridula Use a sweep net Use pheromone trap (expensive? cumbersome?) Intensify scouting at fruit setting ET = 0.25 bugs per 10 plants (green fruit stage) Host: >52 plantsBrown stink bug,Euschistus servus Lygus bug, Lygus Stink bug feeding injury lineolaris
What is it? Leptoglossus gonagra Leptoglossus phyllopus Leaffooted bugs can cause fruit dropLeptoglossus zonatus
What is it? • Caterpillars have an inverted Y mark on head • 4 black warts on 8th abdominal segment • Curl up when disturbed • Eats leaves and fruits • Moths can be detected usingFall armyworm, Spodoptera pheromone trapsfrugiperda • Overwinters in Gulf coast • Host range: sweet corn, tomato, peppers • Premature drop & fruit rot
What is it? • Polyphagous insect (tomato, pepper, cotton, soybean, alfalfa) • Have many wild hosts – lambsquarter & pigweed • Creamish or light-greenBeet armyworm, caterpillar, 4 pairs of prolegsSpodoptera exigua • Black spot on thorax just above the leg • Early instars feed voraciously • Moths are attracted to weak plants Damage to pepper plant
What is it?Tomato hornworm, Manducaquinquemaculata • Overwinter as pupae in soil • Adults are hawk moths – rapid flyers • Larva has 8 white stripes on side • Larvae feed on foliage, then attack fruit • Host range: tomato, pepper, eggplant, potato • Repelled by marigold • ET = >1 larva per plant
What is it? • Adults resemble house flies but have black markings on wings • Females lay eggs on fruit, cause dimple and rottingPepper maggot,Zonosemata electa • Many types of peppers attacked • Prefers cherry peppers • Infested fruit turns red prematurely • Major fruit drop and yield loss • Monitor using yellow sticky trap
What is it? Monitoring/scouting techniques: Minor foliar pests (ET = 5 larvae per 10 plants)Cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni Easy to collect & identify – shake and collect Watch for sun scald on fruits, esp. 20% defoliation Look for fecal pellets on leaves Soybean looper, Pseudoplusia includens
VEGETABLE INSECTICIDESCAUTION:Use of product names does not mean endorsement by university!Use cultural, mechanical, and other pest management tactics firstInsecticide use should be last resort!Read pesticide labels – LABEL IS THE LAW.
Insecticide Mode of Action (MoA)Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC): 28 MoA classification Sensory neuronInhibit enzyme that breaksdown neurotransmitter Flow of infoCarbamates, OP (act inthe synaptic gap) Cyclodienes, Pyrethroids (act on receiving neuron) Neonicotinoids, Spinosyn (mimic Receiving neuron neurotransmitter)
Trends in synthetic chemistries• Early insecticides were short chain>>quick activation• New insecticides: need “activation” by insect enzyme systems (target-specific) Malathion Carbaryl Spinetoram Chlorantraniliprole Zeta-cypermethrin Imidacloprid
Review of Insecticides/MoA (Open page 167 of Veg. Prod. Handbook)Mode of ActionSt = Stomach poison; Co = Contact poison; Sys = Systemicaction; In = Insecticide; Mi = MiticideArrangement: Least toxic to most toxicTarget InsectsFB = Flea beetle; CPB = Colorado potato beetle; CEW = Cornearworm; FAW = Fall armyworm; SVB = Squash vine borer;Aph = Aphids; Thr = Thrips; WF = Whiteflies; ECB = Europeancorn borer; CB = Cucumber beetle; SB = Stink bug, SqB =Squash bug; CW = Cutworms; MGT = maggots; WW =Wireworms; CL = Cabbage looper
IRAC Chemical class: 1A (Carbamates)MoA: inhibitor of enzyme (AChE), hyperexcites insects, nonselectiveCommon name Product Pesticide type Oral Best against LD50 (mg/kg)Carbaryl Sevin D/S In, Ac (St, Co) 300 FB, FAW, SVBMethamidophos Monitor 4L In, Ac(Sys) 16 Aph, Thr, BAWMethomyl Lannate In, Ac (Sys, Co) 17 Thr, BAW 40SP
IRAC Chemical class: 1B (Organophosphates)MoA: inhibitor of enzyme (AChE), hyperexcites insectsCommon Product Pesticide type Oral Best againstname LD50 (mg/kg)Malathion Malathion In (Co) 1000+ FB, CB, SqB, SB??Acephate Orthene In (Sys) 800+ FAW, Aph, ThrDiazinon Diazinon (RUP) I (Co) 400 WW, MGT, SqBChlorpyrifos Lorsban 15G In (Co) 95 MGT, CW, WW, FAW
IRAC Chemical class: 2A (Cyclodienes)MoA: Block the action of neurotransmitter, hyperactivity Common name Product Pesticide Oral Best against type LD50 (mg/kg) Endosulfan Thionex In, Ac 18-160 FB, SB, SqB Thiodan (Co) (GUP)
IRAC Chemical class: 3A (Pyrethroids) MoA: Act on sodium channels (receiving neuron)Contact/stomach: use for quick knock-down, nonselectiveCommon name Product Pesticide Oral LD50 Best against type (mg/kg)Cyfluthrin Baythroid XL In (Co, St) 1200+ ImCW, SqVB, CW, SBGamma cyhalo Proaxis 0.5EC In (Co) - FB, CB, ECB, ImCW, SqVB, CWFenpropathrin Danitol 2.4EC In, Ac (Co, 450 ImCW, SqVB, SqB St)Zeta-cyper Mustang Max In (Co) 150-400 FB, CW, CB, SB, ImCW, 0.8 EC SqVBBifenthrin Brigade 2EC In, Ac (Co) 54 FB, CB, ImCW, SqVB, CW Asana® XL insecticide
IRAC Chemical class: 4A (Neonicotinoids)MoA: Mimic neurotransmitter at neuromuscular joints, hyperactivitySystemic action: many weeks of protection against pests, apply earlyCommon name Product Pesticide type Oral Best against LD50 (mg/kg)Thiamethoxam Platinum SC In (Sys) >5000 Aph, FB, CB, SBDinotefuran Venom 70SG In (Sys) >5000 FB, CPB, CB, SB, WFClothianidin Belay 3G In (Sys) 4700 FB, CPB, SqB, CBImidacloprid Admire 1.6F In (Sys, Co, 450 FB, CPB, Aph, SB St) Provado F CPB, CB, Aph, ThrAcetamiprid Assail 30SG In (Sys) - Aph, CPB, Thr Assail® insecticide
Systemic insecticide (imidacloprid) reduces virus transmission in tomatoes Results of 1999 tomato test at Tifton, GA in terms of main plot (BHN444 resistance and silver reflective mulch) and subplot (different length periods of insecticide control of thrips) effects on number of thrips, % TSWV, and $ yield per acre, respectively. BHN444-silver mulch 47 b 28% b $7,233 a Sunny Hyb.-silver mulch 49 b 57% a $4,721 ab Sunny Hyb.-black mulch 64 a 67% a $3,602 b Admire + four weeks of foliar sprays 53 b 28% c $6,685 a Admire + two weeks of foliar sprays 57 b 56% ab $6,102 a Admire + eight weeks of foliar sprays 13 c 44% ab $5,781 a Admire + one week of foliar sprays 70 a 58% ab $3,777 b Untreated check 73 a 67% a $3,580 bDavid Riley, UGA, http://wiki.bugwood.org/Thrips_and_Spotted_Wilt_Management_in_Tomato
IRAC Chemical class: 5A (Spinosyns)MoA: Mimic neurotransmitter, hyperexcite insectsCommon name Product Pesticide Oral Best against type LD50 (mg/kg)Spinosyn A, D Entrust (SpinTor In (St) >5000 CPB, ImCW, CEW, FAW, phase out) BAW, CL, DBMSpinetoram Radiant 1SC In (St) >5000 CPB, CEW, ECB, ImCW, CL, Thr Spinetoram (Radiant 1SC): • Microbial fermentation derivate • Application rate = 6-8 oz • Preharvest interval (PHI) = 1-3 days • Registered for many leafy veg., fruit crops, root crops, etc. Entrust: for ORGANIC producers
IRAC Chemical class: 9 (new chemistry)MoA: Unknown; selective homopteran feeding blockersCommon name Product Pesticide type Oral Best against LD50 (mg/kg)Pymetrozine (9B) Fulfill 50WDG In (St) >5000 Aph, WFFlonicamid (9C) Beleaf 50SG In(St) >2000 Aph Fulfill 50WDG (Syngenta): • Selective insecticide for aphid control • Good residual, rainfast • Application rates low: 2-2.8 oz/acre product • PHI = 0 days
IRAC Chemical class: 28 (new chemistry-diamides)MoA: Ryanodine receptor modulators (acts inside muscles)Common name Product Pesticide type Oral Best against LD50 (mg/kg)Chlorantraniliprole Coragen 1.67SC In (St, Co, Sys) >5000 CPB, CEW, ECB, FAW, BAW, CL, SqVB, SBFlubendiamide Synapse 24WG In (Sys) >2000 CEW, ECB, CL, ImCW, BAW, FAW Diamides: • Rapid inhibition of feeding, paralysis • Selective insecticides, contact/stomach action • No aphid or mite flaring • Appl. rate = 3-5 oz (Coragen), 2-3 oz (Synapse) • 1 day PHI
Growth Regulator InsecticidesIRAC Chemical class: 7C, 16, 17, 18Common name Product Pesticide Oral Best against Less effective type LD50 (mg/kg)Methoxyfenozide Intrepid 2F I (Co) >5000 CL, FAW, ImCW DBM, SqVBBuprofezin Courier I, Mi (Co) >5000 WFPyriproxifen Knack I (Co) >5000 WFGrowth regulators:• Methoxyfenozide forces molting, long-lasting, 4-10 oz, 1 day PHI• Buprofezin inhibits chitin biosynthesis(homopteran), 9-13 oz, 7 day PHI• Pyriproxifen mimics juvenile hormone(homop.), 8-10 oz, 14 day PHI
Organic Insecticide Research– Insecticide rotations– New formulations/delivery systems Good rotation partners
General IPM Recommendations• Use pheromone traps (first detection is important)• No substitute for scouting!• Careful with insecticide generics (phytotoxicity)• Rotate with newer insecticides, organic formulations• Apply systemic insecticides early (timely)• Use of the SE Vegetable Prod. Handbook• Call ACES for help in insect ID & IPM• Subscribe to IPM Newsletter & join the Facebook page ‘Alabama Vegetable IPM’ TODAY!