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Dr. Mimi Tatlow-Golden - food marketing to children

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Dr. Mimi Tatlow-Golden - food marketing to children

  1. 1. Food marketing to children Mimi Tatlow-Golden Lecturer, Developmental Psychology & Childhood Co-Director, CCW@OU body, mind & media @MimiTGolden @AdwarenessS
  2. 2. CONTENTS 2 01 IoI food marketing, knowledge & treat-giving 02 The data issue… magnifying harms 03 Current policy opportunities – Ireland & UK
  3. 3. Irish Heart Foundation Images © Martin O’Brien, O’Brien Creative, Dublin
  4. 4. Mimi Tatlow-Golden, OU Emma Boyland, U Liverpool Monika Zalniurte, U Melbourne Elizabeth Handsley, Flinders U Jo Jewell, WHO Joao Breda, WHO Gauden Galea, WHO Peer reviewed by Clayton Hamilton, WHO Jennifer Harris, Rudd Center, UConn Jonathan Liberman, U Melbourne UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989) • Children have rights… to protection of health, of privacy, and against economic exploitation to participation (including in digital media) • Parents should facilitate these rights • States should support parents in this
  5. 5. 18 UK crisp, soft drink, confectionery brands £143m Marketing spend 2016 £5.2m
  6. 6. Advertising effects on children’s eating 2% variation ? 6 Ofcom 2006: “experimental and survey studies… measured effects of advertising/ television are small. … suggest that such exposure accounts for some 2% of the variation in food choice/obesity” Livingstone, S. (2006). Television advertising of food and drink products to children. Research Annexes 9-11. Ofcom. Obesity Policy Research Unit UCL 2018: “Bolton (1983) … television food advertising accounts for 2% of the variance in children’s snacking frequency” BUT “adjusted R2 for children’s commercial food exposure …0.23, i.e. … 23% of the variance” AND “very major limitations to this work”: [1977 data; high SES only; no measure of ad exposure; measure of snacking only; no accounting for indirect effects] Russell, S., Viner, R. & Croker, H. (2018). Investigating the effect of food advertising on children’s dietary intake. OPRU Briefing Paper. research-unit/sites/obesity-policy-research-unit/files/quantifying-effect-screen- advertising-childhood-dietary-intake-obesity.pdf
  7. 7. IoI: Food marketing, children’s knowledge & adults’ treat-giving
  8. 8. WHO NP 74% not permitted Permitted UK Nutrient Profiling (NP) 53% not permitted ‘Advertised diet’ on Island of Ireland Regulation-compliant children’s TV viewing Viewing patterns: 4-6 years (NI/RoI)
  9. 9. ‘Healthy… or not?’ F&V high awareness Less for sweets, treats, fast food as not healthy Matching food brand logos to food images at 5y: >90% unhealthy 57% healthy
  10. 10. 10 Food Treats N=1039 IoI • Parents • Grandparents, • Childminders • Education practitioners ‘Treats’: Deserved, routine Reasons for giving: 1. Reward good behaviour 2. Because child asks 3. To make child feel better Foods given: 2/3 unhealthy
  11. 11. Economies of emotion, through engagement, entertainment Brand Pages – Build a ‘closer relationship’ with users Ask them to ‘follow’ / ‘like’ / ‘tag’ others… Economy of ‘likes’, approval, networks… Almost exclusively unhealthy items/brands
  12. 12. ‘Great maturity needed not to fall for it’ ‘Messages from people they idolise’ ‘The prizes are things they can identify with and want’ ‘Advertising by stealth’ ‘Dishonest’ – ‘immoral’ ‘They're much more subtle than first thought’ ‘I asked my children if they see much online advertising and they said yes, they did’ 3 in 4 felt regulations ‘should apply’ online PARENTS’ VIEWS
  13. 13. In social media, young adolescents… Look more at unhealthy food brands compared to healthy- or non-food brands… (eyetracking) … recall and recognise unhealthy food brands more than healthy- or non-food brands… … would share content and like profiles more that feature food marketing for unhealthy items -> Unhealthy food items – role in adolescent identity and relationships Corcoran, Sheppard, Murphy, Boyland, Rooney & Tatlow- Golden (in preparation) email me
  14. 14. 1. Amplifies TV, other effects  reach  recall  brand likeability (Facebook, 2015) 70% increase of TV effects (Microsoft, 2013) 2. Greater effects, less spend x4 direct return, vs TV (Peterson, 2014) x3 recall compared to control groups FB, 14 campaigns (Gibs & Bruich, 2010) Digital marketing impact: Industry research
  15. 15. The data issue… magnifying harms
  16. 16. Data extraction & analysis Nothing is too trivial or ephemeral for this harvesting: Facebook ‘likes’, Google searches, emails, texts, photos, songs and videos, location, communication patterns, networks, purchases, movements, every click, misspelled word, page view and more Zuboff, 2015 p. 79
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  18. 18. Johnny Ryan/Brave: Complaint to UK ICO & Ireland DPC September 2018 19
  19. 19. Extensive ‘leakage’ of children’s data 5855 apps for kids Google Play 73% “transmitted sensitive information over the Internet” (Reyes et al., 2018)
  20. 20. food marketing is enmeshed with the data issues… 21
  21. 21. International policy recommendations Opportunities in Ireland & UK
  22. 22. States should “adopt laws that prevent companies from using insidious marketing strategies” UN Special Rapporteur on the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health 2014 WHO Set of Recommendations on the marketing of food and on- alcoholic beverages to children 2010 WHO Ending Childhood Obesity (ECHO) Commission Report 2016
  23. 23. 24 WHO update October 2018 • State-, not self-regulation • Comprehensive approach • Marketing = all commercial promotion, not just broadcast advertising • Protect all children, not just under-12s • Avoid ‘child proportion of audience’ measures • Avoid excessive focus on ‘targeted at’ • Address brand equity and licensed characters • Address brand marketing • Adopt effective Nutrient Profiling systems • Effective monitoring essential
  24. 24. 25 UK • DHSC consultation: expected this year (Obesity ‘Chapter 2’ summer 2018) • Obesity Health Alliance consulting with stakeholders • Broadcast: 9pm watershed seems likely • Digital: ICO currently working on Age Appropriate Design Guide (mandated by Data Protection Act) • Draft Code will go out for commentary Republic of Ireland • Oireachtas Children’s Committee heard evidence spring/summer 2018 • Broadcast: Indications are BAI will review option of 9pm watershed • Louth County Council has requested this - others could follow! • Digital: Data Protection Act Section 30…? Yet to be commenced • IHF #stoptargetingkids CURRENT OPPORTUNITIES for ACTION
  25. 25. thank you @MimiTGolden @AdwarenessS