Formation of Black GoldOil is a fossil fuel formed from theremains of tiny plants and animals(plankton), 10 million-600 million yearsago, which fell to the bottom of the sea.Little or no oxygen allows microorganisms to break down the remainsinto carbon-rich compounds that formorganic layers. The organic materialmixes with the sediments to form fine-grained shale, or source rock.Extreme heat and pressure to distills theorganic material into crude oil and naturalgas.The oil then flows from the source rockand accumulates in thicker, more porouslimestone or sandstone known asreservoir rock.When the earth moves the oil and naturalgas is trapped in reservoir rocks, whichare between layers of impermeable rock,or cap rock– usually granite or marble.The whole process takes millions ofyears.
Finding Black GoldGovernment and Oil companies usuallyassign finding oil to contracted geologistsOil geologists examine surface features,surface rock, reservoir rock, entrapment,satellite images, sensitive gravity metersand magnometers. They can also detect thesmell of hydrocarbons using electronicnoses called sniffers.The most common technique for findingreserves is seismology which uses shockwaves that interpret waves reflected backto the surface.Despite all the technology, modern oilexploration methods are only 10 percentsuccessful.
DrillingOnce oil is found, land is readied and Rig is set up….Drilling begins….Drilling is continued till oil is struck…..
ExtractionOnce the well is completed, the operators must start the flow of oilinto the well.For limestone reservoir rock, acid is pumped down the well and outthe perforations.For sandstone reservoir rock, a special blended fuel containingproppants is pumped down the well and out the perforations.The pressure from this fluid makes small fractures in the sandstonethat allow oil to flow into the well, while the proppants hold thesefractures open.Once the oil is flowing, the oilrig is removed from the site andproduction equipment is set up to extract the oil from the well.
Entry Level Jobs JOB DESCRIPTIONLabourer/Roustabout cleans, paints, moves and handles supplies Cooks Helper helps prepare and serve food Slasher cuts down trees and clears brush along seismic linesSeismic Drillers Helper helps drill shot holes Electricians Helper helps run wires, check and fix electrical equipment Field Assistant records data and helps operate geophysical equipment Janitor keeps the camp clean Mechanics Helper helps clean, oil, test and fix equipment Survey Helper holds stakes and rods and carries equipment Equipment Operator drives various machines and trucks Swamper helps truck drivers Hot Shot Driver makes deliveries of supplies and equipment as needed
Skilled Jobs JOB DESCRIPTION guides and steadies pipes in and out of hole and maintains drilling mud Derrick Hand systemPower Tong Operator operates hydraulic powered wrenches to connect casing Motor Hand operates and maintains engines that power drilling equipment packs explosives into holes and makes sure everything is safe before Blaster blasting Seismic Driller drills shot holes to send sound waves through the ground makes routine checks and adjustments in different areas of pumping Gauger station Tank Farm Operator works at pumping stations that receive and distribute oil in bulk Gas Utility Operator installs and services pipeline systems which transport natural gas monitors and operates wells entering pipeline, takes samples and doesCompressor Operator testsControl Room Operator monitors meters, gauges, indicators and alarm systems
Apprenticeship Trades JOB DESCRIPTION Cook prepares food and meals for workersMechanic fixes machinery Welder welds metal together to make/fix equipmentElectrician installs/fixes electrical equipment Plumber installs/fixes water pipes and fixturesCarpenter builds and repairs buildingsPipefitter puts steam and water pipes together
Office Workers JOB DESCRIPTION Office Clerk keeps company records and time sheets Accounts Clerk works in payroll and accounts payable/receivable does word processing, records mail, files and makes Secretary appointmentsPurchasing Agent buys goods, materials and services for the company Materials Clerk takes inventories and places orders
Technical Jobs JOB DESCRIPTION operates computers which record and processSeismic Recording Technician seismic data, prepares maps assists in field studies to record and interpret Survey Technician geographic areas Petroleum Technician does reservoir studies and interprets data Mechanical Technician makes drawings of machines, buildings and systems Geophysical Technician assists in assembly and analysis of seismic data assists in surface and subsurface geological mapping Geological Technician and core sample studies
Semi Professional Jobs JOB DESCRIPTION keeps warehouse in order and keeps records of Warehouse Manager materials stocked Camp Manager coordinates all aspects of camp life makes sure there are healthy working conditions and Safety Officer sets safety rulesEnvironmental Monitor makes sure environmental rules are followed Plant Foreman supervises all operations, hires and trains workers Drilling Foreman responsible for all activity on drilling rig
Professional Jobs JOB DESCRIPTION Geologist explores for oil and gas deposits uses geology, physics and engineering to recover,Petroleum Engineer develop and process petroleum develops models that determine if exploration and Research Analyst production will be feasible surveys land surface to determine boundaries, Land Surveyor contours and other features Accountant keeps financial records tends to injuries and ensures a safe, healthy work Nurse environment administers surface and mineral rights for Land Agent exploration and production makes sure everything in the whole business is General Manager running as best it can
Si. No. Company Name 1 Assam Oil Company Ltd. (ACL), India 2 Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC), United Arab Emirates 3 Alon USA, United States 4 Amerada Hess Corporation, United States 5 Anadarko Petroleum Corporation, United States 6 Apache Corporation, United States 7 Arbusto Energy, United States 8 Atlantic Petroleum, Faroe Islands 9 BG Group, United Kingdom 10 Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited, India 11 BHP Billiton, Australia 12 Buzachi Petroleum Operating, Kazakhstan 13 BP, United Kingdom 14 Cairn Energy, India 15 Canadian Natural Resources, Canada 16 Chevron Corporation, United States 17 Chief Oil and Gas, United States 18 Citgo, Venezuela 19 CNOOC Ltd., China 20 ConocoPhillips, United States
Si. No. Company Name 22 Crown Central Petroleum, United States 23 Cupet, Cuba 24 Devon Energy, United States 25 Ecopetrol, Colombia 26 Enbridge, Canada 27 EnCana, Canada 28 ENSCO International, United States 29 Eni, Italy 30 Essar oil ltd., India 31 Entreprise Tunisienne dActivites Petroliere (ETAP), Tunisia 32 ExxonMobil, United States 33 First Texas Energy Corporation, United States 34 Galp Energia, Portugal 35 GeoPardazesh - Petroleum Exploration Services Co. Ltd., Iran 36 Petronet LNG Limited, India 37 Gujarat Gas Co. Ltd., India 38 Gujarat State Petroleum Corporation, India 39 Gulf Oil, Luxembourg 40 Grupa LOTOS, Poland
Si. No. Company Name 40 Grupa LOTOS, Poland 41 Hargeisa Minerals & Resources Company Ltd, Somaliland 42 Hellenic Petroleum, Greece 43 Hess Corporation, United States 44 Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Ltd, India 45 Husky Energy, Canada 46 IB Daiwa, Japan 47 Imperial Oil, Canada 48 INA - Industrija Nafte, Croatia 49 Indian Oil Corporation, India 50 Inpex, Japan 51 Irving Oil, Canada 52 Japan Energy, Japan 53 Kaz-Munay Gaz, Kazakhstan 54 Karazhanbas Munay, Kazakhstan 55 Kerr-McGee, United States 56 Koch Industries, United States 57 Kuwait German Petroleum Company, Canada 58 Kuwait Gulf Oil Company, Kuwait 59 Kuwait National Petroleum Company Kuwait 60 Kuwait Oil Company, Kuwait
Si. No. Company Name 61 Kuwait Petroleum Corporation, Kuwait 62 LUKoil, Russia 63 Marathon Oil Corporation, United States 64 Maurel & Prom, France 65 Maxol Group, Republic of Ireland 66 MedcoEnergi, Indonesia 67 Mol Group, Hungary 68 Naftna Industrija Srbije, Serbia 69 Naftogas of Ukraine, Ukraine 70 National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC), Iran 71 National Oil Corporation, Libya 72 Neste Oil, Finland 73 Nexen, Canada 74 Nippon Oil, Japan 75 NNPC, Nigeria 76 Oil Planet International Corp, United States 77 Northern Resources, Canada 78 Oil and Gas Development Company Limited, Pakistan 79 Occidental Petroleum, United States 80 Oil India Limited, India
Si. No. Company Name 81 Oman Oil Company (OOC), Oman 82 OMV, Austria 83 ONGC, India 84 PKN Orlen S.A., Poland 85 PSO, Pakistan 86 Petróleos de Venezuela, Venezuela 87 Petroleos Mexicanos, Mexico 88 Petroleum Development Oman, (PDO) 89 Perenco, France, United Kingdom 90 Petro-Canada, Canada 91 Petrobras, Brazil 92 PetroChina, China 93 PetroKazakhstan, Kazakhstan 94 Petrom, Romania 95 Petron Corporation, Philippines 96 PETRONAS, Malaysia 97 PETROTRIN, Trinidad and Tobago 98 PetroVietnam, Vietnam 99 Pertamina, Indonesia 100 Polish Oil and Gas Company, Poland
Si. No. Company Name 101 Plains Exploration & Production Company (PXP), United States 102 PTT Public Company Limited, Thailand 103 Qatar Petroleum, Qatar 104 Reliance Industries Limited, India 105 Repsol YPF, Spain 106 Rompetrol Group N.V., Romania 107 Royal Dutch Shell, Netherlands, United Kingdom 108 Sagiz Petroleum, Kazakhstan 109 San-Ai Oil, Japan 110 Santos Limited, Australia 111 Sasol, South Africa 112 Saudi Aramco, Saudi Arabia (the largest in the world) 113 Shell Canada, Canada (subsidiary of Royal Dutch Shell) 114 Shell Oil Company, US (subsidiary of Royal Dutch Shell) 115 Sinclair Oil, United States 116 Sinopec, China 117 Snpc, Congo-Brazzaville 118 Sonangol, Angola 119 Sonatrach, Algeria 120 SPC, Singapore
Si. No. Company Name 121 StatoilHydro, Norway 122 State Oil Company of Azerbaijan, SOCAR Azerbaijan 123 Somerset Refinery, United States 124 State Oil Company of Suriname, Suriname 125 Sunoco, United States 126 Suncor Energy, Canada 127 Surgutneftegaz, Russia 128 Syncrude, Canada 129 Talisman Energy, Canada 130 Todd Energy, New Zealand 131 Total, France 132 Tullow Oil, United Kingdom 133 United Refining Company, United States 134 Vaalco Energy Inc., United States 135 Wintershall, Germany 136 Woodside Petroleum, Australia 137 XTO Energy, United States 138 YPF, Argentina 139 YPFB, Bolivia
Si. No. Company Name 1 Wal-Mart Stores 2 Royal Dutch Shell 3 Exxon Mobil 4 BP 5 Sinopec Group 6 China National Petroleum 7 State Grid 8 Toyota Motor 9 Japan Post Holdings 10 Chevron