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UC Expo 2010 – Asterisk: Born in the USA; Working well in the UK


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UC Expo 2010 – Asterisk: Born in the USA; Working well in the UK

  1. 1. Digium asterisk World Theatre<br />Born in the USA,Working well in the UK<br />
  2. 2. Subtitle:<br />How to LOCALISE Your IMPLEMENTATIONS <br />
  3. 3. Agenda<br />What might we want to change?<br />Where can we change it?<br />How can we change it?<br />
  4. 4. What might we needto change?<br />System prompts<br />(language, accent)<br />Caller ID<br />(reception and transmission)<br />Tones<br />(generation and recognition)<br />Telephony interfaces<br />(physical and electrical)<br />Times and dates<br />(not only the actual time zone, but the way times and dates are read out)<br />
  5. 5. Let’s start with tones<br />
  6. 6. Let’s start with tones<br />Tones – IP devices (e.g. SIP)<br />Tones – analogue channels<br />Tones – internal calls<br />
  7. 7. Where do we changethose tones?<br />Tones – IP channels (SIP phones, ATAs)<br />On the device!!<br />Tones – analogue channels<br />/etc/dahdi/system.conf<br />loadzone = uk<br />defaultzone = uk<br />Tones – internal calls<br />/etc/asterisk/indications.conf<br />country = uk<br />
  8. 8. The Linux file system<br />/<br />bin<br />boot<br />dev<br />etc<br />home<br />lib<br />lost+found<br />media<br />misc<br />mnt<br />net<br />opt<br />proc<br />root (~)<br />selinux<br />srv<br />sys<br />tmp<br />usr<br />var<br />The /etc/asterisk directory is created<br />when Asterisk is installed<br />asterisk<br />dahdi**<br />extensions.conf<br />sip.conf<br />chan_dahdi.conf<br />indications.conf<br />Whereexactly?<br />**system.conf lives in the /etc/dahdi<br />directory as it is not part of Asterisk<br />This is the home directory of the ‘root’<br />user – if you are logged in as ‘root’ and<br />start a terminal from the graphical<br />environement, you will start in this directory<br />The /usr/src directory is where we put the<br />LibPRI, Zaptel and Asterisk tarballs<br />src<br />asterisk-1.6.x.x.tar.gz<br />asterisk-1.6.x.x<br />dahdi-linux-2.x.x.tar.gz<br />dahdi-linux-2.x.x<br />dahdi-tools-2.x.x.tar.gz<br />dahdi-tools...<br />libpri-1.x.x, dahdi-xxxx-2.x.x and Asterisk-1.x.x<br />subdirectories will be created in /usr/src<br />when we ‘untar’ the tarballs <br />
  9. 9. Time and date localisation<br />Actual time and date for the system is set in Linux<br />Asterisk can be made aware of many time zones<br />These zones can be used to change the way times and dates are presented, and even spoken<br />
  10. 10. Where can you changetimes and dates?<br />When would you need to do this?<br />It mainly comes down to voicemail!!!<br />Accordingly, configuration occurs in/etc/asterisk/voicemail.conf<br />The [zonemessages] section is where the timezone, time and date presentation and pronounciation are set<br />The voicemail context (e.g. [default]) is where each mailbox is assigned a zone, if required<br />
  11. 11. Where can you changetimes and dates?<br />/etc/asterisk/voicemail.conf<br />[zonemessages]<br />central=America/Chicago|'vm-received' Q 'digits/at' IMp<br />UK=Europe/London|'vm-received' a b d 'digits/at' HM<br />[default]<br />809=>1234,David Duffett,,,tz=UK<br />810=>0000,Mark Spencer,,,tz=central<br />
  12. 12. Changing the language (or accent) of system prompts<br />By default Asterisk stores system prompts (sound files) in /var/lib/asterisk/sounds<br />Within this directory sub-directories are used for the storage of differing prompts<br />
  13. 13. Changing the language (or accent) of system prompts<br />E.g.<br />/var/lib/asterisk/sounds/en/ for English<br />/var/lib/asterisk/sounds/fr/ for French<br />Filenames need to be known to Asterisk<br />E.g. hello.gsm would contain<br />“hello” in /var/lib/asterisk/sounds/en/hello.gsm<br />“bonjour” in /var/lib/asterisk/sounds/fr/hello.gsm<br />
  14. 14. So where do you specifythe language?<br />In the channel...<br />So for SIP, it would be in sip.conf<br />For IAX2, it would be in iax.conf<br />And for analogue channels it would be inchan_dahdi.conf<br />
  15. 15. Where can you changetimes and dates?<br />/etc/asterisk/sip.conf<br />[general]<br />language=en<br />deny=<br />[dd-phone]<br />type=friend<br />language=fr<br />context=internal<br />/etc/asterisk/extensions.conf (the dialplan)<br />[internal]<br />exten => _6001,1,Playback(hello)<br />
  16. 16. What about Caller ID?<br />Many different formats around the world<br />In the UK we use V23 (FSK)<br />Asterisk can be made to understand UK Caller ID signalling<br />...and to send it to analogue phones too!<br />
  17. 17. Setting the Caller ID format<br />/etc/asterisk/chan_dahdi.conf<br />group=1<br />signalling=fxo_ks<br />cidsignalling=v23 ;BT standard <br />cidstart=polarity ;start indication<br />sendcalleridafter=2 ;the number<br />; of rings before sending the data<br />context=from-analogue<br />channel => 1-4<br />group=2<br />signalling=fxs_ks<br />callerid=asreceived<br />context=from-outside<br />channel => 5-8 <br />
  18. 18. Telephony Interfaces<br />Physical characteristics<br />Electrical characteristics<br />UK uses 50V DC to power phones<br />UK uses 75v ac @ 75Hz to ring phones<br />
  19. 19. Basic telephony<br />FXS - Station<br />FXO – Office<br />
  20. 20. Telephone Line<br /> with an impedance = Y<br />Impedance = Z<br />Physical characteristics<br />Hybrid<br />Speaker<br />Microphone<br />
  21. 21. Digium Analog Interfaces<br />
  22. 22. Basic rate interface (BRI)<br />D<br />B1<br />B2<br />B = Bearer<br />D = Data<br />
  23. 23. T1<br />T1<br />1 framing<br />bit (fb)<br />1 framing<br />bit<br />23<br />24<br />1<br />2<br />3<br />4<br />5<br />6<br />7<br />8<br />9<br />10<br />11<br />12<br />13<br />14<br />15<br />16<br />17<br />18<br />19<br />20<br />21<br />22<br />23<br />24<br />1<br />2<br />3<br />4<br />5<br />23<br />24<br />1<br />2<br />3<br />4<br />5<br />6<br />7<br />8<br />9<br />10<br />11<br />12<br />13<br />14<br />15<br />16<br />17<br />18<br />19<br />20<br />21<br />22<br />23<br />24<br />1<br />2<br />3<br />4<br />5<br />20<br />21<br />22<br />20<br />21<br />22<br /> 1 frame = 125s x 24 time slots + 1 fb = 1.544 Mbps<br /> 1 frame = 125s x 24 time slots + 1 fb = 1.544 Mbps<br />ISDN – NI2, AT&T<br />CAS – T1 robbed bit<br />Primary rate interfaces (PRI) – North America<br />
  24. 24. Primary rate interfaces (PRI) – Everywhere else...<br />E1<br />framing<br />octet<br /> 1 frame = 125s x 32 time slots = 2.048 Mbps <br />31<br />0<br />1<br />2<br />3<br />4<br />5<br />6<br />7<br />8<br />9<br />10<br />11<br />12<br />13<br />14<br />15<br />16<br />17<br />18<br />19<br />20<br />21<br />22<br />23<br />24<br />25<br />26<br />27<br />28<br />29<br />30<br />31<br />0<br />signalling<br />octet<br />ISDN – Euro ISDN, QSIG<br />CAS – MFC R2, E1LS<br />
  25. 25. Observe the Protocol<br />
  26. 26. Digium Digital Interfaces<br />
  27. 27. PRI connectorisation<br />What is the impedance of the line?<br />Europe 120 ohm, North America 100 ohm commonly<br />Typically RJ45 connectors<br />Might be 75 ohm <br />Typically BNC connectors<br />
  28. 28. To connect equipment to the national PSTN, approval is often required<br />Aculab hardware is ‘host independent’ approved in many countries, meaning we have obtained the approval for you<br />If connecting to a internal PABX, approval is not required<br />We all need approval<br />
  29. 29. Recap<br />What might we want to change?<br />Language or accent of prompts, time zone<br />Tones, telephony interfaces<br />Where can we change it?<br />Asterisk, DAHDI, or individual devices<br />How can we change it?<br />Configuration files in Asterisk or DAHDI<br />Web interface (or provisioning) forIP phones and ATAs<br />
  30. 30. Questions or comments?<br />
  31. 31. TeleSpeakTrainingThank you<br /><br />