Oil spill

1,030 views

Published on

An oil spill is the release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment due to human activity, and is a form of pollution

1 Comment
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,030
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
10
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
66
Comments
1
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Oil spill

  1. 1. Oil spillOil spill
  2. 2. What is a Oil SpillWhat is a Oil Spill • An oil spill is the release of a liquidAn oil spill is the release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into thepetroleum hydrocarbon into the environment due to human activity, and isenvironment due to human activity, and is a form of pollution. The term often refersa form of pollution. The term often refers to marine oil spills, where oil is releasedto marine oil spills, where oil is released into the ocean or coastal waters. The oilinto the ocean or coastal waters. The oil may be a variety of materials, includingmay be a variety of materials, including crude oil, refined petroleum productscrude oil, refined petroleum products (such as gasoline or diesel fuel) or by-(such as gasoline or diesel fuel) or by- products, ships' bunkers, oily refuse or oilproducts, ships' bunkers, oily refuse or oil mixed in waste. Spills take months ormixed in waste. Spills take months or even years to clean up. Oil also enters theeven years to clean up. Oil also enters the marine environment from natural oilmarine environment from natural oil seeps. Most human-made oil pollutionseeps. Most human-made oil pollution comes from land-based activity, but publiccomes from land-based activity, but public attention and regulation has tended toattention and regulation has tended to focus most sharply on seagoing oilfocus most sharply on seagoing oil tankers.tankers.
  3. 3. Estimating the volume of a spillEstimating the volume of a spill Film thicknessFilm thickness Quantity spreadQuantity spread AppearanceAppearance inin mmmm gal/sq migal/sq mi L/haL/ha Barely visibleBarely visible 0.000000.000001515 0.00000.0000380380 2525 0.3700.370 Silvery sheenSilvery sheen 0.000000.000003030 0.00000.0000760760 5050 0.7300.730 First trace of colorFirst trace of color 0.000000.000006060 0.0000.00015001500 100100 1.5001.500 Bright bands ofBright bands of colorcolor 0.00000.0000120120 0.0000.00030003000 200200 2.9002.900 Colors begin toColors begin to dulldull 0.00000.0000400400 0.00100000.0010000 666666 9.7009.700 Colors are muchColors are much darkerdarker 0.00000.0000800800 0.00200000.0020000 13321332 19.50019.500
  4. 4. Oil spills are great threat to animalsOil spills are great threat to animals • Many of you know that oil spills areMany of you know that oil spills are extremely dangerous for wildlife.extremely dangerous for wildlife. The most devastating oil spill stillThe most devastating oil spill still remains Exxon Valdez oil spill withremains Exxon Valdez oil spill with huge number of animals dyinghuge number of animals dying because of it. Exxon Valdez oil spillbecause of it. Exxon Valdez oil spill is responsible for deaths ofis responsible for deaths of thousands of animals,the bestthousands of animals,the best estimates include number ofestimates include number of 250,000 to as many as 500,000250,000 to as many as 500,000 seabirds, at least 1,000 sea otters,seabirds, at least 1,000 sea otters, approximately 12 river otters, 300approximately 12 river otters, 300 harbor seals, 250 bald eagles, andharbor seals, 250 bald eagles, and 22 orcas, as well as the destruction22 orcas, as well as the destruction of billions of salmon and herringof billions of salmon and herring eggs.eggs.
  5. 5. Environmental effectsEnvironmental effects • Marine mammals exposed to oil spills are affected in similar ways as seabirds. Oil coats the fur ofMarine mammals exposed to oil spills are affected in similar ways as seabirds. Oil coats the fur of Sea otters and seals, reducing its insulation abilities and leading to body temperature fluctuationsSea otters and seals, reducing its insulation abilities and leading to body temperature fluctuations and hypothermia. Ingestion of the oil causes dehydration and impaired digestions.and hypothermia. Ingestion of the oil causes dehydration and impaired digestions. • Because oil floats on top of water, less light penetrates into the water, limiting theBecause oil floats on top of water, less light penetrates into the water, limiting the photosynthesis of marine plants and phytoplankton. This, as well as decreasing the faunaphotosynthesis of marine plants and phytoplankton. This, as well as decreasing the fauna populations, affects the food chain in the ecosystem.populations, affects the food chain in the ecosystem. • A sheen is usually dispersed (but not cleaned up) with detergents which makes oil settle toA sheen is usually dispersed (but not cleaned up) with detergents which makes oil settle to the bottom. Oils that are denser than water, such as Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), can bethe bottom. Oils that are denser than water, such as Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), can be more difficult to clean as they make the seabed toxic.more difficult to clean as they make the seabed toxic.
  6. 6. Methods for cleaning up includeMethods for cleaning up include • 1.1. Bioremediation: use of microorganisms orBioremediation: use of microorganisms or biological agents to break down or remove oil.biological agents to break down or remove oil. • 2.2.Bioremediation Accelerator: Oleophilic,Bioremediation Accelerator: Oleophilic, hydrophobic chemical, containing no bacteria,hydrophobic chemical, containing no bacteria, which chemically and physically bonds to bothwhich chemically and physically bonds to both soluble and insoluble hydrocarbons.soluble and insoluble hydrocarbons. • 3.3. Controlled burning can effectively reduce theControlled burning can effectively reduce the amount of oil in water, if done properly.amount of oil in water, if done properly. • 4.4. Dispersants act as detergents, clusteringDispersants act as detergents, clustering around oil globules and allowing them to bearound oil globules and allowing them to be carried away in the water.carried away in the water. • 5.5. Watch and wait: in some cases, naturalWatch and wait: in some cases, natural attenuation of oil may be most appropriate, due toattenuation of oil may be most appropriate, due to the invasive nature of facilitated methods ofthe invasive nature of facilitated methods of remediation, particularly in ecologically sensitiveremediation, particularly in ecologically sensitive areas.[citation needed]areas.[citation needed] • 6.6. Dredging: for oils dispersed with detergentsDredging: for oils dispersed with detergents and other oils denser than water.and other oils denser than water. 7.7. Skimming: Requires calm watersSkimming: Requires calm waters 8.8. SolidifyingSolidifying

×