This shows the contents of my presentation First the ORIGINS, then I will talk about the LEADERS. Next I will present the SACRED TEXTS and PLACES. BELIEFS AND PRACTICES THE PRESENT SITUATION AND CONFLICTS IMAGES, SYMBOLS AND PRAYER And finally, SOURCES Of. INFORMATION
Protestantism started in Germany by MARTIN LUTHER in 16th century in reaction to corruption in the church. It grew rapidly in the 19th century around the world. PROTESTANT means “TO PROTEST”, it comes from a letter from German princes to protest against banning of Martin Luther´s documents.
This shows the main leaders from the PROTESTANT MOVEMENT: Martin Luther, in Germany Zwingli and Calvin in Switzerland John Knox in Scotland
The PROTESTANTS have the BIBLE as a sacred text, and is the authority for FAITH, BELIEF and PRACTICE. The PROTESTANTS have no sacred places as in other religions.
PROTESTANTS all have in common: They believe that the BIBLE is the only source of FAITH. SALVATION comes from FAITH only All BELIEVERS have the right to take part in the government of the Church. The MASS for the PROTESTANTS is simpler than for Roman Catholics.
This table shows a comparison between PROTESTANTS and CATHOLICS. For example PROTESTANTS don´t believe in the Virgin Mary, or that the POPE cannot get wrong. They also say that all christians are saints.
Some figures: there are about 800 Million protestants in the world, about 40% of all christians. There are 4 main types of PROTESTANTS : the LUTHERAN, CALVINIST, ANABAPTIST and ANGLICAN. All agree in rejecting authority of Pope, agree on autohority of the BIBLE and importance of individual faith.
This figure just shows all types PROTESTANTS
In EUROPE they are distributed mainly in NORTH (Scandinavia, Baltic countries, Denmark, Germany, The Netherlands, Island and Great Britain, and also Switzerland)
These are the differences in the PRAYER, IMAGES and SYMBOLS. Examples: The are no Saints and no Virgin Mary in churches. They reject authority of POPE. The mass and the Churches are simpler.
This slide shows the information I have used to prepare the presentation. Mainly from the internet and also from ENCYLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA
An assignment for Ethics: the Protestantism
A presentation onProtestantism9th February 2010Daniel Oñate, 3º ESOTHE PROTESTANTISM1
THE PROTESTANTISMDaniel OñateContents6. Images, Symbols & Prayer5. Present situation and conflicts4. Beliefs and practices3. Sacred texts and places2. Leaders1. Origin7. Sources of information2THEPROTESTANTISM
THE PROTESTANTISMDaniel Oñate1. Origin3 Begun by Martin Luther in northern Europe in the early16th century in reaction to medieval Roman Catholicteachings and corruption in the church practices. After a number of European religious wars, and speciallyin the 19th century, it spread rapidly in various formsthroughout the world. The term Protestant comes from the Latin “protestari”meaning “to protest”. It refers to a letter of protestationby Lutheran German princes against a decision to banMartin Luthers documents (from Diet of Speyer in 1529,and Diet of Worms in 1521).
THE PROTESTANTISMDaniel Oñate2. Leaders The main leaders of the “protestant movement” were:Martin Luther(1483-1546)John Calvin(1509-1564)Huldrych Zwingli(1484-1531)John Knox(1510-1572)The followers of Martin Luther established the evangelical churches ofGermany and Scandinavia. Reformed churches in Switzerland wereestablished by John Calvin and Huldrych Zwingli, while John Knox hadan influence in the national church in Scotland.4
THE PROTESTANTISMDaniel Oñate3. God, sacred texts and places Protestants are Christians and their sacred text is the BIBLE . Central concern of the Reformation: return to the sacredBible, as the sole authority for faith, belief, and practice. They believe in an only GOD (and the Holly Trinity) The protestants have no sacred places like the muslims (theMecca) or other religions, and they do not recognise theauthority of the Pope and the Vatican as a holly place.5
THE PROTESTANTISMDaniel Oñate4. Beliefs and practices There are different doctrines for the Protestants, but allcoincide in the following: The belief in the Bible as the primary source of faith: theBible as ultimate authority in matters of faith and order forall Christians (the “Sola Scriptura”). Justification by faith alone: Salvation comes by faith alonein Jesus as the Christ, rather than through good works (the“Sola Fide”). The priesthood of all believers: this is the right and duty ofall Christians not only to read the Bible, but also to take partin the government and all public affairs of the Church. Protestant liturgies (the mass) are simpler than RomanCatholic and Orthodox, and emphasise preaching.6
THE PROTESTANTISMDaniel Oñate4. Beliefs and practices7TOPIC PROTESTANTS ROMAN CATHOLICClergy -Qualification forThe majority of Protestants do not require celibacyas a condition of election to the clergy. Manychurches practice female ordination.All clergy are required to be male. Priests and Bishops must also becelibate, with the exception of Eastern Rite Catholics, who areallowed to have married priests.Marriage andDivorceMarriage is a contract, but not unbreakable.Divorce is discouraged, but permitted. Somedenominations permit remarriage in church.An unbreakable contract. Divorce is not permitted unless there issome canonical impediment to the marriage. In this situation, anannulment may be granted.Mary - Assumptionand Immaculateconception ofBoth are denied. The claim that Mary was sinlessis rejected - only Christ was sinless.Both are dogmas of the church. The Immaculate conception isnecessary because not only do humans inherit a sinful nature, theyalso bear the guilt of Adam and Eves sin. Thus being sinless herself,Mary could give birth to a sinless Christ.Mary - Position ofMary was a holy woman who was chosen to bearthe Son of God. Her perpetual virginity andintercession are denied.The view is similar to the Orthodox church - the title Mother of Godbeing used more commonly than Theotokos. In addition, it is claimedthat at various points in history, Mary has revealed herself to theworld in apparitions e.g. those at Lourdes.Pope - InfallibilityofProtestants also reject Papal infallibility. The onlysource of infallible teaching is that found in theBible.The Pope is infallible when, through the Holy Spirit, he defines adoctrine on faith and morals that is to be held by the whole church.This is a dogma and is therefore a required belief within Catholicism.PurgatoryPurgatory is rejected - Christs death on the crossis sufficient to remove the penalty for all our sins.A place of cleansing and preparation for heaven. Also a place wherethe punishment due to unremitted venial sins may be expiated.SacramentsGenerally, only two sacraments (also known asOrdinances) are recognised: Baptism and theEucharist (often called Holy Communion or theLords Supper).The number of Sacraments is fixed at seven and is the same list asthat in Orthodoxy, with the exception of Chrismation, which isgenerally known as Confirmation.SaintsAll Christians are saints, called to imitate Christ.Only Christ may mediate between God and Man.For sainthood, it is required that at least two verifiable miracles haveoccurred as a result of the intercession of that person.Brief comparison between Protestantism & Roman Catholicism on some topics
THE PROTESTANTISMDaniel Oñate5. Present situation and conflicts8 There are roughly 776 million Protestants worldwide - theyare about 40% of Christians. 4 main Protestant traditions emerged from the Reformation:the Lutheran (known in continental Europe as Evangelical),the Calvinist (Reformed), the Anabaptist, and the Anglican. Despite many differences among them in doctrine andpractice, they agreed in rejecting the authority of the popeand in emphasizing instead the authority of the Bible and theimportance of individual faith.
THE PROTESTANTISMDaniel Oñate5. Present situation and conflicts9This figure shows all branches among Protestantism and their year of origin
THE PROTESTANTISMDaniel Oñate5. Present situation and conflicts10Distribution of protestantism in Europe(including Anglicanism)
THE PROTESTANTISMDaniel Oñate6. Images, Symbols & PrayerIMAGESSYMBOLSPRAYERProtestant liturgies(the mass) aresimpler than RomanCatholic andOrthodox, andemphasisepreaching•No saints: allChristians aresaints, called toimitate Christ. OnlyChrist may mediatebetween God andMan.•Mary was a holywoman, but not avirgin.•No figures of saints.•No figures of thevirgin Mary (is notrecognised).• Rejects authorityof Pope.• Simpler and moremodest churches.11
THE PROTESTANTISMDaniel Oñate7. Sources of informationSourcesofinformationBECDAThe New EncyclopaediaBritannica. Vol 26Macropaedia. Univ of Chicago,15th edition pag. 206Wikipedia.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ProtestantismChristianity in viewhttp://christianityinview.com/home.htmlProtestantism. PATHEOS(Seek, Understand)http://www.patheos.com/Library/Protestantism.htmlHistory of Protestantism.http://www.history.com/encyclopedia.do?articleId=21991912