Santana, De Mattos Freire, Saliba, Ferreira - input2012
Escola de Arquitetura da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais Núcleo de Pós-Graduação em Arquitetura e Urbanismo Neighborhood Impact Studies of a hospital installation at Jardim Teresópolis Betim - MGGerson J. M. Freire, MsCSheyla Santana, MsC.Lucas L. SalibaFernanda C. Ferreira
Introduction• There are two world historic marks that stand out in relation with the evolution of the environmental issues: – National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) - United States, 1969. – United Nations Conference about Development and Environment - Stockholm, 1972.
Introduction• The Environmental Impact Assessment - EIA in Brazil was regulated in 1986 and ratified by the National Constitution of 1988.• EIA is defined as an instrument and process with the objective to identify, preview and interpret the consequences about environment determined by a human being action.
Introduction• In 2001, the government established the instrument Neighborhood Impact Study, through the national law known as City Statute.• Main Purpose of NIS: – To identify and analyze specific local impacts and on components of the built environment covering the neighborhood, due to the deployment and operation of urban business.
Introduction• Issues must be included by EIV 1. Population shift; 2. Surcharge over urban and community equipments; 3. Possible changes of land use and occupation; 4. Real estate valuation/devaluation; 5. New traffic generation and demands for public transport; 6. Ventilation, insolation and lighting; 7. Changes on urban landscape and natural and cultural patrimony.
Introduction• The study shows the development of a Neighborhood Impact Study obtained from the use of geotechnology to create of the diagnostic and prognostic area slum, where it will be installed a hospital.
Methodology• Combination between methodologies Ad Hoc and dedicated application through the use of GIS operators.• Methodology Ad Hoc – Effects identified through brainstorming.• Dedicated application – Development of mapping and modeling of landscape elements and possible changes introduced from the installation of the project.
Methodology• Primary data collected; – Survey in the area; – documents provided by the city government; – images from orbital sensors.
Methodology• Analysis of the potencially degrading sources of the neighborhood quality was made from the study data.• Evaluation of positive and negative effects brought to the neighborhood by the project installation made through NIS
Case Study• Location: Jardim Teresópolis neighborhood, Betim city, in the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais.• City´s economy: expansion of the petrochemical and automotive factory.
Case Study Fig. 1 – Map showing the location of Jardim Teresópolis - Betim - Minas Gerais, Brazil
Case Study• Original Jardim Teresópolis´ setllement was made formally. However, the industrial expansion in the city caused a informal housing boom across the region, including Jardim Teresópolis neighborhood.
Land Use Fig. 2. Land use, for the project’s influence area
Land use• Characteristics of the predominant occupation in the District – area of irregular occupation and semi- disordered; – pressures on natural resources and infrastructure.
Building´s tipology• 90% of the area is formed of two floors buildings;• formation of subsystems within the courts and;• single-family homes.
Structural configuration Fig. 3. Land use and structural configuration.
Weather Protection• Weather protection – Ranking State of Weather protection Percentage of preservation materials used occupied plot Bad Masonry with apparent Construction of brickwork entire plot Average Plaster over brickwork Construction on 80 to 90 % of plot Good Painting over plastered Construction on up brickwork; until 80 % of plot’s Ceramic and other finer total size weather protection materials. Tab. 1- Criteria for building pattern classification on the influence area
Effects over populationshift – The implementation of development can cause direct increase in population density area. – One can anticipate the possible scenarios of urban transformations that lead to the increase or attenuation of high density prior processes.
Results Found• Effects on the use and occupation – Although the project is not considered a large generator of land use conflicts, planners should be aware of changes, since the area is already very dense, and there may be pressure for creation of new uses.
Results Found• Effects on the population density – Importance of titling in urban planning for the region; – improvement of living conditions.
Conclusions• The licensing of the enterprises should also consider the multiplicity of activities already implemented and the elements present in the urban area to allow impacted meet the new demands arising.
Conclusions• Through the NIS, it is possible to conclude that the installation of Teresópolis Hospital generates impacts easily recognized in relation to the use of soil and questions relating to population density.• The situations of the greatest conflicts are generated by non-securitized residential uses that impede improvements in the process of urbanization.
Conclusions• The real state increase of value, which is originated in the implementation of the hospital, will be a positive impact to renew a poor urban area, fulfilling the social function of property and the city.• The resulting value should return to public coffers through the mechanisms provided in the City Statute, acting to prevent the shape and flows in the cities will be exclusive result of the action of market forces.
Thank you! Gerson J M Freire Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais Belo Horizonte – Brasil email@example.com