Nicolò - input2012

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Francesca Nicolò on "Evaluation of structural funds programs of the European Union. The study case of Reggio Calabria: two different seasons, two different leadership, and two different groups of results"

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Nicolò - input2012

  1. 1. Seventh International Conference onINFORMATICS AND URBAN AND REGIONAL PLANNINGPlanning Support Tools: Policy Analysis, Implementation and EvaluationCagliari, 10 – 12 Maggio 2012Assessment of Public ProgramsEvaluation of structural funds programs of theEuropean Union. The study case of Reggio Calabria:two different seasons, two different leadership, andtwo different groups of results.Francesca Nicolò
  2. 2. AIM OF THE PAPERTO EVALUATE THE IMPACTS OF STRUCTURAL FUNDS PROGRAMS ONURBAN FORM, PROCESS AND EVOLUTION IN THE CITY OF REGGIOCALABRIAsynonymous with marginality, URBAN DECAY, backwardness,UNAUTHORIZED BUILDING, welfarism, INEFFICIENCY of the PublicAdministration and of essential public services, MAFIA, resignation andSTANDING TOWN?or synonymous with a reality that could be the center of theMediterranean, SIGNIFICANT NATURAL AND CULTURAL HERITAGE,growth contrary to expectations, MOVEMENTS AGAINST MAFIA, andREDISCOVERED CAPACITY ON PLANNING? 1
  3. 3. SUMMARY The study case: the city of Reggio Calabra Urban framework Evaluation of structural funds programs Methodological notes Round 1994-1999 Rounds 2000-2006, 2007-2013 Final reflections Evolution/involution of the local capacity on planning Two different city models 2
  4. 4. THE CITY OF REGGIO CALABRIA A SINGULAR, AND AT THE SAME TIME, A CENTRAL PLACEBecause of:- the physical space within which it is placed (on one hand the MassiveAspromonte, on the other the Strait of Messina);- its history of South Italy centre: it was a greek colony (Reghion), founded aroundthe 8th century b.C., but it has been hit several times by earthquakes (1783,1908);- its social and economic problems which reflect, and in part exacerbate, regionaltrends such as those related to: - youth unemployment (67,4%); - failure to take off in the industrial sector; - difficult conversion of the economy towards tourism (focused only during the summer, inadequate links). 3
  5. 5. THE CITY OF REGGIO CALABRIA: URBAN FRAMEWORKA DEVELOPMENT ALWAYS FOREORDAINED TO UTOPIAN PROJECTS NEVER FULLYUNDERSTOOD: THE “GREAT REGGIO” (1920), THE NEW GENERAL PLAN (1970),THE METROPOLITAN AREA OF THE STRAIT (2009).THE CONSEQUENCE: 3.000.000 CUBIC METERS OF HOUSING BUILT ILLEGALLYwhich means:- absence of forms of control in site selection;- absence of quality of building tipologies;- an urban landscape made by block houses and “unfinished”;- absence of essential public services and relation spaces;- difficulties in connecting the different parts of the territory;-increase in pollution (air and marine). 4
  6. 6. URBAN FRAMEWORK: ANALYZED INITIATIVES AND NEW DEVELOPMENTPATHS1975-2011: INITIATIVES MULTIPLY AND INTERTWINE THEMSELVES WITHINNOVATIONS FROM THE LEGISLATIVE POINT OF VIEW. 1989-2001 THE REGGIO DECREE AND THE FIRST ROUND OF STRUCTURAL FUNDS: L.246/89, REGGIO DECREE URBAN, 1994 LACIO GAVE INTEGRA, 1997 CDQ TREMULINI-BORRACE, 19981975-1989 TERRITORIAL PACT FOR THE AREA OF THE STRAIT, 2001APPROVAL OF THEGENERAL PLAN ANDUNAUTHORIZEDBUILDING 2008- 2011 TOWARDS THE SP, AND NEW URBAN POLICIES: PLAN FOR THE PROVINCE, 2008 REGIUM WATERFRONT, 2009 REGIONAL TERRITORIAL PLAN, 2009 2002-2007 SECOND ROUND OF STRUCTURAL FUNDS AND INITIATIVES: L.19/2002, REGIONAL PLANNING LAW PSU, 2002 RIURB RAVAGNESE, 2003 5 BEGINNING OF THE ITER FOR THE SP, 2004 PIT 22, 2005 STRATEGIC PLAN, 2007
  7. 7. EVALUATION OF STRUCTURAL FUNDS PROGRAMS_METHODOLOGICAL NOTES THE TERRITORIALIST APPROACH TO LOCAL DEVELOPMENT“Without going into the conceptual and terminological differences […] isimmediately clear that local development is seen not only as a process of growthof an industry or aggregation of local companies, but as a process of territorialdevelopment, based on sustainable exploitation of tangible and intangibleresources present in a certain territory, which also involves social and culturalsphere and subjects’ self-organization ability” (Dematteis, Governa, 2005). ISSUES CONSIDERED: • GOALS • PROMOTER AND INVOLVED SUBJECTS • VISION OF THE TERRITORY • DEPARTURE CONDITIONS • MOBILISED RESOURCES • ROLE OF THE PROJECT WITH RESPECT TO OTHER PROGRAMS • TERRITORIAL IMPACTS 6
  8. 8. EVALUATION OF STRUCTURAL FUNDS PROGRAMS: ROUND 1994-1999 1994- TERRITORIAL PACT FOR THE AREA OF THE STRAITVILLA SAN GIUSEPPE URBAN- Northen suburbs TREMULINI RAVAGNESE-ARANGEA S.CATERINA GALLICOCATONA CENTRO STORICO 7 LACIO GAVE – Southern suburbs GEBBIONE- SBARRE
  9. 9. EVALUATION OF STRUCTURAL FUNDS PROGRAMS: ROUNDS 2000-2006, 2000- 2007- 2007-2013 PIT 22_INTEGRATED DISTRICT STRATEGIC PLAN 2007-2013VILLA SAN GIUSEPPE TREMULINI S.CATERINA RAVAGNESE-ARANGEA GALLICOCATONA CENTRO STORICO 8 PSU GEBBIONE- SBARRE
  10. 10. ROUND 1994-1999: THE FIRST MAYORS’ SEASON AND THE “REGGIO 1994-1999:SPRING” AS A DISRUPTIVE ELEMENT INTO A PROGRESSIVE DISINTEGRATIONMECHANISM OF THE CITYGOALS: recovery of degraded areas, social integration, the Straits cityPROMOTER AND INVOLVED SUBJECTS: Institutions, Academic world, businessorganizations, Third sector, private citizens, ‘ndranghetaVISION OF THE TERRITORY: positive despite the extreme decay and marginalityMOBILISED RESOURCES: all, tangible and intangibleTERRITORIAL IMPACTS: positive and found in most POSITIVE RESULTS NEGATIVE ELEMENTS Growth of local administration; Urban: the case of the Park Ecolandia; Rapprochement of citizens to localauthority; Wrecked attempt of general variant to PRG (1995). Greater sinergy between public andprivate subjects. 9
  11. 11. ROUNDS 2000-2006, 2007-2013: THE REGGIO MODEL, THE DEFECTS OF 2000- 2007-THE ADMINISTRATION CHANGE.GOALS: recovery of the whole municipal territory, social integration,enhancement of the role of the city within the Mediterranean basinPROMOTER AND INVOLVED SUBJECTS: Institutions, Academic world, businessorganizations, Third sector, private citizens, ‘ndranghetaVISION OF THE TERRITORY: positive despite the extreme decay and marginalityMOBILISED RESOURCES: all, tangible and intangibleTERRITORIAL IMPACTS: not detectable considering the ongoing state of projects POSITIVE RESULTS NEGATIVE ELEMENTS Growth of local Absence of knowledge of overall cityadministration; problems; Absence of a strategic developmen vision; Greater sinergy between Patronage in the construction of the arenapublic and private subjects. decision; Inability to manage the vast area; Absence of corrective and general variants to PRG; Persistence of urban decay and social problems. 10
  12. 12. FINAL REFLECTIONS_1: EVOLUTION/INVOLUTION OF THE LOCAL CAPACITY ON PLANNING 1989-2011: INITIATIVES MULTIPLY BUT THEY BECOME A DODGE TO FIND ADDITIONAL PUBLIC RESOURCES , EVEN IF, TODAY, A NEW POSSIBLE PATH OF DEVELOPMENT OPENS: LAW N.19/2002, THE NEW STRUCTURAL PLAN AND THE PROVINCIAL PLAN. 1989-2001 THE “REGGIO SPRING” 1975-1989THE GENERALPLAN AND THE WILDURBANIZATION 2008- 2011 TOWARDS THE STRUCTURAL PLAN, AND NEW URBAN POLICIES 2002-2007 11 CONFIRMATION OF ALL THE STEREOTYPES ON SOUTH ITALY
  13. 13. FINAL REFLECTIONS_2: TWO DIFFERENT CITY MODELS THE MODEL OF THE SPRING THE REGGIO MODEL 1989-2001 2002-2011 RC - SUSTAINABLE CITY RC - EMBLEM OF A “QUESTION” THAT PASSES TROUGH THE..so city that is/that: FRAGILITY OF THE ACTORS OF THE- home of legalty and antimafia GOVERNMENT AND THEmovements; DEVELOPMENT OF TRANSFORMATIONS- alternative, multicultural andowned; …so city that is/where: - home of ephemeral entertainment;- invests for its future on youngpeople and training; - already inherent problems persist and aggravate themselves;- takes care of its urbanenvironment. - suburb of the suburbs.THE QUESTION IS: WHICH OF THE TWO MODELS WILL BE REPEATED NOW THAT THE CYCLE OF STRUCTURAL FUNDS 2007-2013 IS RUNNING OUT? 12
  14. 14. Thanks for attention Any questions? 13

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