Evaluation methodsof landscape qualitiesSusanna CurioniINPUT 10-12 May 2012
Landscape is a complex category founded on a multitude of different elements which all contribute to its definition:strictly scientific factors pertaining to a vast range of established disciplines, and so-called cultural factorscombining the historical, cultural and aesthetic aspects which contribute to knowledge of territory.Unlike the case of environment – a sector for which a series of scientific studies and methodological contributionshave been developed over past decades – only recently has a need emerged for research which is not limited tothe study of landscape as a simple object of perception but contributes to construction of an analytic task aimedat establishing a common platform for all the disciplines that contribute to the understanding of landscape.Definition of a rigorous methodology for the study of landscape offering criteria which are as objective aspossible and elements for assessment of project quality is therefore an innovative tool which, in response to thecurrent need for shared models to guide landscape policy, contributes to application of the European Conventionand thereby indicates a direction for action to be extended onto the international scene.
The Italian legislative tradition in the field of landscapeConstitution of the Italian Republic (1947, art. 9.2)“the Republic protects the landscape and the historic and artistic heritage of the Nation”Law n. 1497 / 1939 “Protection of natural beauties”Law n. 431 / 1985 “Galasso law” Protection of areas with high environmental valueLaw n. 349 / 1986 Institution of the Ministry of the Environment and provisions in matter of environmental damageEuropean Landscape ConventionFlorence 20 October 2000Law n. 14 / 9 January 2006 ratification of ItalyLegislative Decree 22 January 2004 n. 42 and later reviews in 2006 and 2008)“Cultural Heritage and Landscape Code”
European Landscape ConventionFlorence, 20 October 2000Article 1 - Definitionsa. "Landscape" means an area, as perceived bypeople, whose character is the result of the action andinteraction of natural and/or human factors.Article 2 - Scope[ ] this Convention applies to the entire territory of theParties and covers natural, rural, urban and peri-urbanareas. It includes land, inland water and marine areas.It concerns landscapes that might be consideredoutstanding as well as everyday or degradedlandscapes.Article 3 - AimsThe aims of this Convention are to promote landscapeprotection, management and planning, and to organiseEuropean co-operation on landscape issues.
Subscriptions of the European Landscape ConventionTotal ratifications: 37Total signatures not followedby ratifications: 2
The European Landscape Convention: early applicationsWith numerous signatories, the Convention provides a sufficiently ample framework to permit application of itsdirectives in geographically and culturally diversified Europe. In the past decade numerous signatory nationshave implemented a series of measures promoting adoption of the guidelines and goals identified in it in theirown legislation.GermanyEnvironmental and scientific approach deriving from the federal law on the protection of natureCataloniaLandscape Catalogues of the Landscape Observatory of CataloniaGreat Britain (England, Scotland, Galles)LCA Landscape Character AssessmentHLCA Historic Landscape Character AssessmentFranceStudies by traditional schools of landscapeStudies by public administration like the Method of the Ministère de l’Environment for the Atlas de PaysagesSwitzerlandPaysage 2020 by OFEFP pour la Nature et le PaysageItalyStudies aimed at creation of planning tools on different regional, provincial and local levelsResearches by MiBAC Cultural Heritage Ministry
Catalonia_Landscape CataloguesInstituted by Law 8/2005 for the protection,Management and planning of the landscape inCatalonia.The Landscape Observatory of Cataloniais entrusted with producing 7 of these documents,one for each administrative and political region.Prototype of Landscape CataloguesThe procedure for the preparation of the landscapecatalogues comprises five phases:1. Identification and characterisation of the landscape2. Evaluation of the landscape3. Definition of the landscape quality objectives4. Establishment of directives, measures andproposals for action5. Establishment of follow-up indicators
Great BritainLCA Landscape Character AssesmentHLCA Historic Landscape Character AssesmentMethods aimed at interpretation and analysis of theformal and geographic character and historicelements or time-depth of the territory with theaim of providing information of use for planning andenhancement of landscapeStructure:1. CharacterisationStep 1 Defining the scopeStep 2 Desk studyStep 3 Field SurveyStep 4 Classification and description2. Making judgementsStep 5 Deciding the approach to judgementsStep 6 Making judgementsCharacteristics:Application to the entire territory examinedIndispensable role of stakeholders
Switzerland_Paysage 2020Vision of the evolution of landscape orientedtowards the goals of sustainable developmentAim of protecting vital space for future generationsand permitting balanced development of humansociety and of the 45,000 or so plant and animalspecies with whom we share the landThrough definition of thirty-two quality goals and agrid of criteria and indicators, the study presentsthe essential trends in evolution of Swiss landscapesbetween 2000 and 2020 with the goal of enunciatingconcrete results regarding the current state of thelandscape and coming up with hypotheses for itsevolution in Switzerland
Italy_MiBAC Cultural Heritage MinistryCouncil of Europe’s Landscape Award(Art. 11 European Landscape Convention)Assessment procedures based on the AwardRegulations (CM/Res Resolution (2008)3)with the purpose of rewarding exemplary practicalinitiatives for the achievement of landscape qualityobjectives on the territories of partiesto the ConventionCharacteristics:AnnouncementSpreading of the initiative in the specific targetSharing with government bodies, associations andinstitutionsParticipationClarity of the selection procedureIntroduction of an objective evaluation methodPromotion of the results
Assessment methodology_preparationParameters articulating an assessment procedure in the field of landscape:- capable of analysing scientific data and different factors not always easily quantifiable and measurable.- breadth of their scope of application, resulting in significant heterogeneity in the possible cases to be analysed.Founding principles of the proposed methodology:Guidelines of the European Landscape Convention as valid support for the creation of common rules which maybe shared within the international scientific communityThe basic criteria stated by the Convention, along with identification of the key quantitative and qualitativeelements identifying an intervention, offer valid tools for assessing the quality of landscape projects.
Assessment methodology_criteriaSustainability: actions aimed at safeguarding and enhancing natural and cultural resources.Exemplary value: identification of cultural organisational and relational models that may be reproduced in thecognitive process of the identities of places.Public participation: procedures aimed at getting the local population involved in the process of recognisability ofa place.Awareness-raising: communications and educational strategies for the promotion and increased awareness oflandscape.The parameters identified on the basis of these criteria determine the path of the assessment methodology and,through analysis of the constituent elements, structural processes and relational aspects of the projects studied,reveal the cultural and scientific values of quality of landscape and of intervention aimed at transforming it, on thebasis of which we may identify an exemplary, replicable organisational model.
Assessment form_structureThe assessment form permits analysis of a vast range of different kinds of projectsDirect projectsprojects overseeing a specific physical and structural transformation of the landscape in a given territoryIndirect projectstangible and intangible actions (plans, programmes, regulations, etc.) aimed at safeguarding,enhancing and redefining the character of the landscapePart IData collection:- information identifying the project (project head, type of project head, planning);- information identifying and describing the project (title, type, administrative territory where the project will beimplemented, location in a landscape area or unit, location in an area subject to specific conditions of protection,project area, cultural heritage, iconography, visual and social perception, degradation/pressure, use, description).Part IIParameters which develop and explicitly state the four criteria set forth above
Assessment form_criteriaSustainability (environmental and socio-economic)Environmental sustainability- use of sustainable resources, materials and technologies- use of environmental accounting analyses- implementation of sustainable development processes- actions for protecting and enhancing the quality of the landscape- actions opposing or remedying any previously existing conditions of degradation- use of landscape sustainability indicators- presence of regulations regarding landscape planning in the guidelines for sustainable developmentSocio-economic sustainability- cost of implementing and managing the project- type of funding to be used- economic impact on the area- presence and type of participants- implementation of models of cooperation between different organisations- participation in a convention or a network of international conventions regarding safeguarding of cultural andnatural heritage
Assessment form_criteriaExemplarity- identification of organisational management models and organisational practices- feasibility of replicating the project and transferring the experience- documentation used and preliminary studies conductedPublic participation- implementation of participatory processes based on the Local Agenda 21 model- opening of public relations points- presence of standards and rules governing the transparency of the decision-making processAwareness-raising- creation of information points, both tangible and intangible- presence of communicative, educational and promotional actions- generation of printed and web publications.Filling in the assessment form described therefore permits collection of information which, appropriatelyorganised and possibly computer processed, will provide useful indicators permitting identification of the qualitiesof a given design context and help make the reading of the character of the landscape as objective as possible ina shared model which may constitute a highly exemplary scientific tool on the international scene.
Computer processingData processing procedure- computer entry of the form document- creation of a database organising the information collected- statistical processing of the data- definition of parameters and scores providing a synthetic indication of the principal characteristics of theprojects analysed and contributing to their assessment- conducting statistical and graphic analyses in order to produce a summary and a rational representation of theinformation obtainedPotential for applicationCreation of a database which will provide a base for experimentation with statistical analysesaggregation the data by project type, area project size, or other significant variablesDefinition of a possible series of cross-references and statistical processing of the data- behaviour of the parties in comparison with a partnership with the national administration- if and what kind of projects the people in charge are normally associated with- relationship between the project date, the European Convention and correspondence with the four criteriapertaining to the second part of the form- relationship between the presence of valuable elements and the territorial scale of the project- relationship between accessibility and the type of project- presences defining its identity, tourist flows- relationship between investment costs and operating and maintenance costs
Potential for application_experiments in SardiniaSardinia, the first region in Italy to have come up with a regional landscape plan in conformity with theCultural Heritage and Landscape Code and the European Convention, is an interesting field forexperimentation with the assessment methods and planning models thus prepared.The region is characterised by a series of territorial areas with different architectural and landscape features:- industrial landscapes places with a long tradition of extraction and mining industry- rural agrarian landscapes an essential component of the structure and morphology of the land- natural landscapes offering a rich heritage of elements of environmental, geological and ecological value- coastal landscapes popular tourist destinations for decades and, while constituting an important engine drivingthe regional economy, place significant anthropic and urban pressure on the land.Experimental application of the study pursues two ultimate aims:- measurement of the principal features of the landscape of different areas in Sardinia and analysis of thequality of specific projects included in it- exploration of possible ways of implementing models of sustainability in different types of landscape
Case study_CarboniaCarbonia, the project which won the second Councilof Europe Landscape Award is an example of broad,complete interpretation of the principles underlying theConvention, expressed in different aspects of cultural,social and environmental policy.Carbonia is a new city established in the first half ofthe twentieth century, representing the biggestinitiative of its type taken by the fascist regimeanywhere in Italy.Located in the Sulcis Iglesiente geo-mineral park,the city was established as an industrial, residentialand administrative centre linked with the island’sbiggest mine Serbariu.Accelerated growth in industrial production in the post-war period and the changes in Italy’s strategic policiesled to closure of the mine, followed by economic andsocial decline which have compromised the town’sidentity.The result is landscapes that have strong connotationsbut include vast abandoned industrial areas, oftenassociated with ecological problems which make itdifficult to convert these sites for new uses
Carbonia Landscape MachineKey aimsPreserving the area’s historic industrial vocationImplementing a model for sustainable developmentGoalsReclamation and redevelopment of the abandonedmining landscape for cultural, researchand industrial usesCreation of a new model of sustainable territorialdevelopment based on the preservation anddevelopment of the mining landscape and thefoundation cityPromotion of research and higher educationReconversion and transformation of the industrialsector with initiatives in the field of alternative energyand clean energy and energy efficiency of buildings,in order to generate new employment and businessopportunitiesPromotion of new cultural identity based on theidentity-memory-innovation relationship
Carbonia Landscape MachineThe project was an important milestone in undertakinga new policy for the island’s new towns, setting upa network which has also been extended abroadthrough protocols for joint activitiesIn the context of the strategic policies undertaken inSardinia, Carbonia therefore represents a concrete,exemplary model which, through actions aimed atachieving sustainable development with publicparticipation and encouraging public awareness,has triggered processes and implemented projectswhich will result in the redevelopment and re-launchingof the features identifying a significant culturallandscape.