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#SMING14 Impact Of Social Media Among Dutch Consumers

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Full report of ING's Dutch consumer survey info the role, reliability and impact of social media.

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#SMING14 Impact Of Social Media Among Dutch Consumers

  1. 1. #SMING14 IMPACT SOCIAL MEDIA 2014 IMPACT A CONSUMER SURVEY INTO THE ROLE, RELIABILITY AND IMPACT OF SOCIAL MEDIA
  2. 2. 2 ABOUT THIS SURVEY WHAT TO EXPECT? KEY TERMS News is disseminated through various types of media. Where once the focus lay on television and newspapers, nowadays online, social and mobile media also play an important part in the dissemination of news. What do we think about reports on various types of media? Do we think what we read is reliable? Do we talk about it? Does it change our opinion or our behaviour? This is the third time ING has conducted the social media impact survey among consumers. You can read about the findings in this report. In addition to traditional, online and social media this year we also looked at news consumption via news apps for smart-phones and tablets. We also conducted an experiment to gain a better insight into the impact of the same report via different types of media and the same report from different senders. This report provides answers to the following questions: To what extent can trends be identified in consumer use of social and online media, the contact with news through various channels and the reliability and im-pact of reporting? What is the role of news apps on tablets and smart-phones, and to what extent does the reliability and im-pact of this medium differ from other types of media? To what extent has consumers’ online and offline behaviour changed as a result of social media? To what extent are there differences in the degree of reliability and impact of reports from the same source in different types of media and from different senders? Traditional Media Traditional media are understood to mean ‘offline’ media such as television, radio, newspapers, opinion magazi-nes, etc. In all cases these are news and current affairs-related reports, sources or types of media. Online Media Online media reports are understood to mean posts on online news sites, newspaper websites, blogs, forums/ discussion platforms, review sites and websites of organisations. Social Media Social media reports are understood to mean posts on Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, LinkedIn, Google+, etc. News apps for tablet/smartphone Reports on news apps are understood to mean reports read on smartphones or tablets using news-related apps such as the Nu.nl app, NOS app, newspaper apps or the Teletekst app. 1 2 3 4 INTRODUCTION
  3. 3. 3 THE 10 MAIN INSIGHTS AT A GLANCE Contrary to expectations social media usage by consu-mers 1 5 did not increase in the 2012-2014 period; instead almost all platforms registered stagnation. Facebook remains the most used platform, with 71% using this medium every week. Facebook and Google+ were the only platforms to register slight increases in usage com-pared to 2012. Last year’s decline in the use of online news sites con-tinued. Even so this medium remains the most used online platform, with 52% of consumers using it every week compared to 56% in 2013 and 63% in 2012. News apps for smartphones or tablets are used regu-larly, with 40% of consumers using the medium every week. Young people are the most active users of news apps: 55% of the 18 to 34 age group use one or more news apps on a weekly basis. Although all respondents use social media to some ex-tent, 27% of them never come into contact with news reports here. 58% see news reports on social media on a weekly basis. Like last year, more news is consumed via online media, with 66% of consumers seeing news reports here on a weekly basis. 2 3 4 SUMMARY For the third year running reports on traditional media are seen as most reliable, with social media posts still considered to be least reliable. Online media score lo-wer than traditional media, mainly because the category also includes review sites and forums. However, when considering solely the reliability of online news sites and newspaper websites, the degree of reliability of these types of media is comparable to that of traditional media and news apps.
  4. 4. 4 SUMMARY THE 10 MAIN INSIGHTS AT A GLANCE Consumers consider traditional media, newspapers and newspaper websites, online news sites and news apps to be most impactful. The more reliable a medium is perceived to be, the greater its impact. Compared to last year the gap between traditional and social media has narrowed: whereas last year traditional media were 5 to 6 times as impactful as social media, in 2014 this was around 3.5 times. Looking more specifically at impact on knowledge, at-titude and behaviour, like last year online news sites are considered most impactful. Reports on online news sites impact on knowledge for 35% of consumers, on at-titude for 23% and on 20% for behaviour. News reports on social media are also impactful, with 23%, 16% and 15% of respondents saying news reports on social me-dia had led to changes in their knowledge, attitude and behaviour, respectively. The impact of news apps is comparable to that of online news sites.* Consumers said social media had prompted them to follow the news more actively and that people are more inclined to talk about news they have read on social media. Consumers also said that they are more inclined to share news and their opinions about news as a result of social media. It is noteworthy that people tend to talk more offline than online about news that they have read on social media. 8 10 Although the medium through which a news report is read should not have a bearing on its reliability or im-pact, it emerged that a news post on Twitter is less reliable and less impactful than the same news report on the sender’s mobile, traditional or online media channel. The extent to which a context is given with the report plays an important part in this; in the case of a tweet the scope for this is very limited. The sender of a tweet also has a major influence on its reliability and impact. An original tweet or retweet is con-sidered the most reliable and impactful. This finding con-firms the 2013 survey, which showed that the sender’s expertise is key to the level of impact and reliability. 6 7 9 *Social media compared to online media, without traditional media
  5. 5. 5 FINDINGS
  6. 6. 6 USE OF SOCIAL MEDIA STAGNATING FACEBOOK, THE MOST USED PLATFORM, SHOWS A SMALL INCREASE COMPARED TO 2012 Social media usage by Dutch consumers has remained virtu-ally unchanged in the last three years, with small, insignificant fluctuations compared to previous years. As in previous years Facebook is the most used social media platform and one of the few platforms to have registered a slight increase in usage over the past three years. In 2012 67% of respondents said they used Facebook on a weekly basis against 71% in 2014. The use of Google+ showed a limited increase of 7% compa-red to 2013. As in 2013 young adults (aged 18-34) are more active on social media than adults (aged 35–54) and adults are more active on social media than seniors (over 55s). 1 HET GEBRUIK VAN SOCIAL MEDIA STAGNEERT HET MEEST GEBRUIKTE PLATFORM FACEBOOK LAAT EEN KLEINE STIJGING ZIEN TEN OPZICHTE VAN 2012. 1 Uses this medium at least once a week Uses this medium at least once a month Never uses this medium 2013 2012 25% 71% 69% 67% 75% 73% 72% 27% 28% Facebook 31% 68% 53% 50% 54% 66% 73% 34% 27% Youtube 64% 36% 30% 23% 31% 29% 36% 71% 64% Google+ 71% 30% 22% 21% 23% 31% 34% 69% 66% LinkedIn 19% 24% 76% 20% 21% 23% 26% 77% 74% Twitter
  7. 7. 7 USE OF ONLINE NEWS SITES IS DECLINING AS IN PREVIOUS YEARS ONLINE NEWS SITES ARE THE MOST USED ONLINE PLATFORMS As in previous years online news sites are the most used online media. Compared to previous years there is a signifi-cant decline in the use of online news sites (from 63% weekly usage in 2012, to 56% in 2013 and 52% in 2014). After online news sites newspaper websites (50%) are used the most, with this medium also displaying a slight decline. Adults (aged 35–54) make more frequent use of these news sources than young adults (aged 18–34). As in previous years review sites, blogs and forums are used less than online news sites and newspaper websites (23%, 16% and 16% use these online media channels on a weekly basis). 2 ZIEN TEN OPZICHTE VAN 2012. GEBRUIK VAN ONLINE NIEUWSSITES NEEMT AF. ONLINE NIEUWSSITES ZIJN NET ALS VORIGE JAREN MEEST GEBRUIKTE ONLINE PLATFORMEN. 2 Uses this medium at least once a week Uses this medium at least once a month Never uses this medium 2013 2012 Uses this medium at least once a week Uses this medium at least once a month Never uses this medium 2013 2012 52% 56% 63% 60% 63% 72% 40% 37% 28% 23% 20% 26% 46% 42% 52% 54% 58% 48% 16% 13% 15% 22% 20% 23% 78% 80% 77% 16% 16% 21% 27% 24% 32% 74% 76% 68% 50% 52% 60% 58% 60% 68% 42% 40% 32% Online news sites Newspaper websites Review sites Blogs Forum / Discussion platform
  8. 8. 8 NEWS APPS ARE AN IMPORTANT MEANS OF NEWS CONSUMPTION 1 IN 2 YOUNG ADULTS USE NEWS APPS AT LEAST ONCE A WEEK In light of the widespread use of smartphones and tablets many newspapers and news sources have launched apps to enable users to follow the news. Given the important role of these apps in news consumption the medium has been added to the survey. Almost half of Dutch consumers use a news app on a smart-phone or tablet on a monthly basis, 43% do so on a weekly basis. A clear distinction can be seen here between the various age categories. Young adults (18–34) make more frequent use of news apps on a smartphone or tablet (55%) than seniors (over 55s, 29%). Pay-per-view news sites such as Blendle and De Correspon-dent are included in the survey for the first time this year. However, it would seem that these platforms are still relatively unknown, with just 7% of respondents saying they use this medium on a weekly basis. 9% do so on a monthly basis and 91% never use pay-per-view news sites. 3 NIEUWSSITES NEEMT AF. MEEST GEBRUIKTE ONLINE PLATFORMEN. Uses this medium at least once a week Uses this medium at least once a month Never uses this medium 2013 2012 72% 78% 80% 77% 74% 76% 68% 68% NIEUWS APPS BELANGRIJK MIDDEL VOOR NIEUWSCONSUMPTIE 1 OP DE 2 JONG VOLWASSENEN MAAKT MINIMAAL WEKELIJKS GEBRUIK VAN NIEUWS APPS. 3 Use of news apps 52% Less than once a month 48% At least once a month Minimum once-a-week use of news apps At least once a week Seniors Adults Young adults 43% 29% 47% 55%
  9. 9. 9 CONSUMPTION OF NEWS VIA ONLINE AND SOCIAL MEDIA IS STABLE ONE QUARTER OF CONSUMERS WHO USE SOCIAL MEDIA NEVER COME INTO CONTACT WITH NEWS ON THIS MEDIUM Compared to 2013 the degree to which consumers come into contact with news reports via online and social media is stable.* 48% As in 2013 the majority of consumers regularly come into con-tact with news reports via online and social media, with 66% of consumers having weekly contact with news reports on on-line media and 58% on social media. It is noteworthy that just over a quarter (27%) of consumers never come into contact with news via social media. For online media the figure is 18%.. The 2013 survey already showed that the frequency with which people come into contact with news on online or social media increases in line with how often the medium is used. Given the limited changes in consumers’ online and social media usage it is no surprise that the contact with news via these channels is stable. *The small increases and declines in contact with news via online and social media are not significant 4 2014 2013 2014 2013 BELANGRIJK MIDDEL VOOR NIEUWSCONSUMPTIE MINIMAAL WEKELIJKS GEBRUIK VAN NIEUWS APPS. use of news apps CONSUMENT ZIET NET ZO VAAK NIEUWS VIA ONLINE EN SOCIAL MEDIA EEN KWART VAN DE CONSUMENTEN DIE SOCIAL MEDIA GEBRUIKT, KOMT NOOIT IN AANRAKING MET NIEUWS VIA DIT MEDIUM 4 least once a month At least once a week Adults Young adults 43% 47% 55% Online media Social media Never 18% 16% 27% 27% Less than once a month 9% 9% 7% 10% At least once a month 7% 6% 5% 7% Once a week 13% 12% 12% 12% Several times a week 13% 13% 12% 11% Once a day 25% 28% 21% 21% Several times a day 15% 16% 13% 12%
  10. 10. ZO VAAK NIEUWS VIA ONLINE EN SOCIAL MEDIA MEDIA GEBRUIKT, KOMT NOOIT IN AANRAKING MET NIEUWS VIA DIT MEDIUM 10 SOCIAL MEDIA ARE THE LEAST RELIABLE FOR REPORTS ON NEWS & CURRENT AFFAIRS BACKGROUND PROGRAMMES ON TELEVISION AND NEWSPAPERS ARE CONSIDERED THE MOST RELIABLE, FOLLOWED BY MORE TRANSIENT MEDIA SUCH AS NEWS APPS AND ONLINE NEWS SITES. 5 The reliability of different kinds of media has remained stable compared to previous years. As in 2012 and 2013 traditional media are considered most reliable, followed by online media and finally social media. Online media The level of reliability of various types of media is measu-red on a scale of 1 (not at all reliable) to 7 (very reliable). With a score of 4.9 traditional media are therefore considered to some extent reliable for the dissemination of news. This means that trust in the media in general is fairly low. Reports on news and current affairs read on a news app are considered just as reliable as news reports on traditional media such as television and radio. It is noteworthy that news reports on online media (4.3) are considered less reliable than reports on news apps. This can be explained by the fact that forums and review sites are also included in the online media category. These media have a lower reliability level. If only online news sites and newspaper websites are considered, reliability for these types of online media is the same as for news apps and traditional media. Reliability of reporting Never 18% 16% Less than once month 9% 9% least once month 7% 6% Once week 13% 12% Several times week 13% 13% Once a day 25% 28% Several SOCIAL MEDIA ZIJN HET MINST BETROUWBAAR VOOR BERICHTGEVING OVER NIEUWS & ACTUALITEIT 5 2014 2013 2012 Traditional media Online media Social media News apps 4,9 4,8 5,1 4,3 4,3 4,7 3,8 3,7 3,9 4,9 NEW
  11. 11. 11 INFORMATIVE TELEVISION, NEWSPAPERS, NEWS SITES AND NEWS APPS HAVE THE MOST IMPACT THE MORE RELIABLE THE MEDIUM THE GREATER THE IMPACT 6 As in previous years informative television programmes are considered the most impactful medium for disseminating news, followed by newspapers, newspaper websites and on-line news sites. News apps achieve a score comparable to online news sites and informative radio stations. News consumed via informative television programmes and newspapers is considered 3.5 times more impactful than news via social media. The difference has narrowed from last year when traditional media were still considered to have five to six times the impact. Pay-per-view news sites achieve a relatively low score in the 2014 rankings. This is due to the fact that many are still unfamiliar with the medium, with 91% of respondents saying they never use pay-per-view news sites. There is a clear link between the degree of reliability and the extent to which a medium is considered to be impactful, with the general rule being: the more reliable the medium, the greater the impact. To compile these rankings respondents were repeatedly presented with three different types of media and asked to state which they considered the most impactful and which the least. The results were used to compile an index score based upon which the various types of media could be ranked. INFORMATIEVE TELEVISIE, KRANTEN, NIEUWSSITES EN NIEUWS APPS HEBBEN DE MEESTE IMPACT 6 Informative television programmes Newspapers Newspaper websites Online news sites News apps on tablet / smartphone Informative radio stations Entertainment radio stations Opinion magazines Entertainment television programmes Review sites Social media Organisation websites Forum / discussion platform Pay-per-view online news Blogs 227 2014 Impact ranking: Index 205 172 131 121 118 89 75 72 70 62 57 52 30 20 NEW NEW
  12. 12. 7 MEDIA IMPACT STABLE VERSUS 2013 12 ONLINE NEWS SITES AND NEWS APPS HAVE THE MOST IMPACT ON KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND BEHAVIOUR As in 2013 all types of media have an impact on knowledge, attitude and behaviour. There have been no visible develop-ments in the degree of impact of the various media*. Online news sites have the most impact on consumers’ know-ledge (35%), attitude (21%) and behaviour (18%). Like last year, the impact of peer platforms, such as review sites and forums, is lowest. As the reliability of news apps is comparable to that of online news sites, the same applies to the degree of impact. Of the respondents, 37% said that reports on news apps impact on their knowledge, with a figure of 25% for attitude and 22% for behaviour. The impact of news apps is greater for young adults, mainly because they use the medium more frequently. NIEUWSSITES EN IMPACT 78% 80% 77% 69% 66% 76% 77% 74% 16% 16% 21% 27% 24% 32% 74% 76% 68% Forum / Discussion platform Impact of reporting DE IMPACT VAN MEDIA BLIJFT GELIJK TEN OPZICHTE VAN 2013 7 Knowledge Attitude Behaviour 23% 23% 35% 34% 21% 23% 18% 20% 13% 13% 12% 12% 10% 11% 22% 21% 15% 17% 14% 15% 37% 25% 22% 16% 17% 15% 14% 2013 Social media 2014 Online news sites 2014 Peer platforms 2014 Organisation websites 2014 News apps 2014 NEW *Social media compared to online media, without traditional media
  13. 13. 13 1 IN 3 CONSUMERS ACT ON NEWS MORE ACTIVELY DUE TO SOCIAL MEDIA THE MORE FREQUENT THE CONTACT WITH NEWS VIA SOCIAL MEDIA, THE STRONGER THE IMPACT ON BEHAVIOUR 8 Social media encourage curiosity, sharing, interpretation and dialogue. Two out of five consumers who regularly come into contact with news act more actively on news on social media. Thanks to social media people follow news more actively, talk more (both offline and online) about news and are more active in sharing news and current affairs as well as their own opini-ons on news and current affairs. The more frequently a consumer comes into contact with news social media, the stronger the impact on their behaviour. It is noteworthy that people are more inclined to speak offline about news and current affairs as a result of social media (42%) than online (38%) 8 1 OP 3 CONSUMENTEN VOLGT NIEUWS ACTIEVER OP DANKZIJ SOCIAL MEDIA Behaviour 18% 20% 10% 11% 14% 15% 22% 15% 14% Consumers who come into contact with news and current affairs through social media at least once a week All participants in the survey Organisation websites 2014 News apps 2014 NEW Social media has made me.. ..follow more news and current affairs 42% 30% ..share more news and current affairs with my network 38% 27% ..more active in sharing my opinion on news and current affairs with my network 38% 25% ..talk more offline to other people about news and current affairs (at work, social events, etc.) 42% 29% ..talk more online to other people about news and current affairs (on Twitter, Facebook, blogs, forums, etc.) 38% 25%
  14. 14. 14 9 & 10 THE EXPERIMENT ADDITIONAL INFORMATION An important question is whether the type of medium through which consumers access news is key to the degree of reliability and impact. Is a tweet from the Dutch public broadcaster NOS judged differently from an NOS news report that is read on a news app or watched on the TV news? Another interesting question is whether the same news report but from a different sender enjoys a different degree of reliability and impact. In order to find answers to these questions we conducted two experiments, with each being performed both for the NOS and for national newspaper De Volkskrant. Each respondent took part in one of the four experiments, which involved being presented with four different reports. For each report they then indicated to what extent they considered it to be reliable or impactful. For the experiment regarding the medium respondents were ex-posed to a news report in a traditional medium (newspaper article or NOS news), a report in a mobile news app, an online news arti-cle and a tweet. For the experiment regarding the sender respondents were exposed to identical tweets but from different senders. The respondents were shown a tweet from a news medium, a retweet of that tweet (with the logo of the original sender still displayed), a retweet with an interpreta-tion by an unknown person, or a tweet posted by an unknown person using a share button on a news site.
  15. 15. 30% 29% 15 TYPE OF MEDIUM INFLUENCES RELIABILITY AND IMPACT TWEETS CONSIDERED LEAST IMPACTFUL AND LEAST RELIABLE The purpose of the first experiment was to find out to what extent the degree of impact is determined by the type of me-dium. To this end respondents were exposed to reports from 42% the NOS or De Volkskrant. The average scores for the two sources are shown in the graph. Although the medium should not make a difference to the degree of reliability or impact, it emerged that a news report on Twitter is considered less reliable and less impactful than the same report on mobile, traditional or online media. Twitter is the most transient channel out of these types of media; it is often where news appears first but news is also more often retracted as more facts emerge. 38% 38% 42% The difference can also be explained using the results of last year’s survey, from which it emerged that reports are more convincing, believable and impactful if they come with a con-text. It goes without saying that there is more room for this 38% on an online news site, the TV news, in a newspaper article or with a news report on a smartphone app than in a tweet. That means that to increase impact it is important that consu-mers are encouraged in tweets to read the underlying report. 9 MEDIUMTYPE BEÏNVLOEDT BETROUWBAARHEID & IMPACT News app 9 MEDIA 27% news and current affairs Traditional media 100% 75% 50% 25% 0% Reliability Tweet Online news site Impact
  16. 16. 16 SENDER DETERMINES RELIABILITY AND IMPACT TWEETS DISPLAYING THE ORIGINAL SOURCE ARE MOST RELIABLE AND IMPACTFUL The second experiment also involved exposing respondents to reports from both the NOS and De Volkskrant. The average scores for the two sources are shown in the graph. The reliability of a tweet is strongly influenced by its sender, with an original tweet or retweet considered most reliable. In both these cases the logo of the NOS or De Volkskrant was pictured with the tweet. This is not the case for the RT with a quote or a tweet using a share button, where the profile picture of the (unknown) sharer is shown. These findings confirm the results of the 2013 survey, which showed that a sender’s expertise is key to the reliability and impact of a tweet. 10 AFZENDER BEPAALT BETROUWBAARHEID EN IMPACT 10 Reliability 100% 75% 50% 25% 0% Original Tweet Retweet RT with quote Tweet via share button Impact ‘ ‘
  17. 17. Appendix
  18. 18. + SCOPE 18 About this study This study was conducted by Social Embassy and Insites Con-sulting on behalf of ING. The purpose of the study was to gain an insight into the developments in the media landscape with regard to contact with and reliability and impact of reporting on online and social media. Survey An online survey was used to gain an insight into the social and online media usage of Dutch consumers, the degree to which they come into contact with news, the extent to which they consider online, social but also traditional media to be reliable and the degree to which these types of media have an impact on consumers’ knowledge, attitude and behaviour. The questionnaire consisted mainly of multiple choice questions and statements. As in previous years in order to compare the impact of different types of media the technique was used whereby respondents are presented with three different types of media. For each the respondents were asked to state which medium they conside-red the most impactful and which the least. Their ratings were then used to compile an impact ranking for the various sources and types of media. Scores represent perceived impact compa-red to other types of media. Experiment Compared to the surveys for 2012 and 2013 this year’s gained an additional insight into the impact of social me-dia on consumers’ online and offline behaviour in res-ponse to news. Furthermore an experiment was conducted to gain an in-sight into the reliability and impact of reports from the same source via a different media channel. Respondents were presented with four different types of media (tradi-tional, mobile, online and social) and assessed for each channel to what extent they consider reporting via this medium to be reliable and impactful. A second experiment was carried out to gain an insight into the reliability and impact of a report with exactly the same message from the same source, but from a diffe-rent sender. This experiment also required consumers to assess the reliability and impact of these reports. The reports to which the participants were exposed were based on NOS and Volkskrant reports found on the vari-ous types of media. Panel A total of 1,510 consumers participated in the survey, representing a cross-section of Dutch society in terms of both gender and age. HOW WAS THE STUDY CONDUCTED?
  19. 19. 19 HOW DOES REPORTING IMPACT KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND BEHAVIOUR? This survey looks at the impact of news reports on traditio-nal, online and social media on consumers’ knowledge, at-titude and behaviour. The impact is determined by various factors: media usage and the age of the target group, contact frequency, reliability, sentiment and sender. REPORTS IN: IMPACT FACTORS: IMPACT ON: Familiarity with subject, knowledge boos-Knowledge ted, searching or checking information Positive or negative change in opinion, Attitude opinion confirmed Choice made in favour of a product/service or change in behaviour, product or use of Behaviour service Reliability Client / non-client Social Profififfiile Sender Contact-frequency Sentiment Age Relevance + IMPACT MODEL Offline media such as television, radio, news-papers, opinion magazines, etc Traditional Media Independent online news sites (such as nu.nl), newspaper websites, blogs, forums and discussion platforms, review websites and websites of organisations. Online Media Platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Google+, YouTube, etc. Social Media News related apps on the smart-phone or tablet, like the app from Nu.nl or NOS, newspaper apps or the Teletekst app. News Apps
  20. 20. + THE RESPONDENTS 20 Gender Education - Level of education in Dutch system, from primary school to post-graduate level Age Income Lager onderwijs 4% 29% 28% 10% 10% 7% 4% 4% LTS MAVO HAVO VWO VMBO MBO HBO Post HBO onderwijs Universitair onderwijs Post Universitair onderwijs 50% 11% 16% 20% 19% 16% 18% 2% 2% 1% 14% 4% 4% 2% 2% 17% 27% 20% 9% 1% 50% 18 - 24 < 500 25 - 34 500 - 34 - 44 1500 - 45 - 54 2500 - 55 - 64 3500 - 65+ No Idea Prefer not 4500 - to say Not applicable Euro 1499 Euro 2499 Euro 3499 Euro 4499 Euro 6000 Euro > 6000 Euro WHO TOOK PART IN THE SURVEY?
  21. 21. + CONTACT INFORMATION 21 MARTIN KLOOS martin@socialembassy.nl @martinkloos +31 (0) 6 549 844 13 DELPHINE VANTOMME delphine.vantomme@insites.eu @DelphineVtomme +32 (0) 926 915 00 FOR FURTHER INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT: HAROLD REUSKEN harold.reusken@ing.nl @haroldreusken +31 (0) 6 549 844 13

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