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The culture of assessment
in Science and English
La cultura de la evaluación en
Ciencias e Inglés
Using assessment
to support
learning: A
learning-oriented
approach
Juliet Wilson
Learning-oriented
assessment…
…isn’t that the same as
formative assessment?
formative
assessment
summative
assessment
a kind of purpose
guiding what happens
next
a kind of judgement
evaluating what has
happened before
Can a “summative test” serve
a formative purpose?
Question:
formative
assessment
summative
assessment
classroom large scale
The light side… …and the dark side
classroom
assessment
large scale
assessment
Learning
“For all tests, whether predominantly
summative or formative in function, a key
aim is to promote student learning”
Carless 2009
Learning-Oriented
Assessment
A learning-oriented approach to assessment
“…involves the collection and interpretation of
evidence about performance so that
judgements can be made about further language
development”
…to promote learning.
Purpura 2004
How can
classroom
assessment be
learning
oriented?
After a day at school, which of the statements
below are you more likely to think of?
A Question:
• Today what I taught was…
• Today what my student learned was…
Prepared
Lesson
Today what I taught was…
Taught
Lesson
Marked
Lesson
Setting clear
learner
objectives
Performance
ObservationInterpretation
Adjusting
teaching
cycle
?
Today what my student learned was…
Observed evidence
has to exist in relation to something else
– previous performance
– learning goals and objectives
– assessment criteria
– writing and speaking exemplars
– can do statements
– course curricula
Setting clear
learner
objectives
Performance
ObservationInterpretation
Adjusting
teaching
cycle Using a
framework of
reference
A learning-oriented approach to assessment
“…involves the collection and interpretation of
evidence about performance so that
judgements can be made about further language
development”
…to promote learning.
Purpura 2004
…can large scale
assessment be
learning oriented?
At this level, can ride a bike.
At this level, can count from one to ten.
At this level, can swim 100m using the breaststroke.
At this level, can order pizza for delivery.
At this level, can skip rope.
At this level, can determine value of x in an algebraic
equation.
C2
C1
B2
B1
A2
A1
C2
C1
B2
B1
A2
A1
At this level, can calculate integrals and derivatives.
At this level, can determine mathematical probabilities.
At this level, can determine value of x in an algebraic
equation.
At this level, can perform multiplication and division.
At this level, can perform addition and subtraction.
At this level, can count from one to ten.
C2
C1
B2
B1
A2
A1
Putting the
two
together
Yes No
Using large scale assessment for accountability purposes (i.e.
students’ performances used to evaluate their teachers)
Reporting assessment outcomes in norm referenced fashion
(i.e. relative to other students in the class)
Reporting assessment outcomes as a letter/number
Reporting assessment outcomes in terms of grammatical
structures a student has mastered/not mastered
Are these consistent with an LOA approach?
C2
C1
B2
B1
A2
A1
Learner-
oriented
assessment
in practice
Effect
Students taking frequent tests
Teacher providing feedback to students
Formative evaluation by teachers
Teaching test preparation
Students self questioning
Teacher/student setting goals for learning
Effective learning-oriented assessment? Rate the
impact 0 - 5
Hattie 2009
Effect
Formative evaluation by teachers 4.0
Teacher providing feedback to students 3.3
Students self-questioning 2.9
Teacher/students setting goals for learning 2.5
Students taking frequent tests 1.5
Teaching test preparation 1.0
More effective learning-oriented assessment?
Hattie 2009
Setting clear
learner
objectives
Performance
ObservationInterpretation
Adjusting
teaching
cycle
Using a
framework
of reference
Question:
In your classroom context, what sort of
evidence about student performance could
you collect?
Question:
In your classroom context, could you use the
following to make learning-oriented
assessment practical?
weekly tests, peer assessment, online tools,
self-assessment, writing samples, other ideas?
A learning-oriented approach to assessment
“…involves the collection and interpretation of
evidence about performance so that
judgements can be made about further language
development”
…to promote learning.
Purpura 2004
Questions

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Simposio “Ciencias e Inglés en la evaluación internacional”: Using assessment to support learning: A learning-oriented approach

Editor's Notes

  1. When we first started to explore the concepts underpinning LOA, the comment that kept coming back to us from colleagues was “So … LOA, that’s a kind of formative assessment isn’t it?” This is a really interesting proposition for two reasons, colleagues were: Building meaning from the term LOA but also … Attempting to locate LOA alongside two popular concepts in assessment Summative assessment Formative assessment The discourse of assessment it seems is conceptually grounded within these two notions. So it seems that a good place to start is with: A baseline review of formative and summative assessment because these are the terms that serve as our ‘conceptual touchstone’ about assessment …. and to propose the possibility that this distinction is a false dichotomy in fact … 2. We may be restricting our thinking by locating concepts of assessment into either the formative or summative camp So let’s orientate ourselves with general interpretations of SA and FA
  2. When we first started to explore the concepts underpinning LOA, the comment that kept coming back to us from colleagues was “So … LOA, that’s a kind of formative assessment isn’t it?” This is a really interesting proposition for two reasons, colleagues were: Building meaning from the term LOA but also … Attempting to locate LOA alongside two popular concepts in assessment Summative assessment Formative assessment The discourse of assessment it seems is conceptually grounded within these two notions. So it seems that a good place to start is with: A baseline review of formative and summative assessment because these are the terms that serve as our ‘conceptual touchstone’ about assessment …. and to propose the possibility that this distinction is a false dichotomy in fact … 2. We may be restricting our thinking by locating concepts of assessment into either the formative or summative camp So let’s orientate ourselves with general interpretations of SA and FA
  3. Paul Newton, educational researcher, in 2007, questions whether the formative/summative distinction is meaningful at all? He argues that the distinction is “spurious” and that there is a need for greater clarity … … and that instead of focussing on the nature of the assessment, we need to be thinking about the purpose and the use to which the assessment is put. In which case it can be argued that: Formative assessment is a kind of purpose guiding what happens next in the classroom Summative assessment is a kind of judgement, a score
  4. But to find out whether there is really a difference between them – let’s ask the question.. Yes, it can. How? We can use those test scores to inform what we do next in the lesson, curriculum So this dichotomy is not a good one, not mutually exclusive categories
  5. It’s like building a wall – good guys and bad guys Not helpful distinction
  6. Whatever we are dealing with, perhaps a more enlightened way of dealing with it is to say they are actually both about learning All assessments should have as a key aim to help learning
  7. But to find out whether there is a difference between them – let’s ask the question.. Yes, it can. So this dichotomy is not a good one, not mutually exclusive categories
  8. Perhaps this is a more helpful term…
  9. By necessity, as Jim Purpura says … Learning-oriented assessment “involves the collection and interpretation of evidence about performance so that judgements can be made about further language development” To promote learning
  10. Be honest, ask yourself this
  11. Not even thought about learners!
  12. On the other hand, a different model could be – what my student learnt. And this would be understood by observing and interpreting student performance. The question is: How can we interpret what we observe?
  13. To reflect on student performance, we need a framework of reference. This could involve these things….
  14. Using a framework of reference brings about a full reflective learning oriented assessment cycle Harder but more rewarding!
  15. By necessity, as Jim Purpura says … Learning-oriented assessment “involves the collection and interpretation of evidence about performance so that judgements can be made about further language development” To promote learning
  16. These can do statements don’t have anything to do with each other – what’s needed can dos which have a good theory of ability Quantitative (measurement) dimension Qualitative (individual) dimension: individualisation
  17. In this example, this relates to a theory of mathematical theory Quantitative (measurement) dimension Qualitative (individual) dimension: individualisation
  18. Can do statements in CEFR Gathered these statements, expert judgement, easy to hard. In and of themselves do not have a theory but they do relate to a theory of language ability Cambridge English’s approach is the socio cognitive approach – theory of what actually might be happening in each skill See the four SILT volumes – one about Listening, Reading, Writing and Speaking
  19. This slide shows the theory of reading which underpins the Cambridge reading tests Grey bit – what goes on in your head in the process of reading On right, what knowledge you need On left what happens just before and as you start to read – Goal setter - what kind of reading? Contract? Specific reading? This provides a testable theory
  20. Several texts – forces reader to figure out relationship ideas Good theory = good rationale for level based test design If you have a well-developed test, then teaching to the test is not a bad thing! Language tests can be developed that are aligned with public scales
  21. Vertical dimension Quantitative (measurement) dimension Qualitative (individual) dimension: individualisation
  22. Cambridge English Scale makes the relationship between levels more transparent.
  23. We’ve looked so far at how classroom assessment can be learning oriented and whether large scale assessment can be learning oriented. Now we are going to see if we can put these two concepts together.
  24. No! Shifts focus from learning to teaching. Shifting focus to themselves! Will either give the students the answers or not put students into the exam. Pitches students against each other – not saying what an individual student has learned. You could knee cap another student and you come out top! It can have an impact on learning –… can affect motivation but in and of itself a number or a letter can’t really give helpful feedback – you need some sort of descriptor about what someone knows ‘can do….’ Not just grammatical structures!
  25. Remember that we need the quantitative (measurement) dimension – and also the qualitative (individual) dimension: individualisation At the heart of LOA
  26. Learning oriented assessment as reflective teaching practice: external and internal assessment integrated
  27. Hattie, J. 2009. Visible Learning: A Synthesis of Over 800 Meta-Analyses Relating to Achievement. London: Routledge. Rate the impact 0 = nothing , 5 -= very positive impact
  28. Hattie, J. 2009. Visible Learning: A Synthesis of Over 800 Meta-Analyses Relating to Achievement. London: Routledge.
  29. Using a framework of reference brings about a full reflective learning oriented assessment cycle
  30. In the survey, 80 of you answered the question about what you do with the evidence obtained from assessments – you already have lots of ideas!
  31. By necessity, as Jim Purpura says … Learning-oriented assessment “involves the collection and interpretation of evidence about performance so that judgements can be made about further language development” This is teaching and learning, as two sides of the same coin. To promote learning