MadridMay 2013The Economics ofInternational Differences inEducational AchievementEric A. HanushekStanford University
Overview of Existing Evidence• Rapidly expanding information on determinants- Expansion of data- Expansion of researchers-...
PISA Mathematics Achievement, 20090100200300400500600ShanghaiSingaporeHongKongKoreaTaiwanFinlandLiechtensteinSwitzerlandJa...
Cognitive Skills and Long RunEconomic Growth
Years of Schooling and Economic Growth
Importance of StudentAchievement• Economic growth simulations- 25 PISA points (0.47% annual growth)- Iceland, Estonia- Sli...
020004000600080001000012000Iceland Finland EU 2020billion€Improvement in AchievementPresent Value of Gains to GDPfor Spain
020004000600080001000012000Iceland Finland EU 2020billion€Improvement in Achievement6.2% 5.0%20.2%Present Value of Gains t...
AustraliaAustraliaBelgiumBelgiumCanadaCanadaFinlandFinlandFranceFranceUKUKGermanyGermanyItalyItalyJapanJapanKoreaKoreaNeth...
Changes in Growth Ratesvs. Changes in Test Scores
Expansion of InternationalStudies• International assessments provide new insights• “What is possible?”
051015201 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15Number of tests participated (1964-2007)NumberofcountriesOECDnon-OECDCountry Pa...
Determinants of Human Capital:Cross Country ResearchDatasourceDeterminants of Student AchievementAchieve-ment equityTOTALU...
Family Background• All studies find SES important- Few specifics• Limited policy focus• Spain does well- Less family-stude...
Resource Policies• Little evidence of success- Cross country evidence- Within country – developed- Within country – develo...
Resources and Performance acrossCountries3504004505005500 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 70000 80000Math performance ...
Resource Policies• Little evidence of successle evidence of success- Cross country evidence- Within country – developed- W...
Resource Policies• Does not say “resources never have effect”• Does not say “resources cannot have effect”No expectation w...
Teacher Quality• Teachers most important input• No identifiable characteristics- Master’s degrees- Experience*- Certificat...
Institutional ReformsSupported by Evidence• Centralized exams• Accountability• Autonomy/decentralization
School Autonomy andAchievement• Local school autonomy in decision-making- Substantial variation in autonomy reforms intern...
Effect of Autonomy Reforms on StudentAchievement by Level of Development-60-40-2002040600 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,00...
Institutional ReformsSupported by Evidence• Centralized exams• Accountability• Autonomy/decentralization• Choice• Direct p...
0.000.250.500.750% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12%s.d.performancegainPercent deselectedlow estimate of teacher effectivenessCanadaFinl...
0.000.250.500.751.000% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12%s.d.performancegainPercent deselectedhigh estimate of teacher effectiveness low ...
Institutions Outside of TeacherEffects• Early tracking
CanadaFranceGermanyIcelandLatviaCanadaCzech Rep.Czech Rep.FranceGermanyGreeceGreeceHong KongHong KongHungaryHungaryIceland...
CanadaFranceGermanyIcelandLatviaCanadaCzech Rep.Czech Rep.FranceGermanyGreeceGreeceHong KongHong KongHungaryHungaryIceland...
Institutions Outside of TeacherEffects• Early tracking• Vocational education
Male Employment Rate by Age0.2.4.6.81PercentageEmployed,Male20 30 40 50 60AgeGeneral Education Vocational EducationVocatio...
Male Employment Rate by Age.2.4.6.81PercentageEmployed,Male20 30 40 50 60AgeGeneral Education Vocational EducationApprenti...
Institutions Outside of TeacherEffects• Early tracking• Vocational education• Early childhood programs
Conclusions• Performance is very important• Policy choices matter• Improvement is possible
0.0%0.5%1.0%1.5%2.0%2.5%3.0%3.5%4.0%4.5%5.0%LatviaChileBrazilPortugalHongKongGermanyPolandLiechtensteinSloveniaColombiaLit...
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Hanushek international achievement spain

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Presentación que el profesor E. Hanushek (Universidad de Stanford) realizó el día 6 de mayo de 2013 en el MECD con el título “The Economics of International Differences in Educational Achievement”.

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Hanushek international achievement spain

  1. 1. MadridMay 2013The Economics ofInternational Differences inEducational AchievementEric A. HanushekStanford University
  2. 2. Overview of Existing Evidence• Rapidly expanding information on determinants- Expansion of data- Expansion of researchers- Expansion with country comparisons• Evidence both within and across countries• Many standard views overturned- Policies in law and practice not supported• New demands for evidence-based policies
  3. 3. PISA Mathematics Achievement, 20090100200300400500600ShanghaiSingaporeHongKongKoreaTaiwanFinlandLiechtensteinSwitzerlandJapanCanadaNetherlandsMacaoNewZealandBelgiumAustraliaGermanyEstoniaIcelandDenmarkSloveniaNorwayFranceSlovak_RepublicAustriaPolandSwedenCzech_RepublicUnited_KingdomHungaryLuxembourgUnited_StatesIrelandPortugalSpainItalyLatviaLithuaniaRussian_FedGreeceCroatiaDubai(UAE)IsraelTurkeySerbiaAzerbaijanBulgariaRomaniaUruguayChileThailandMexicoTrinidad_TobagoKazakhstanMontenegroArgentinaJordanBrazilColombiaAlbaniaTunisiaIndonesiaQatarPeruPanamaKyrgyzstan
  4. 4. Cognitive Skills and Long RunEconomic Growth
  5. 5. Years of Schooling and Economic Growth
  6. 6. Importance of StudentAchievement• Economic growth simulations- 25 PISA points (0.47% annual growth)- Iceland, Estonia- Slightly above OECD average- Finland (+1.34% annual growth)- EU2020 (+0.3% annual growth)- <15% level 1 or below by 2020
  7. 7. 020004000600080001000012000Iceland Finland EU 2020billion€Improvement in AchievementPresent Value of Gains to GDPfor Spain
  8. 8. 020004000600080001000012000Iceland Finland EU 2020billion€Improvement in Achievement6.2% 5.0%20.2%Present Value of Gains to GDPfor Spain
  9. 9. AustraliaAustraliaBelgiumBelgiumCanadaCanadaFinlandFinlandFranceFranceUKUKGermanyGermanyItalyItalyJapanJapanKoreaKoreaNetherlandsNetherlandsN. ZealandN. ZealandNorwayNorwaySwedenSwedenUSAUSA4604805005205405601975 2000Trends inTest Scores
  10. 10. Changes in Growth Ratesvs. Changes in Test Scores
  11. 11. Expansion of InternationalStudies• International assessments provide new insights• “What is possible?”
  12. 12. 051015201 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15Number of tests participated (1964-2007)NumberofcountriesOECDnon-OECDCountry Participation inInternational Testing
  13. 13. Determinants of Human Capital:Cross Country ResearchDatasourceDeterminants of Student AchievementAchieve-ment equityTOTALUniqueStudiesfamily backgroundplus school inputsInstitutionswithincountrycross-countrywithincountrycross-countryIEA 15 2 1 2 1 21 20OECD 6 4 3 7 2 22 20Other 2 2 1 5 4Combined 3 3 4 6 16 16TOTAL 24 11 6 14 9 64 60
  14. 14. Family Background• All studies find SES important- Few specifics• Limited policy focus• Spain does well- Less family-student achievement correlation
  15. 15. Resource Policies• Little evidence of success- Cross country evidence- Within country – developed- Within country – developing
  16. 16. Resources and Performance acrossCountries3504004505005500 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 70000 80000Math performance in PISA 2003Cumulative educational expenditure per studentMexicoBelgiumIcelandFranceSwedenSwitzerlandDenmarkAustriaNorwayUSAItalyPortugalSpainKoreaGermanyIrelandCzech Rep.HungaryPolandSlovak Rep.GreeceFinlandNetherlandsCanadaJapanAustraliaR 2 = 0.01R 2 = 0.15
  17. 17. Resource Policies• Little evidence of successle evidence of success- Cross country evidence- Within country – developed- Within country – developing• Consistent with detailed analysis- class size- school characteristics
  18. 18. Resource Policies• Does not say “resources never have effect”• Does not say “resources cannot have effect”No expectation within currentincentive structure
  19. 19. Teacher Quality• Teachers most important input• No identifiable characteristics- Master’s degrees- Experience*- Certification- Preparation- Professional development• Observable through both student performanceand supervisor ratings• Cannot regulate and pay on characteristics
  20. 20. Institutional ReformsSupported by Evidence• Centralized exams• Accountability• Autonomy/decentralization
  21. 21. School Autonomy andAchievement• Local school autonomy in decision-making- Substantial variation in autonomy reforms internationally• Fundamental tension: better local information versus divergentinterests and asymmetric information
  22. 22. Effect of Autonomy Reforms on StudentAchievement by Level of Development-60-40-2002040600 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 35,000 40,000Effect of autonomy on PISA test scoreGDP per capitaIndonesiaThailandMexicoChileBrazilCanadaGermanyAustraliaItalySpainPortugalArgentinaJapanUnitedStatesSwedenUnitedKingdomNorway
  23. 23. Institutional ReformsSupported by Evidence• Centralized exams• Accountability• Autonomy/decentralization• Choice• Direct performance incentives
  24. 24. 0.000.250.500.750% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12%s.d.performancegainPercent deselectedlow estimate of teacher effectivenessCanadaFinlandAlternative Estimates of Least EffectiveU.S. Teachers on Student Achievement
  25. 25. 0.000.250.500.751.000% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12%s.d.performancegainPercent deselectedhigh estimate of teacher effectiveness low estimate of teacher effectivenessCanadaFinlandAlternative Estimates of Least EffectiveU.S. Teachers on Student Achievement
  26. 26. Institutions Outside of TeacherEffects• Early tracking
  27. 27. CanadaFranceGermanyIcelandLatviaCanadaCzech Rep.Czech Rep.FranceGermanyGreeceGreeceHong KongHong KongHungaryHungaryIcelandItalyItalyLatviaNetherlandsNetherlandsNew ZealandNew ZealandNorwayNorwayRussian Fed.Russian Fed.Slovak Rep.Slovak Rep.SwedenSwedenTurkeyTurkeyUnited StatesUnited States-0.6-0.4-0.20.00.20.40.60.8PIRLS (Primary school) PISA 2003 (Secondary school)Standard DeviationTracking and Inequality: PIRLS and PISA2003Early trackingNo early tracking3/33/3
  28. 28. CanadaFranceGermanyIcelandLatviaCanadaCzech Rep.Czech Rep.FranceGermanyGreeceGreeceHong KongHong KongHungaryHungaryIcelandItalyItalyLatviaNetherlandsNetherlandsNew ZealandNew ZealandNorwayNorwayRussian Fed.Russian Fed.Slovak Rep.Slovak Rep.SwedenSwedenTurkeyTurkeyUnited StatesUnited States-0.6-0.4-0.20.00.20.40.60.8PIRLS (Primary school) PISA 2003 (Secondary school)Standard DeviationTracking and Inequality: PIRLS and PISA20031234123456Early trackingNo early trackingChange:1. Germany 0.712. Greece 0.303. Czech Rep. 0.254. Italy 0.225. Sweden 0.216. Latvia 0.127. Netherlands 0.118. France 0.099. Russian Fed. 0.0810. Hungary 0.0411. Iceland -0.0712. Slovak Rep. -0.0813. Hong Kong -0.1314. Norway -0.1415. United States -0.2716. Canada -0.3217. New Zealand -0.5018. Turkey -0.63
  29. 29. Institutions Outside of TeacherEffects• Early tracking• Vocational education
  30. 30. Male Employment Rate by Age0.2.4.6.81PercentageEmployed,Male20 30 40 50 60AgeGeneral Education Vocational EducationVocational Countries (11)
  31. 31. Male Employment Rate by Age.2.4.6.81PercentageEmployed,Male20 30 40 50 60AgeGeneral Education Vocational EducationApprenticeship Countries (3)
  32. 32. Institutions Outside of TeacherEffects• Early tracking• Vocational education• Early childhood programs
  33. 33. Conclusions• Performance is very important• Policy choices matter• Improvement is possible
  34. 34. 0.0%0.5%1.0%1.5%2.0%2.5%3.0%3.5%4.0%4.5%5.0%LatviaChileBrazilPortugalHongKongGermanyPolandLiechtensteinSloveniaColombiaLithuaniaUnitedKingdomSingaporeSwitzerlandGreeceMexicoIsraelFinlandItalyNewZealandDenmarkKorea,Rep.HungaryIranUnitedStatesTaiwan…BelgiumCanadaCyprusAustraliaJordanRussianFed.IndonesiaAustriaSpainIcelandJapanNetherlandsTunisiaArgentinaAchievement Growth, 1995-2009

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