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- 1. The Sizing For Fuel Cell Stack, Battery and Supercapacitor of FCHEV Truck Iin Lidiya Zafina Supervised by Ir. Edwin Tazelaar Dr. P.A. Veenhuizen Collaboration Project Master of Control System Engineering - Applied Research Laboratory Automotive Department HAN University of Applied Science
- 2. <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Objective </li></ul><ul><li>Problems Definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Modeling </li></ul><ul><li>Solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Result and Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendation </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Objective </li></ul><ul><li>Problems Definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Modeling </li></ul><ul><li>Solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Result and Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendation </li></ul>
- 6. Hytruck prototype Hytruck Specification kg kg kg m 2 - - - 4600 1740 7500 200 4.4 0.7 0.015 m v _ em m v _ payload m v_max m rot A f c d c r Empty mass Payload Max gross vehicle weight Equivalent rotating mass Frontal area Drag coefficient Rolling resistance Unit Value Variable Vehicle
- 9. <ul><li>Equality constraints </li></ul><ul><li>P FCn - P aux +P batn +P scap_term - P demand =0 </li></ul><ul><li>SOE bat (0)= SOE bat (end ) </li></ul><ul><li>SOE scap (0)= SOE scap (end) </li></ul>Inequality constraints
- 10. DC/ DC DC/DC DC/ AC Pw P bat_term P batn Pdemand P EM P FCn P aux M left P FC = u 1 .P FC_max M right P FC P scap_term P s_scap = u 3 .P scap_max P s_bat = u 2 .P bat_max Fuel Cell System P s_scap losses Supercapacitor Ideal storage P s_bat losses Ideal storage Battery
- 11. V oc_ba t = f (SOC) Fuel consumption Battery model Supercapacitor model V oc_scap = f (E _scap ) R int_scap P s_scap P scap_term R int_bat = f (SOC) P s_bat P bat_term
- 12. Vehicle model Inverter and motor are modeled as average values
- 13. Range of sizes P FC_ max1, P FC_ max2, P FC _maxi,,. P bat_ max1, P bat max2,. P bat maxt j,.... P scap max1, P scap max2, P scap_max k,…. EMS P demand Driving cycle P FC__max i, P bat_maxj ,P scap_max k Vehicle Model J opt P FC_max i, P bat_maxj , P scap_maxk ………………………… ... Store the result Find the Optimal sizing
- 14. Sizing Offline activity Energy management strategy Offline method <ul><li>Dynamic problems </li></ul><ul><li>Cost function </li></ul><ul><li>Constraints </li></ul><ul><li>Global minimum </li></ul><ul><li>as Benchmark </li></ul>Pseudo static optimization as DP approach Dynamic Programming (DP)
- 15. J(u)=0 G(u)=0 u 1 u m+1 u 0 u 0 u*
- 16. Initial approximation J(u) ,Gu), J u (u), G u (u) H uu Iter ≤ max iter du ,dλ, Evaluate initial function J(u) ,G(u), J u (u), G u (u) , ,, du Evaluate function maipulated u and λ end Vehicle + Propulsion model Driving cycle i-th u 0 u ,λ
- 18. EMS result
- 19. 188 – 246 116 – 145 Supercapacitor 25 25 Battery 55 - 66 45 - 55 Fuel cell stack Optimal size [kW] Je05 Cycle Optimal size [ kW] CSC cycle Component Source
- 21. <ul><li>The energy content is not an issue of hybridization </li></ul><ul><li>Energy deviation is small </li></ul><ul><li>Supercapacitor Compensate energy deviation to its maximum capacity </li></ul>3.3-3.9 3.2-3.7 kW 115 99 Peak demand kW 16.6 13.8 Average demand Kg/100 km 4.13 4.11 Fuel Consumption kWh 1.63 - 1.80 0.87 - 0.95 Total Energy Content kW kWh kWh 188 - 232 [1.13 -1.29] [1.13 -1.29] 116 – 145 [0.64 - 0.73] [0.64 - 0.73] Supercapacitor power Supercapacitor capacity Supercapacitor used capacity kW kWh kWh 25 [25] [0.50 - 0.52] 25 [25] [0.21 - 0.22] Battery power Battery capacity Battery used capacity kW 55 - 66 45 – 55 Stack size Unit Je05 cycle CSC cycle
- 22. Hybridization is sized by its power handling Not by energy content ! Supercapacitor compensates more ! kW kWh kWh 188 - 232 [1.13 -1.29] [1.13 -1.29] 116 – 145 [0.64 - 0.73] [0.64 - 0.73] Supercapacitor power Supercapacitor capacity Supercapacitor used capacity kW kWh kWh 25 [25] [0.50 - 0.52] 25 [25] [0.21 - 0.22] Battery power Battery capacity Battery used capacity Unit Je05 cycle CSC cycle increased continually 100 Battery reduced 510 Supercapacitor Impacts of the increment size to the fuel consumption trends Power rate [W/Kg] The component source
- 23. - 3.9 3.7 kW 113.5 97 Peak demand kW 16.2 13.55 Average demand kg/100 km 4.0 3.9 Fuel Consumption kW kWh kWh 203 1.29 1.29 174 0.97 0.97 Supercapacitor Capacity Capacity used kW 63 52 Stack size Unit Je05 cycle CSC cycle 3.3-3.9 3.2-3.7 kW 115 99 Peak demand kW 16.6 13.8 Average demand kg/100 km 4.13 4.11 Fuel Consumption kWh 1.63 - 1.80 0.87 - 0.95 Total Energy Content kW kWh kWh 188 - 232 [1.13 -1.29] [1.13 -1.29] 116 – 145 [0.64 - 0.73] [0.64 - 0.73] Supercapacitor power Supercapacitor capacity Supercapacitor used capacity kW kWh kWh 25 [25] [0.50 - 0.52] 25 [25] [0.21 - 0.22] Battery power Battery capacity Battery used capacity kW 55 - 66 45 – 55 Stack size Unit Je05 cycle CSC cycle
- 24. (a).FC stack –battery-supercapacitor (b). FC stack - supercapacitor
- 25. <ul><li>The optimal sizes and minimum fuel consumption has been summarized in the table. </li></ul><ul><li>The result from fuel sensitivity against component sizes show that by reducing the battery size, the fuel consumption is continuously reduced. In addition, from the size trends, the optimal size for the battery is found at the minimum size, 25 kW. Therefore, the fuel cell stack with supercapacitor is configured to observe the possibility of less fuel consumption. The result shows that the fuel consumption is reduced to 3.99 kg/100 km for CSC cycle and 4.03 kg/100 km for Je05 cycle which is reduced about 2 % from the optimal size with FC stack , battery and supercapacitor . The optimal stack size is 52 kW for CSC cycle with supercapacitor size 174 kW and stack 63 KW with supercapacitor 203 kW for Je05 cycle. </li></ul>
- 26. <ul><li>The on line EMS implementation should be implemented. </li></ul><ul><li>Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy, ECMS. The EMS strategy manipulating the equivalent electricity to fuel consumption cost </li></ul><ul><li>On line using the feedback battery model </li></ul><ul><li>predicting the future of the driving cycle using driving cycle generator. </li></ul>
- 27. Thank you

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