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Zoonoses and emerging infectious diseases

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Presentation by Delia Grace at the first United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Science-Policy Forum ahead of the Second Session of the United Nations Environment Assembly (UNEA-2), Nairobi, Kenya, 20 May 2016.

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Zoonoses and emerging infectious diseases

  1. 1. Zoonoses and emerging infectious diseases Delia Grace Program Leader, Food Safety and Zoonoses International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya Science-Policy Forum Second session of the UN Environment Assembly (UNEA‐2) Nairobi, Kenya, 20 May 2016
  2. 2. Overview • Zoonoses: the lethal gifts of livestock and wildlife – Emerging infectious disease – Neglected zoonoses – Costs of disease • Drivers of disease – Demography and increasing demands – Land use change and environmental degradation • One Health solutions for zoonoses – Understanding disease – Surveillance and response – Addressing underlying causes
  3. 3. Where do we get our diseases? • Few are Legacies – Paleolithic baseline: yaws, staph, pinworms, lice, typhoid, tb • Most are Earned – Degenerative diseases: heart failure, stroke, diabetes, cancer – Allergies, asthma, autoimmune diseases – Sexually transmitted infections such as HSV-2, gonorrhea • Many are Souvenirs – Around 60% of human diseases shared with animals – 75% of emerging infectious disease zoonotic
  4. 4. Secondary Host (livestock) Secondary Host (human) Reservoir Host (wildlife) Vector Sylvatic cycle Sustained transmission: - peri-domestic or urban cycle - sub-clinical, epidemic, pandemic Type of pathogen: mutation, heterogeneity, host specificity Habitat change Biodiversity Host density Vector density Spillover! •Increasing human population and density •Human behaviour •Expansion of agriculture •Intensification of livestock production Pathogen flow Spill-over Spill-over Spill-over
  5. 5. 6 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Costs of prevention (investments in animal and human health systems) Benefits from averted mild pandemic Benefits from averted severe pandemic $billionperyear Annual expected benefits of prevention of pandemic and non-pandemic outbreaks 6.7 b 6.7b Source World Bank 2012
  6. 6. 7 Economic costs Young girl presenting her pet chicken to culling team during a mass cull, Indramayu District January 2006. Photo by Peter Roeder.
  7. 7. • Unlucky 13 zoonoses sicken 2.4 billion people, kill 2.2 million people and affect more than 1 in 7 livestock each year Greatest burden of endemic zoonoses falls on on billion poor livestock keepers
  8. 8. Livestock disease huge burden 9 Young Adult Cattle 22% 6% Shoat 28% 11% Poultry 70% 30% Source: Otte & Chilonda; IAEA Annual mortality of African livestock
  9. 9. Overview • Zoonoses: the lethal gifts of livestock – Emerging infectious disease – Neglected zoonoses – Costs of disease • Drivers of disease – Demography and increasing demands – Land use change and environmental degradation • One Health solutions for zoonoses – Understanding disease – Surveillance and response – Addressing underlying causes
  10. 10. Exponential population growth 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 -12000 -10000 -8000 -6000 -4000 -2000 0 2000 4000 Global population (millions)
  11. 11. Global contexts – livestock domains Adapted from Smith J 2011 Food and Nutrition Security Human and Animal Health Poverty Reduction and Growth Natural Resource Management Climatechange (temperaturestoriseby1-3.5°Cby2100) Landusechange Urbanization/irrigation Biodiversity change Environmental degradation Feeding the world (2.5 billion more to feed by 2050)
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  13. 13. Overview • Zoonoses: the lethal gifts of livestock – Emerging infectious disease – Neglected zoonoses – Costs of disease • Drivers of disease – Demography and increasing demands – Land use change and environmental degradation • One Health solutions for zoonoses – Understanding disease – Surveillance and response – Addressing underlying causes
  14. 14. 15 Human health Societies, cultures, Economies, institutions Policies Agroecosystem health Animal Health Vet Pub Health EcoHealth One medicine ONE HEALTH Wildlife health Plant health
  15. 15. Potential RVF hotspots in eastern Africa Kenya Tanzania
  16. 16. Timely responses to reduce impacts • Surveillance and response in animal hosts can reduce costs by 90% Adapted from IOM 2009
  17. 17. 18
  18. 18. Agriculture Associated Diseases http://aghealth.wordpress.com/

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