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Wildlife-livestock-human interface: recognising drivers of disease

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Presentation delivered by Annie Cook from ILRI, during the LSE seminar series on 26 March 2015

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Wildlife-livestock-human interface: recognising drivers of disease

  1. 1. Wildlife-livestock-human interface Can we recognise drivers of disease? Annie Cook Post doctoral Scientist - Epidemiology Event: LSE Seminar Location: ILRI Infocentre Date: 26Th March, 2015
  2. 2. Outline • Global context – Wildlife-livestock-human interface – Endemic versus emerging infectious disease – Can we predict next pandemic? • Kenyan case studies – Zoonoses in small holders and their animals – Bats as source of emerging disease – Malignant catarrhal fever
  3. 3. Wildlife-livestock-human interface
  4. 4. Drivers of disease • Climate change • Environmental degradation • Encroachment wild spaces • Globalisation • Urbanisation • Land use changes • Agricultural intensification
  5. 5. Endemic versus emerging Endemic disease Global infections per year Brucellosis 500,0001 Leptospirosis 1,725,0902 Emerging disease Total infections Nipah ~6003,4 Avian influenza (H5N1) 7845 1. Pappas et al 2006 2. Hagan et al 2014 3. http://www.searo.who.int/entity/emerging_diseases/links/CDS_Nipah_Virus.pdf 4. http://www.searo.who.int/entity/emerging_diseases/links/nipah_virus_outbreaks_sear/en/ 5.http://www.who.int/influenza/human_animal_interface/EN_GIP_20150303cumulativeNumberH5N1cases.pd f?ua=1
  6. 6. Impact of emerging disease • Loss of human life • Costs of control • Adverse effects on agriculture & food security • Reduces biodiversity http://www2.cedarcrest.edu/academic/bio/hale/ bioT_EID/lectures/session24.html
  7. 7. The next emerging disease? • RNA virus • Broad host range • Wildlife source • Developing world • Human to human transmission Taylor et al 2001 Woolhouse et al 2005
  8. 8. Predictions of emerging disease Jones et al 2008 Swine flu, Mexico MERS, Saudi Arabia
  9. 9. Kenyan case studies https://unphase1-6th-8th.wikispaces.com/Kenya
  10. 10. Kenyan context • 44 million people • Rural • 17M Cattle, 27M Goats, 17M Sheep , 0.3M pigs, 3M camels • 60% wildlife outside national parks • Encroachment of wildlife areas • Wildlife-human conflict • Disease transmission Kenyan Human Population Census 2009
  11. 11. People, Animals and their Zoonoses (PAZ) • Cross-sectional study on zoonoses • 412 households • 142 slaughterhouses • Endemic disease – HIV, malaria • Zoonoses – Brucellosis, leptospirosis, Rift Valley fever, Q fever, cysticercosis, taeniasis
  12. 12. PAZ study area • Western Kenya • Lake Victoria Crescent • Population 1.4M • High population density • Mixed agriculture • Small holdings
  13. 13. Comparison to other areas Western (%) Kajiado (%) Tana River (%) Human Brucellosis 0.61 1.32 Q fever 2.21 26.84 Leptospirosis 4.81 Cattle Brucellosis 0.261 21.92 Q fever 10.01 Leptospirosis 5.31 21.03 1 Fèvre et al 2015 2 Nakeel et al 2015 3 Nakeel et al 2015 4 Mwololo et al 2015
  14. 14. High risk groups Community (%) Slaughterhouse workers (%) Human Brucellosis 0.6 0.6 Q fever 2.2 4.5 Leptospirosis 4.8 13.4
  15. 15. Conclusions • Differences in seroprevalence • Livestock system? • High risk groups • Next steps – Zoolink Project – Zoonoses and Emerging Livestock Systems
  16. 16. Bats as source of emerging disease • Worldwide distribution • Incredibly numerous • Colonies • Reservoirs of emerging disease – SARS, Nipah
  17. 17. Nipah virus • Malaysia • Commercial pig farms • Bat- pig - human • Bangladesh • Date palm sap http://whyfiles.org/2013/dangerous-viruses-new- weapons-against-new-foes/Epstein et al, 2015
  18. 18. Bat sampling • Mist nets • Transferred to laboratory • Anaesthetised – isofluorane • Sample collection • Euthanised • Necropsy
  19. 19. Sample analysis • Blood • Frozen tissues – heart, lung, liver, kidney, brain, spleen • Fixed tissues for histopathology • PCR – Lyssaviruses (Rabies) – Filoviruses (Ebola/Marburg) – Coronaviruses (SARS – like) – Paramyxoviruses (Henipah) – Bunyaviruses (Hanta)
  20. 20. Results – so far 5/8 Epomophorus sp http://www.cdc.gov/dpdx/malaria/index.htm
  21. 21. Conclusions • New pathogens of bats • Relate to human and animal data • Not causal but hypothesis generating
  22. 22. Malignant catarrhal fever http://na.unep.net/geas/getUNEPPage WithArticleIDScript.php?article_id=107 • Alcelaphine herpesvirus -1 • Carriers – wildebeest • 100% cattle mortality • Risk period - wildebeest calving • Traditionally pastoralists migrate
  23. 23. Kapiti Plains https://fonnap.wordpress.com/2012/03/05/the-konza-techno-city-malili-animal-rescue/
  24. 24. Kapiti • 33000 acres • 2000-2500 cattle • 2000 wildebeest • 2014 – 221 cattle deaths 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Series1Cases
  25. 25. Control • Fencing • Removal wildebeest • Exclusion • Vaccine trial – attenuated live virus (AlHV C500) + Emulsigen® 1,2 – Randomised placebo blind trial (100) 1 Russell et al 2012 2 Haig et al 2008
  26. 26. Conclusion • Drivers are anthropogenic • Increased contact with animals • How do we quantify/qualify that contact • How do we determine which behaviours • Are the pathogens one step ahead?
  27. 27. Acknowledgements
  28. 28. References Epstein, J.H. et al The Ecology of Nipah Virus in its Natural Reservoir, Pteropus giganteus, in Bangladesh. One Health Congress 2015, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Fèvre, E.M. et al An integrated study of human and animal infectious disease in the Lake Victoria Crescent small-holder crop- livestock production system. In prep 2015 Hagan, J.E. et al Global burden of disease due to leptospirosis: Systematic review of disease-specific mortality and morbidity ASH, Dec 2011, Philadelphia, USA Haig, D.M. et al An immunisation strategy for the protection of cattle against alcelaphine herpesvirus-1-induced malignant catarrhal fever. Vaccine 2008. 25:35; 4461-8 Jones K, Patel G, Levy M, et al. Global trends in emerging infectious diseases. Nature 2008. 451:21; 990-994 Mwololo , D.K. et al Seroprevalence and risk factors of Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) infection among humans in Bura irrigation scheme, Tana River County, Kenya, One Health Congress 2015, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Nakeel, M.J. et al Seroprevalence of brucellosis in livestock and humans and the associated risk factors in Kajiado county, Kenya, Regional Conference on Zoonotic Disease sin Eastern Africa, March 9-13 2015, Naivasha, Kenya Nakeel, M.J. et al Seroprevalence of leptospirosis in cattle and its associated risk factors in Kajiado County, Kenya, Regional Conference on Zoonotic Diseases in Eastern Africa, March 9-13 2015, Naivasha, Kenya Pappas G, Papadimitriou P, Akritidis N, Christou L, Tsianos EV The new global map of human brucellosis. Lancet Infect Dis 2006;6:91–9 Russell , G.C. et al Duration of protective immunity and antibody responses in cattle immunised against alcelaphine herpesvirus-1- induced malignant catarrhal fever. Veterinary Research 2012. 42:1; 51 Taylor, L.H. et al Host Range and Emerging and Reemerging Pathogens Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 2001. 356:1411; 983-9 Woolhouse, M.E.J. et al Host Range and Emerging and Reemerging Pathogens. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2005, 11:12; 1843-7

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