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International Conference on Integrated Systems –
Systems Research for Sustainable Intensification in Smallholder Agricultu...
• Humidtropics has quantified targets in its
Intermediate Development Outcomes
• Assessments of sustainable intensificatio...
• Humidtropics has quantified targets in its
Intermediate Development Outcomes
• Assessments of sustainable intensificatio...
HH Analysis Framework
Calculation
Scheme
HH Survey Data
Scheme
HH Analysis Framework
‘Complex’ HH
model
HH typologies
Calculation
Scheme
HH Survey Data
Scheme
Typical:
HH Analysis Framework
‘Complex’ HH
model
HH typologies
Calculation
Scheme
HH Survey Data
Scheme
Captures HH-level processe...
HH Analysis Framework
‘Complex’ HH
model
HH typologies
Calculation
Scheme
HH Survey Data
Scheme
Typical:
HH Analysis Framework
‘Complex’ HH
model
HH typologiesTypical:
Calculation
Scheme
HH Survey Data
Scheme
SIMPLE
calculation...
HH Analysis Framework…
• Some loss of precision, but gives an INITIAL and
RELATIVE INDICATION of which farm HH’s will be
a...
Example: Simple Method…
Food Availability
Ratio (FAR)
Amount of food energy available to HH
Food energy requirements of HH=
Example: Simple Method…
Data set:
ImpactLite survey implemented on 9
CCAFS research sites (200 HH’s each)
Example: … Applied Across Households
Lushoto, Tanzania
FoodAvailabilityRatio
FAR = 1 suggests
available food
meeting HH ne...
Example: … Applied Across Households
Lushoto, Tanzania
FoodAvailabilityRatio
• 57% of HHs
have FAR < 1
• Distributions
ret...
Example: … Applied Across Households
Lushoto, Tanzania
FoodAvailabilityRatio
• 57% of HHs
have FAR < 1
• Distributions
ret...
Example: … Applied Across Households
Livelihood
strategies differ
significantly
across sites and
the FAR gradient.
Intervention Analysis
• 3 scenarios (broadly defined)
• ‘Crop Boost’: a 50% increase in staple crop yield
• ‘Livestock Boo...
Intervention AnalysisKaffrine,
Senegal
Lushoto,
Tanzania
Job Market BoostCrop Boost Livestock Boost
FAR categories FAR cat...
Some Findings (regarding the Results)
• Crop / livestock intensification options, while primarily benefitting the
most wel...
Some Findings (regarding the Approach)
• Represents a ‘bottom-up’ perspective that informs large-scale
intervention strate...
Directions for Further Research
• Broadening the analysis
• Incorporating more African datasets
• Expansion into Southeast...
The presentation has a Creative Commons licence. You are free to re-use or distribute this work, provided credit is given ...
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What works where for which farm household: Estimated effects of different interventions on food availability across household distributions in East and West Africa

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Presented by Randall Ritzema, Romain Frelat, Sabine Douxchamps, Silvia Silvestri, Mariana Rufino, Mario Herrero, Ken Giller, Santiago Lopez-Ridaura and Mark van Wijk at the international conference on Integrated Systems Research for Sustainable Intensification in Smallholder Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria, 3-6 March 2015.

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What works where for which farm household: Estimated effects of different interventions on food availability across household distributions in East and West Africa

  1. 1. International Conference on Integrated Systems – Systems Research for Sustainable Intensification in Smallholder Agriculture IITA Headquarters in Ibadan, Nigeria, 3-6 March 2015 What works where for which farm household: Estimated effects of different interventions on food availability across household distributions in East and West Africa Randall Ritzema, Romain Frelat, Sabine Douxchamps, Silvia Silvestri, Mariana Rufino, Mario Herrero, Ken Giller, Santiago Lopez-Ridaura, Mark van Wijk
  2. 2. • Humidtropics has quantified targets in its Intermediate Development Outcomes • Assessments of sustainable intensification options benefit from quantitative analysis Background Ideas from Humidtropics IDO’s Quantitative methods (modeling) can play a key role in research targeting and evaluation.
  3. 3. • Humidtropics has quantified targets in its Intermediate Development Outcomes • Assessments of sustainable intensification options benefit from quantitative analysis Background Ideas from Humidtropics IDO’s Quantitative methods (modeling) can play a key role in research targeting and evaluation. Household-level perspective is central for analysis, planning, and eventual impact. • People-focused IDO’s are household-based
  4. 4. HH Analysis Framework Calculation Scheme HH Survey Data Scheme
  5. 5. HH Analysis Framework ‘Complex’ HH model HH typologies Calculation Scheme HH Survey Data Scheme Typical:
  6. 6. HH Analysis Framework ‘Complex’ HH model HH typologies Calculation Scheme HH Survey Data Scheme Captures HH-level processes: • Decision-making • Resource re-allocation However: • Loss of nuance in HH characteristics • Change in HH type membership • Site-specific model  often doesn’t deliver results! Typical:
  7. 7. HH Analysis Framework ‘Complex’ HH model HH typologies Calculation Scheme HH Survey Data Scheme Typical:
  8. 8. HH Analysis Framework ‘Complex’ HH model HH typologiesTypical: Calculation Scheme HH Survey Data Scheme SIMPLE calculations Full set of surveyed HH’s This ‘inverted’ research:
  9. 9. HH Analysis Framework… • Some loss of precision, but gives an INITIAL and RELATIVE INDICATION of which farm HH’s will be affected and by how much • Results generate rich HH distributions of livelihood characteristics, poverty levels, etc. • Simple calculation scheme has 2 further advantages: • Rapid deployment of analyses • Can be applied across data sets, regions, systems- useful for large-scale analysis and trend identification
  10. 10. Example: Simple Method… Food Availability Ratio (FAR) Amount of food energy available to HH Food energy requirements of HH=
  11. 11. Example: Simple Method… Data set: ImpactLite survey implemented on 9 CCAFS research sites (200 HH’s each)
  12. 12. Example: … Applied Across Households Lushoto, Tanzania FoodAvailabilityRatio FAR = 1 suggests available food meeting HH needs • 57% of HHs have FAR < 1
  13. 13. Example: … Applied Across Households Lushoto, Tanzania FoodAvailabilityRatio • 57% of HHs have FAR < 1 • Distributions retain detail on HH livelihoods Livelihood strategies shift across HH distribution
  14. 14. Example: … Applied Across Households Lushoto, Tanzania FoodAvailabilityRatio • 57% of HHs have FAR < 1 • Distributions retain detail on HH livelihoods • Thresholds accompany shifts in livelihood strategies Apparent thresholds
  15. 15. Example: … Applied Across Households Livelihood strategies differ significantly across sites and the FAR gradient.
  16. 16. Intervention Analysis • 3 scenarios (broadly defined) • ‘Crop Boost’: a 50% increase in staple crop yield • ‘Livestock Boost’: a 50% increase in all livestock products • ‘Job Market Boost’: a 200 USD increase in off-farm income
  17. 17. Intervention AnalysisKaffrine, Senegal Lushoto, Tanzania Job Market BoostCrop Boost Livestock Boost FAR categories FAR categories FAR categories ChangeinFARChangeinFAR
  18. 18. Some Findings (regarding the Results) • Crop / livestock intensification options, while primarily benefitting the most well-off farm HHs and perhaps supporting a transition to a market orientation for marginal HHs, have little effect on the poorest farm HHs. • Wage/labor options need to be explored to reach the poorest HHs. • Results from 9 research sites both (1) identify these big-picture trends, but (2) also show that variability in responses are evident across sites and between HHs. • Results sharpen the questions regarding targeting: Whom along the FAR (or poverty, or food security) gradient should be the focus of interventions?
  19. 19. Some Findings (regarding the Approach) • Represents a ‘bottom-up’ perspective that informs large-scale intervention strategy. • Gives an initial indication of who (farm HHs) might benefit from interventions, where that benefit might be realized (site context), and to what extent. • Though representing some loss in ‘precision’, the approach enables rapid deployment of analysis across disparate datasets, regions, and projects. • The approach can be adapted to other research questions easily, e.g. nutrition, gender, etc. • It aligns with, and therefore can support, the need for large-scale quantitative analysis at the household level, as expressed in the Humidtropics IDOs.
  20. 20. Directions for Further Research • Broadening the analysis • Incorporating more African datasets • Expansion into Southeast Asia in 2015 • Inclusion of Humidtropics ImpactLite datasets as available • Deepening the analysis • Development of a simple optimization-based calculation scheme • To incorporate some level of decision-making and resource allocation • Still to be implemented on individual HHs • Does the question of “Who benefits?” matter?
  21. 21. The presentation has a Creative Commons licence. You are free to re-use or distribute this work, provided credit is given to ILRI. better lives through livestock ilri.org Thank you!

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