What we have learned about diseaserisks and food safety in the informal            food sector  Project Inception Workshop...
Outline How we have learned  – Participatory risk assessment What we have learned  – Importance, costs & benefits of inf...
Definition: informal sector Markets where many actors are not licensed and do not pay  tax (e.g. street foods, backyard p...
Assessing food safety in            informal markets Risk based approach   – Risk pathway   – Codex alimentarius framewor...
 30 studies on food safety in informal markets  – 25 PhD and MSc students 10 consumer preference studies 8 national foo...
6
7
8
Outline How we have learned   – Participatory risk assessment What we have learned   – Importance, costs & benefits of i...
Importance of the informal sectorVietnam:•80% pork from small-scale          Percent milk marketed via informalfarmers (<1...
Benefits of the informal sector                   1 billion people < $1.25/day depend on livestock                   65% o...
Increasing concern over food safety                In 7 developing countries studied                Many/most concerned ov...
High levels of hazards             Milk                                              Xenobiotics                          ...
Variable levels of risks                 and risk factors 4% consumers Vietnam report to GIT illness in  last 2 weeks (no...
Findings often counter-intuitive                 100                  90                                                  ...
Risk mitigationAverage of17.25 riskmitigationstrategiesusedFarmers whobelieved UAwas legal usedmorestrategies             ...
Improvements are feasible,          efffective,affordable Branding & certification of milk vendors in Kenya: led to  impr...
Implications of learningsPredominance of informal sector    High levels of hazards, variable levels of risks,    Highly...
Risk-based approaches Evidence based methodology   – Transparent, facilitates     communication   – Science-based, reprod...
Evidence generation   What hazards are present?   What risk do they present to human health?   How big a risk do they p...
Implications of learningsFood safety often resource constrained In appropriate regulation can lead to paradoxical increa...
Participatory                           approaches                       Data collection                       Understan...
Acknowledgements: ACIAR for funding this project                 BMZ, IE, USAID, DFID, IDRC, ACIAR
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

What we have learned about disease risks and food safety in the informal food sector

1,645 views

Published on

Presented by Delia Grace at the inception workshop for the 'Reducing Disease Risks and Improving Food Safety in Smallholder Pig Value Chains in Vietnam' project, Hanoi, August 14, 2012.

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,645
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
853
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
9
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • In poorest countries informal sector dominates now more than 95% will remain more than 80% for at least the next 2 decades
  • What we have learned about disease risks and food safety in the informal food sector

    1. 1. What we have learned about diseaserisks and food safety in the informal food sector Project Inception Workshop: Reducing Disease Risk and Improving Food Safety in Smallholder Pig Value Chains in Vietnam August 14, 2012, Melia Hotel, 44B Ly Thuong Kiet Street, Hanoi 1
    2. 2. Outline How we have learned – Participatory risk assessment What we have learned – Importance, costs & benefits of informal sector Lessons from what we have learned – More and better evidence – Risk-based approaches – Participatory & stakeholder approaches – Incentive-based solutions 2
    3. 3. Definition: informal sector Markets where many actors are not licensed and do not pay tax (e.g. street foods, backyard poultry, pastoralist systems); Markets where traditional processing, products, and retail practices predominate (e.g. wet markets, traditional food processing); Markets which escape effective health and safety regulation (most domestic food markets in developing countries). 3
    4. 4. Assessing food safety in informal markets Risk based approach – Risk pathway – Codex alimentarius framework – Qualitative & quantitative Mixed methods – Biological sampling – Household/individual questionnaires – Check lists – Participatory appraisals 4
    5. 5.  30 studies on food safety in informal markets – 25 PhD and MSc students 10 consumer preference studies 8 national food safety situational analyses 5
    6. 6. 6
    7. 7. 7
    8. 8. 8
    9. 9. Outline How we have learned – Participatory risk assessment What we have learned – Importance, costs & benefits of informal sector Lessons from what we have learned – More and better evidence – Risk-based approaches – Participatory & stakeholder approaches – Incentive-based solutions 9
    10. 10. Importance of the informal sectorVietnam:•80% pork from small-scale Percent milk marketed via informalfarmers (<100 pigs) markets in selected countries in the region•97% pork sold in wet markets Country PercentChina Kenya 86•96% farms small scale (<50 pigs) Tanzania 95supply 48% of pork Uganda 90•80-90% pork sold in wet Rwanda 90markets Ethiopia 95 Malawi 95 Zambia 90 Source, A. Omore, 2006 10
    11. 11. Benefits of the informal sector 1 billion people < $1.25/day depend on livestock 65% of Vietnamese households keep pigs Premium for formal sector Direct full-time employment created China: super-market meat 10% through dairying at the farm level in Kenyan premium highlands Kenya – pasteurised milk 25-40% premium Small & Large medium scale scale 100 litres milk handled per day generates: Workers 735,000 105,000 - 5.6 jobs making milk sweets in % of 87% 13% Bangladesh total- 10 jobs selling milk snacks in Ghana 11
    12. 12. Increasing concern over food safety In 7 developing countries studied Many/most concerned over food safety (40 to 97%) WTP 5-10% premium for safety Younger, wealthier, town, supermarket-shoppers willing to pay more for safety Buy 20-40% less during animal health scares Jabar et al, Lapar et al
    13. 13. High levels of hazards Milk Xenobiotics Chemicals Pathogens Allergens Zoonoses: Bacterial Viral Parasitic Prion Manure Social conflict Xenobiotics Traffic accidents Chemicals Injuries Pathogens 13 Environmental degradation Aesthetic
    14. 14. Variable levels of risks and risk factors 4% consumers Vietnam report to GIT illness in last 2 weeks (no relation pork or meat consumption, strong relation vegetable consumption) 9% consumers in Nigeria (strong relation meat consumption) 23% consumers in Nagaland (no relation pork, meat or vegetable consumption, strong relation hygiene) 43% Nigerian butchers (strong relation group, gender, hygienic practice, eating own products) 14
    15. 15. Findings often counter-intuitive 100 90 Supermarket Wet market 80 Village market 70 60% UNACCEPTABLE 50 v 40 30 20 10 0 Total bacteria Enterobac Staph Listeria Residues 15
    16. 16. Risk mitigationAverage of17.25 riskmitigationstrategiesusedFarmers whobelieved UAwas legal usedmorestrategies 16
    17. 17. Improvements are feasible, efffective,affordable Branding & certification of milk vendors in Kenya: led to improved milk safety & saved economy $33 million Peer training, branding, innovation for Nigerian butchers led to 20% more meat samples meeting standards and cost $9 per butcher but resulted in savings $780/per butcher per year from reduced COI Providing information on rational drug use to farmers, led to knowledge increase x 4, practice increase x 2, disease decrease by 1/2 17
    18. 18. Implications of learningsPredominance of informal sector  High levels of hazards, variable levels of risks,  Highly context specific, risks often counter-intuitive,  Management of risks not currently effective  Small number of actors & practices cause most of the riskImpliesNeed to generate evidence for local contextNeed for approaches based on risk 18
    19. 19. Risk-based approaches Evidence based methodology – Transparent, facilitates communication – Science-based, reproducible, falsifiable Standard for international trade – “Health and safety aspects of Codex decisions and recommendations should be based on risk assessment” Differentiate between hazard and risk Allow risk targeting Allow identification of critical control points 19
    20. 20. Evidence generation What hazards are present? What risk do they present to human health? How big a risk do they present? What do they cost? What other losses can they cause? Where and how can they be controlled? How effective is control? How much will it cost? How can actors be motivated to change their behaviour to adapt control? How can policy and regulation enable this? 20
    21. 21. Implications of learningsFood safety often resource constrained In appropriate regulation can lead to paradoxical increase in riskMost risk management done by value chain actors  Management of risks not currently effective  Small number of actors & practices cause most of the riskImplies:Participatory & stakeholder led  Creates ownershipIncentive-based solutions 21
    22. 22. Participatory approaches  Data collection  Understanding cultural practices  Introducing solutions  Generating ownershipIncentive  Visibly fewer animal deaths based  Branding to increase sales  Training & certification to avoid penalties  Organizing to increase social status 22
    23. 23. Acknowledgements: ACIAR for funding this project BMZ, IE, USAID, DFID, IDRC, ACIAR

    ×