Goat value chains in Shinelle district, Somali zone, Ethiopia: Results of a rapid value chain assessment
Goat value chains in Shinelle district,Somali zone, Ethiopia: Results of a rapid value chain assessment Hasen Abdurahman Multi-stakeholder Workshop for Targeting ActionResearch on Lowland Sheep and Goat Value Chains in Ethiopia Debre Zeit 1-2April 2013
1. Description of the study areaLocation: Somali region, 15 km east of Dire Dawa townAltitude :- ranges from 950-1350m above sea levelRainfall:- 500-700 mm/year, it has two rainy seasons( Gu and Karan)Population: - 96988( 2007 population estimates made from 1994 census)Livelihood:- Pastoralism: livestock produced mainly shoats, cattle and camel
2. METHODOLOGY Field Visits, Focused Group Discussion(FGD) and Interviews with Key Informants Discussion with district administration and district agricultural office selected two kebeles (Dhegah-jabis and Gaad) these two kebeles have the highest small ruminant population in the district 10 -12 men and women in each of these two kebeleles in Shinelle districts.
Key Informant Interview (KII) experts of livestock extension, livestock marketing, cooperatives promotion, traders, butchers, transporters, veterinarians and NGOs. Similarly, major shoat markets within and outside the study area were visited. These include Shinelle and Dire Dawa.
3. RESULTS OF SHOAT VALUE CHAIN ASSESSMENT 3.1 Mapping of the Core Functions Input Production Marketing Processing Consumption supplyActivities Supply of: Feeding Collection Slaughtering Consuming • Extension Housing Intermediat Cooking -Meat services ion Breeding -Milk • Animal Transportati health Health -Milk on services care products Credit Distribution access (NGO) Actors Woreda Pastoralist Producers, Butchers, Consumers Agriculturral s brokers, traders, Hotels Office collectors, cooperatives OXFAM
Input supplyExtension Service Extension service and training and capacity building to livestock producers is rarely provided by NGOs whose main focus is on training community animal health workers. FTC/PTCs are there but not functional.Animal health services There are only 4 functional health posts out of the total 16 health posts in the woreda Vaccination is the major health service provided and it doesn’t cover all. There are CAHWS and only small number of them are functional however, they don’t have enough drugs. NGOs like Oxfam, HCS help agricultural district expert with logistics.
Credit services There is no formal credit service institution that provides credit for the pastoralists. Oxfam provides credit for shoat producers. The credit is given to female pastoralists in order to buy shoats.
Production Pastoralists rear sheep and goat for sell, milk production and slaughter at home. Pastoralists indicated that shoats are the most important sources of income to meet the household’s immediate cash needs and they protect other household assets. Whenever the household comes across problems needing cash expenditure, they first sell shoats. Camel and Cattle would be sold when the family runs out of shoats. The other important purpose of rearing small ruminants is production of goat milk for household consumption.
Feeding- Feed natural pasture and shrubs- No forage conservation- Seasonal movement used as copping mechanism- graphBreeding- Black head somali sheep and long eared somali goats- No Selection for goat. No controlled mating for goats- Selection and controlled mating for sheep- Inbreeding problem for both sheep and goats- Perception about inbreeding very lowHousing- Fences- Sheep and goat together but kids are separatedAnimal health care- Major diseases: shoat pox, CCPP, PPR, Ticks, FMD,- Shortage of vaccines, drugs
Seasonal Distribution of Feed Resources Relative to the Rainfall Pattern 100 5 80 4Feed Availability (%) Rainfall Score (0-5) 60 3 40 2 20 1 0 0 Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Browsing Grazing Rainfall (score 0-5)
Milk production Both sheep and goat milk produced Only goat milk is consumed Sheep milk used for butter production Milking and milk marketing is the role of women Shoat milk usually used for hh consumption. But it is also marketed Whole goat milk is marketed but it only butter from sheep milk that is marketed Milk marketing groups
MarketingProportion of Actors in the marketBrokers 17%Pastoralists 20%Hotels 13%Individual consumers 3%Traders 13%Collectors 23%Cooperatives 10%
To whom they sellPastoralists 5%Hotels 15%Individual consumers 10%Traders 20%Collectors 30%Cooperatives 20%
Type of live animals sold in the market Yearling 20% they sale for slaughter and fattening Ewes 40% for hotels Young female 10% for breeding Fattened male 15% for holidays and death occasion Kids 15% for fattening and agro-pastoralists
Processing No export abattoirs in the district as well as in Dire dawa town. Butcheries/slaughter cooperative slaughter shoats in municipal slaughter houses and retail meat on kilogram basis both at Shinelle and Megala-jebdu (Dire)
Consumption Shoats from Shinelle district have three end markets of which are Shinelle market, Dire dawa market and foreign market. Consumers at Shinelle get from slaughtering cooperatives based at Shinelle. Consumers at dire dawa get from Hotels at dire dawa and butcheries at Megala-jebdu and live shoat from Dire markets
Shoats Marketing Routes Buraad Haramaya 24% 20% Meta Jalanqo Mayu 40% Bisle 8% 6% 2% Shinelle Shinelle Dire 10% Dewa Watter 5% Harraw Badano awa Barja 40% Errer 10% Gaad 4% 15% 16%Figure 2: Shoats marketing routes from the Shinelle Figure 2: Shoats marketing routes to Dire Dawa town Market
Marketing channels Land owner Rule and Regulations Security Enabling Env’t Individual consumers Individual consumers at Live export toConsumption at Shinelle Djibouti & Somalia Dire dawa town Meat Hotels at Dire Butcheries at Dire Processing Slaughtering cooperative 30% 10% dawa 60% Pastoralists (forLive animal Big Traders Collectors Cooperatives breeding purpose) Individual buyers 20% marketing 30% (20%) 20% (10%) Brokers 5% 10% 75% 10% Production Pastoralists/Agro-pastoralists Rearing Livestock Vet. TransporInput Supply Service Extension Credit tation
Major Constraints along Shinelle Shoat value chainInput Supply Shortage of veterinary drugs and equipment Shortage of in-service training for CAHWS and veterinarians Non-functional animal health posts and CAHWs No credit service facilities and practices in the area.
Production Feed shortage due to seasonality of rainfall frequent and prolonged droughts scarcity of livestock feed both in quality and quantity Lack capacity building/awareness creation on improved shoat production and management practices degradation of grazing lands Prevalence of diseases and parasites (PPR, Shoat pox, CCPP, IP (Fasciola), EP (Tick, Mange), FMD, etc
Marketing Native pasture and subsistence based livestock production Spoilage of milk within a short period of time caused by poor management and lack of improved/standard milk containers and equipment. Lack of market information system Long distance between the production areas and the livestock markets There is market infrastructure but not functional No permanent linkage between producers and buyers. Poor horizontal linkages between actors in the shoat value chains. No quarantine and certification facilities and other necessary structures for livestock export.
Conclusion Non market oriented production Input supply and service provision not well organized Shortage of feed due to frequent drought is the major challenge Pastoralists use seasonal migration as a coping mechanism Diseases and parasites are also influencing shoat production. But there is insufficient supply of drugs, vaccines, the health posts and clinics are not providing expected services No formal credit There is seasonal export operation The major destination market is Dire Dawa