Successfully reported this slideshow.
Your SlideShare is downloading. ×

The value of vaccines in One Health

Upcoming SlideShare
One health
One health
Loading in …3

Check these out next

1 of 21 Ad

More Related Content

Similar to The value of vaccines in One Health (20)

More from ILRI (20)


Recently uploaded (20)

The value of vaccines in One Health

  1. 1. Better lives through livestock The value of vaccines in One Health Arshnee Moodley, Antimicrobial Resistance Team Lead Animal and Human Heath Program BactiVac Network Meeting Kilifi, Kenya, 10 November 2022
  2. 2. 2 Disclaimer: Don’t know much (if anything) about immunology
  3. 3. 3 E.g. Human health partner
  4. 4. 4 How could we address AMR in the livestock sector in LMICs? 1. Changing and improving the system (entire ecosystem) = working on strategic opportunities 2. Changing and improving farmers behaviours = what is desired behaviour and to trigger farmers to do them
  5. 5. 5 What is One Health? One Health approach • Interdisciplinary • Multi-sectoral • Collaborative • Towards a common goal You cannot protect the health of humans without protecting the health of other beings OHHLEP, 2022
  6. 6. 6 OHHLEP, 2022
  7. 7. 7 Business case for One Health Sharing health resources between sectors Controlling zoonoses in animal reservoirs Early outbreak detection Pandemic prevention Research & Development D. Grace, 2014 Investment Benefit
  8. 8. 8 One Health at ILRI Select four technical themes (“problems”) • Outbreaks, epidemics and pandemics • Endemic zoonoses • Foodborne disease • Antimicrobial resistance UNEP-ILRI, 2020
  9. 9. 9 Earliest example of vaccines and One Health in action • Mild cowpox to induce immunity to smallpox • vaccinia virus being the source of the smallpox (varicola virus) vaccine Edward Jenner (1749–1823)
  10. 10. 10 Vaccines and One Health • Prevent disease emergence • Restrict pathogen spread • Control zoonotic pathogen transmission Additional benefits of • Improve livestock productivity (impacts on livelihoods and food security) • Effects on climate change • Reduction in AMU ⇢reduction in AMR (less selection and reduced population size?)
  11. 11. 11 Vaccines and One Health: Some examples Livestock vaccine ↑Productivity ↑livelihoods & food security ↓ GHG emissions (per kg food) Combi- vaccines targeting >2 diseases ↑productivity ↑livelihoods & food security Animal vaccine ↓zoonoses ↑human health ↑Productivity e.g. rabies, brucellosis Livestock vaccine delivery ↑productivity ↑livelihoods & food security Vaccination ↓AMU and AMR ↑human and animal health ↑Productivity Single cross-species vaccine ↑human and animal health ↓zoonoses e.g. RVF, TB
  12. 12. 12 Single cross-species vaccine for multiple susceptible hosts • BCG vaccine in a wide range of animal species is safe • vaccination to control TB in domestic livestock and wildlife (opposed to test and cull & wildlife reservoir) • Using adenovirus vaccine platform with established human and livestock safety profile + RVFV antigens • Effectiveness in sheep, cattle and camels • Potential to be used in humans
  13. 13. 13 Animal vaccination to reduce zoonoses e.g. rabies • Mass dog vaccinations to break the dog–dog and dog–human transmission cycles • Louis Pasteur’s live attenuated vaccine was protective in dogs and humans • Now different vaccines used • Another example livestock vaccination against brucellosis • reduces the incidence of human brucellosis • improve milk production (livelihoods, food security, climate impact)
  14. 14. 14 Vaccines and reducing AMU but increasing productivity in DK Important to note -No new veterinary antibiotics -need to preserve what we have DANMAP, 2021
  15. 15. 15 NORM-VET, 2021 Norway eradicated the need for antibiotics through effective use of vaccines and focus on fish welfare
  16. 16. 16 How much would it cost to vaccinate vs. treat poultry in Kenya? • Tetracycline = $3/100g • Mix in 150L water for 750 birds (assuming each bird consumes 0.2L/day) • Newcastle Disease Vaccine (subsidized vaccine) = $0.035/dose (mixed in water) • For 750 birds = $26.25 • Often given with vitamins (additional costs) • Combination vaccine ($0.09/vaccine + $0.05 vet= $0.14) • For 750 birds = $105 Antibiotics are quick fixes Willis & Chandler, 2019
  17. 17. 17 Addressing vaccine delivery challenges • Concurrent administration of different vaccines against different diseases in small ruminants can reduce vaccination costs by 70% • Assessed the effect of co-administration of vaccines vs individual vaccines: PPR, CCPP and goat/sheep pox (longitudinal blood sampling) • Conclusions: No adverse effects to the co-administration and adequate seroconversion Manuscript submitted
  18. 18. 18 Operationalization of One Health on the ground • HEAL: Gender sensitive, mobile One Health Units: • front line workers providing human and veterinary health and natural resource management services to vulnerable communities in pastoralist and agro- pastoralist areas of Ethiopia, Somalia and Kenya. • HEARD: increased involvement of the private sector in the veterinary service delivery • Private vaccination service • Community based women vaccinators • Mobile clinical services, etc
  19. 19. 19 Role of vaccination in climate smart livestock production antibodies in saliva that enters the rumen and suppress the growth and function of methanogens Investigating effects of helmith infection and assess effects on enteric methane emissions and productivity Sick animal → lower productivity → higher GHG emissions/ kg animal source food produced
  20. 20. 20 Thank you very much Acknowledge • My colleagues • Our funders • Our partners Better lives through livestock
  21. 21. THANK YOU

Editor's Notes

  • emergence of health crises arising from the human-animal-ecosystem interface, as well as research gaps; and 
    Guidance on development of a long-term strategic approach to reducing the risk of zoonotic pandemics
  • Operationalize One Health
  • Infectious diseases kill over 14 million people a year, Over 60% of these diseases are zoonotic, In addition, 75% of all emerging and re-emerging zoonotic infections are caused by pathogens that emerge from wild animals

    Emerging and re-emerging zoonotic pathogens that often cause outbreaks, epidemics and pandemics, mainly emerging following a spillover event from wild animals into humans and/or livestock.
    Endemic zoonoses that cause chronic debilitating conditions and are common among poor communities that are closely associated with livestock.
    Foodborne diseases that cause acute to chronic diarrhoeal diseases and other chronic morbidities, usually through the contamination of livestock products along the food-chain.

  • 2013: differentiated taxation on veterinary products to promote the use of vaccines. The tax rates vary : 0% for vaccines, 0.8% for narrow-spectrum penicillins and other veterinary medicines, 5.5% for other veterinary antimicrobials and 10.8% for CIA
  • high costs hinder adoption, Most of these costs are related to mobilization of farmers, follow-up by animal health workers pre- and post-vaccination, which make up 70% of vaccination-related expenses globally. 
  • Brings together professionals in human and animal health and the environment to achieve better access to human and veterinary health services and sustainable natural resources management