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Milk fatty acid composition of camels and cattle grazing and browsing in East-African rangelands

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Poster prepared by P. Leparmarai, C. Kunz, D.M. Mwangi, I. Gluecks, M. Kreuzer and S. Marquardt for the Tropentag 2019: Filling Gaps and Removing Traps for Sustainable Resource Management, University of Kassel, Kassel, Germany, 18–20 September 2019

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Milk fatty acid composition of camels and cattle grazing and browsing in East-African rangelands

  1. 1. Milk fatty acid composition of camels and cattle grazing and browsing in East-African rangelands a P. Leparmarai1,2, C. Kunz1, D.M. Mwangi2, I. Gluecks3, M. Kreuzer1, S. Marquardt1,3 Introduction Materials & Methods ● Camels: ingestion of higher amounts of lignin, crude protein, phenols and tannins, especially during TP, compared to both cattle types. ● Cattle milk fat: contained higher proportions of SFA, while camel milk fat had higher proportions of MUFA and PUFA, including C18:3n-3. ● Supplementation: had almost no effect on milk FAs. Almost no difference in milk FA profile of local and crossbred cattle. ● The milk fatty acid profile of camel and cattle is differently affected by seasonal changes in forage and diet selected. ● Camels and cattle: important livestock species in arid and semi-arid rangelands of East Africa. ● Differences in diet selection: cattle (grazers), camels (prefer browse, i.e., trees, shrubs, herbs). ● Hypotheses: (i) the fatty acid (FA) composition of camel and cattle milk differs, (ii) there are seasonal differences in the milk FA profile of camels, indigenous and crossbred cattle (iii), there are differences in nutrient and phenol intake and the milk FA profile of local and crossbred cattle differs. Conclusions Results - Study site: Laikipia, Kenya - 2 seasons: rainy season (RS), drier transition period (TP) - Half of the animals were supplemented with a urea- molasses supplement This project was funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF). 1ETH Zurich, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Zurich, Switzerland 2Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization (KALRO), Kenya 3International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), Kenya - Direct observations & bite counting (one day per animal, n=36 days/season) & chem. analysis of the most selected plant species to estimate nutrient and phenol intake - Milk samples collected at the end of each season & analysed for fatty acid (FA) composition using gas chromatography s.marquardt@cgiar.org Proportions of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in milk fat Camel (RS) Crossbred (RS) Pokot (RS) Camel (TP) Crossbred (TP) Pokot (TP) %FAME 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 c c b b a a ̸̸̸ ̸ Rainy season (RS) Transition period (TP) Season (S): P < 0.001 Genotype (G): P < 0.001 S × G: P < 0.001 Proportions of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in milk fat Camel (RS) Crossbred (RS) Pokot (RS) Camel (TP) Crossbred (TP) Pokot (TP) %FAME 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 a c b b a c ̸̸̸ ̸ Rainy season (RS) Transition period (TP) Season (S): P < 0.001 Genotype (G): P < 0.001 S × G: P < 0.001 Proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in milk fat Camel (RS) Crossbred (RS) Pokot (RS) Camel (TP) Crossbred (TP) Pokot (TP) %FAME 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 a d c c b d Rainy season (RS) Transition period (TP) Season (S): P < 0.001 Genotype (G): P < 0.001 S × G: P < 0.05 Proportions of C18:3n-3 in milk fat Camel (RS) Crossbred (RS) Pokot (RS) Camel (TP) Crossbred (TP) Pokot (TP) %FAME 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 a de c cd b e Rainy season (RS) Transition period (TP) Season (S): P < 0.001 Genotype (G): P < 0.001 S × G: P > 0.1 Figure 1. Proportions of fatty acids in milk fat (% FA methyl esters) in camel, crossbred cattle and Pokot cattle in a rainy season (RS) and a transition period (TP). Camel (Camelus dromedarius), n=11 and 12 in RS and TP Crossbred cattle (Boran x Guernsey, Bos indicus x B. taurus), n=12/season Pokot cattle (local cattle genotype, B. indicus), n=11 and 12 in RS and TP Table 1. Estimated intake of nutrients and phenols of camels and cattle during time spent on pasture (8 – 16 h, in g/kg BW0.75) during the rainy season (RS) and transition period (TP) (n = 6 per subgroup). 1S: season; 2SU: supplementation; ns: not significant. Tropentag Sept. 18-20, 2019 S1 Genotype SU2 Crude protein Lignin (ADL) Phenols (TEP) Tannins (TT) RS Camel yes 16.42a 22.33a 7.54a 2.33a no 14.58ab 19.67a 5.54abc 1.40ab Crossbred yes 10.19b 10.36bcd 3.65bcd 0.56cd no 9.25b 9.67bcd 3.46cd 0.56cd Pokot yes 10.44ab 10.28bc 3.36d 0.51cd no 11.77ab 11.06bc 3.62bcd 0.49cd TP Camel yes 9.68b 16.27ab 5.67ab 1.72ab no 12.93ab 21.56a 5.56abc 1.33bc Crossbred yes 3.01c 7.19cd 1.71e 0.34d no 2.67c 6.60cd 1.45e 0.25d Pokot yes 2.93c 6.99cd 1.60e 0.28d no 2.43c 5.98d 1.32e 0.22d SEM 1.242 1.531 0.505 0.225 P-values Season (S) <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 Genotype (G) <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 Supplement (SU) ns ns <0.1 <0.05 S × G <0.001 <0.1 <0.001 ns S × SU ns ns ns ns G × SU ns ns ns <0.1 S × G × SU <0.1 <0.1 ns ns

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